Ōu Main Line
The Ōu Main Line is a railway line in Japan, operated by the East Japan Railway Company. It connects Fukushima Station through Akita Station to Aomori Station. Since the opening of the Yamagata Shinkansen on July 1, 1992, the Fukushima–Yamagata section is sometimes referred to as the Yamagata Line; the name of the line as a whole refers to the ancient provinces of Mutsu and Dewa, as it connects both ends of Mutsu by passing north-south through Dewa. East Japan Railway Company Total distance: 486.3 km East Japan Railway Company 484.5 km Japan Freight Railway Company 1.8 km 256.2 km 4.8 km Rail Gauge: 1,067 mm Shinjō–Ōmagari Akita–Aomori 1,435 mm Fukushima–Yamagata Uzen-Chitose–Shinjō Both Yamagata–Uzen-Chitose Ōmagari–Akita Stations: 102 Tracks: Dual-track Fukushima–Sekine Akayu–Akayu Stoplight Station Uzen-Nakayama–Uzen-Chitose Ashisawa–Funagata Nozoki–Innai Ōmagari–Oiwake Ugo-Iizuka–Hachirōgata Kado–Moritake Tsurugata–Maeyama Takanosu–Hayaguchi Ōdate–Nagamine Ishikawa–Kawabe Single-track Sekine–Akayu Akayu Stoplight Station–Uzen-Nakayama Uzen-Chitose–Ashisawa Funagata–Nozoki Innai– Ōmagari Oiwake–Ugo-Iizuka Hachirōgata–Kado Moritake–Tsurugata Maeyama–Takanosu Hayaguchi–Ōdate Nagamine–Ishikawa Kawabe–Aomori Electrification: All Block system: Automatic block system Depots: Yamagata, Akita The Ōu Main Line is split into the following four sections.
Due to the differences in the tracks of these sections, there are no trains that go through more than one. Local and rapid services on the line are operated by 701 series and 719 series electric multiple unit trains. On this section, the Ōu Main Line shares the tracks with the Yamagata Shinkansen; the rail gauge is 1,435 mm. The Ōu Main Line is known as the Yamagata Line on this section. Crossing the Yamagata-Akita border, there is little demand in this section, all trains except one limited-stop "Rapid" train run as all-stations "Local" trains. On this section, the Ōu Main Line shares the tracks with the Akita Shinkansen; because the Ōu Main Line runs from Akita to Shinjō as a local train, this section contains one standard gauge track and two narrow gauge tracks. The few Komachi trains running on this section have the priority. Together with the Kosei Line, Hokuriku Main Line, Shinetsu Main Line, Hakushin Line, the Uetsu Main Line, the Ōu Main Line is one of the express lines and freight lines that make up the Nihonkai Jūkan-sen.
The Japanese national government built the Ou Main Line, starting construction from Aomori in 1894, from Fukushima in 1899 and linking the two sections in 1905. In 1909 the formal name of the line was declared. Opening dates for the individual sections are as follows. December 1, 1894: Aomori–Hirosaki October 21, 1895: Hirosaki–Ikarigaseki June 21, 1899: Ikarigaseki–Shirasawa November 15, 1899: Shirasawa–Ōdate October 7, 1900: Ōdate–Takanosu November 1, 1901: Takanosu–Noshiro August 1, 1902: Noshiro–Gojōme October 21, 1902: Gojōme–Akita October 1, 1903: Akita–Wada August 21, 1904: Wada–Jingūji December 21, 1904: Jingūji–Ōmagari June 15, 1905: Ōmagari–Yokote May 15, 1899: Fukushima–Yonezawa April 11, 1901: Yonezawa–Yamagata August 23, 1901: Yamagata–Tateoka October 21, 1901: Tateoka–Ōishida July 21, 1902: Ōishida–Funagata June 11, 1903: Funagata–Shinjō October 21, 1904: Shinjō–Innai July 5, 1905: Innai–Yuzawa September 14, 1905: Yuzawa–Yokote, completion of Fukushima–Aomori connection Various sections of the line have been double-tracked since 1963.
The section between Niwasaka and Akaiwa stations proved to be geologically unstable, with one of the original tunnels collapsing in 1910. A realignment involving two new tunnels was opened a year later. Geological instability was suspected as the cause of a derailment on the section in 1948 that killed three crewmen, another realignment was undertaken when the section was double-tracked in 1968. Itaya station was a reversing station, was realigned as a through station in conjunction with the gauge conversion work in 1990; the Fukushima to Yonezawa section was electrified at 1,500 V DC in 1949, the Uzen-Chitose - Yamagata section in conjunction with the Senzan Line in 1960. Trials on the Senzan Line subsequently resulted in the adoption of 20 kV AC for all further electrification, the abovementioned sections were converted to the new standard when the Yonezawa to Yamagata section was electrified in 1968; the Aomori to Akita section was electrified in 1971, as was the Akita to Uzen-Chitose section in 1975.
Akayu Station: The Yamagata Prefectural Government operated a 2 km 610 mm gauge human powered tramway between 1919 and 1926. Oishida Station: The Obabazawa Railway opened a 3 km line to its namesake town in 1916, the line closed in 1970. Yuzawa Station: The Ogachi Railway Co. opened a 12 km line to Zentsu, electrified at 600 V DC, between 1928 and 1935. The last 3 km section closed in 1967, the electrification was decommissioned in 1971 and the rest of the line closed in 1973. Yokote Station: The Yokote Railway opened a 38 km line to Oik
Iwaki Station (Fukushima)
Iwaki Station is a railway station in the city of Iwaki, Japan, operated by East Japan Railway Company. Iwaki Station is served by both the Banetsu East Line, it is located 209.4 km from the official starting point of the Jōban Line at Nippori in Tokyo. After the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster in March 2011, Iwaki Station has become the northern terminus for limited express train services on the line; the station is a terminus of the Banetsu East Line. Iwaki Station is an elevated station with three opposed island platforms, connected by a footbridge; the station has a Midori no Madoguchi staffed ticket office. The station opened on 25 February 1897 as Taira Station. On 10 October 1917 the Banetsu East Line was extended from to Kōriyama. With the privatization of Japanese National Railways on 1 April 1987, the station came under the control of JR East, it was renamed Iwaki on 3 December 1994. A new station building was completed on 19 June 2009. In fiscal 2016, the station was used by an average of 6092 passengers daily.
Iwaki City Hall Iwakidaira Castle ruins Iinodaira Castle ruins Iino Hachimangu Matsugaoka Park List of railway stations in Japan Official website
A side platform is a platform positioned to the side of a pair of tracks at a railway station, tram stop, or transitway. Dual side platform stations, one for each direction of travel, is the basic station design used for double-track railway lines. Side platforms may result in a wider overall footprint for the station compared with an island platform where a single width of platform can be shared by riders using either track. In some stations, the two side platforms are connected by a footbridge running above and over the tracks. While a pair of side platforms is provided on a dual-track line, a single side platform is sufficient for a single-track line. Where the station is close to a level crossing the platforms may either be on the same side of the crossing road or alternatively may be staggered in one of two ways. With the'near-side platforms' configuration, each platform appears before the intersection and with'far-side platforms' they are positioned after the intersection. In some situations a single side platform can be served by multiple vehicles with a scissors crossing provided to allow access mid-way along its length.
Most stations with two side platforms have an'Up' platform, used by trains heading towards the primary destination of the line, with the other platform being the'Down' platform which takes trains heading the opposite way. The main facilities of the station are located on the'Up' platform with the other platform accessed from a footbridge, subway or a track crossing. However, in many cases the station's main buildings are located on whichever side faces the town or village the station serves. Larger stations may have two side platforms with several island platforms in between; some are in a Spanish solution format, with two side platforms and an island platform in between, serving two tracks. Island platform Split platform
Fukushima Transportation, Inc. is a rail and bus transportation company headquartered in Fukushima City, Fukushima Prefecture, Japan. It operates the Iizaka Line rail line and an extensive bus network, which serves the Nakadōri and northern section of the Hamadōri regions of Fukushima Prefecture. Fukushima Transportation can trace its roots back to the founding of Shintatsu Tramway on August 1, 1907; the company opened up lines connecting Fukushima to Iizaka and Date, in 1908 Shintatsu Tramway, along with various other regional railways, were brought together under the newly formed Dainippon Tramway. Shintatsu Tramway became the Fukushima branch of the newly formed company. Over the next nine years, routes connecting Hobara and Kakeda were completed. In 1917 Shintatsu Tramway reformed as a new entity, in January of the following year the new Shintatsu Tramway took control of the Fukushima branch of the Dainippon Tramway; the rail network was further expanded to include Koori and Matsukawa. In 1926 the company's name was changed to Fukushima Electric Railway, in 1927 it merged with Iizaka Railway.
As a result of the merge, the tracks that led directly from Fukushima Station to Iizaka were renamed to Iizaka West Line and the track that led from Fukushima Station to Iizaka via an eastern loop of Fukushima City was renamed to Iizaka East Line. Over the next few decades Fukushima Electric Railway added and expanded multiple bus routes throughout the area; as a result of the company's increasing foray into non-rail transportation, in 1962 the company was renamed to Fukushima Transportation. In 1967 a section of the Iizaka East Line was shut down, in 1971 the entirety of the Iizaka East Line was shut down, leaving the Iizaka West Line Fukushima Transportation's only remaining rail line in operation; the company expanded in the 1970s, becoming one of the three pillars of the Fukushima Transportation Group conglomerate. In addition to the other two pillars, Radio Fukushima and The Fukkushima Minpo newspaper, the group had its hands in various other ventures, such as real estate, breweries, the Nasu Royal Center amusement park, a ranch.
In the 1980s the company continued taking on large amounts of debt. Weighted down by an increase in unprofitable ventures, in 1986 the company merged with its Fukushima Transportation Real Estate subsidiary, thus having its former subsidiary assume the company's debt. Following the merger, New Fukushima Transportation was spun off, with its name being changed to Fukushima Transportation soon after. Entering the 2000s, passenger levels and profits fell due to a decreasing population and the resulting decreasing demand, in addition to the increased competition due to relaxation of regulations in the bus industry and the resulting increased competition. Furthermore, there was an unexpectedly high number of employees taking early retirement and requesting retirement payments, all of which led to Fukushima Transportation having stretched finances. Entering into 2008, the company began considerations into filing for bankruptcy protection, however this was put off following a 160 million yen subsidy from the national and prefectural governments.
April 11, 2008 the Tokyo District Court approved a petition for corporate reorganization under the Japanese Corporate Rehabilitation Law. The following year restructuring plans were agreed upon with Industrial Growth Platform and Fukushima Transportation became a owned subsidiary of Michinori Holdings, a holding company owned by Industrial Growth Platform. In the wake of the 2011 Tōhoku earthquake and tsunami, due to gasoline shortages and JR East being forced to cancel many of its rail services in the Tōhoku region, intercity travel became difficult. In response to the need to restore intercity transportation to affected areas, Fukushima Transportation put special bus routes into effect throughout both Fukushima Prefecture and Tōhoku. Fukushima Transportation's rail service, the Iizaka Line, resumed service on March 13, two days after the earthquake. Fukushima Transportation operates the Iizaka Line, a 9.2 km rail line which links the center of the city of Fukushima to Iizaka in the northern part of the city.
Since 1991, the Iizaka Line has run former Tokyu 7000 series cars. Beginning 2017, a number of former Tokyu 1000 series cars were resold to Fukushima Transportation for use on the Iizaka Line.. Fukushima Transportation operated the Iizaka East Line until the line's closure on April 12, 1971 In the 1960s and 1970s Fukushima Transportation expanded its local bus system into all of Naka-dōri and the northern area of Hama-dōri, however in the 1980s passenger numbers began to fall, leading many of the bus lines into unprofitability; as a result, unprofitable lines were either shortened, or reorganized. Some routes were subsidized by local governments under section 21 of the 1951 Road Transportation Act; the municipalities of Miharu and Nishigō have contracted out various bus operations to Fukushima Transportation. Fukushima Transportation operates intercity bus routes that connect the cities of Fukushima, Kōriyama and Aizuwakamtsu within Fukushima Prefecture. Furthermore, it runs lines that connect Fukushima and Kōriyama to Koshigaya, Tokyo, Niigata, Nagoya and Osaka.
Fukushima Transportation owned and operated buses made by the Mitsubishi Fuso Truck and Bus Corporation. Howe
A public–private partnership is a cooperative arrangement between two or more public and private sectors of a long-term nature. Governments have used such a mix of private endeavors throughout history. However, the late 20th century and early 21st century have seen a clear trend towards governments across the globe making greater use of various PPP arrangements. PPPs are best seen as a special kind of contract involved in infrastructure provision, such as the building and equipping of schools, transport systems and sewerage systems. There is no consensus about how to define a PPP. PPPs can be understood of both as a language game; when understood as a language game, or brand, the PPP phrase can cover hundreds of different types of long term contracts with a wide range of risk allocations, funding arrangements and transparency requirements. And as a brand, the PPP concept is closely related to concepts such as privatization and the contracting out of government services; when understood as a governance mechanism the PPP concept encompasses at least five families of potential arrangements, one of, the long term infrastructure contract in the model of the UK's Private Finance Initiative.
Particular types of arrangements have been favored in different countries at different times. Infrastructure PPPs as a phenomenon can be understood at five different levels: as a particular project or activity, as a form of project delivery, as a statement of government policy, as a tool of government, or as a wider cultural phenomenon. Different disciplines emphasize different aspects of the PPP phenomena; the engineering and economics professions take a utilitarian, functional focus emphasising concerns such as project delivery and relative value-for-money compared to the traditional ways of delivering large infrastructure projects. In contrast, public administrators and political scientists tend to view PPPs more as a policy brand, as a useful tool for governments to achieve their objectives. Common themes of PPPs are the sharing of risk and the development of innovative, a way of financing over a long-term for the public and private sectors; the use of private finance is another key dimension of many PPPs those influenced by the UK PFI model, although this aspect has waned since the global financial crisis of 2008.
The PPP phenomenon has been controversial. The lack of a shared understanding of what a PPP is makes the process of evaluating whether PPPs have been successful complex. Evidence of PPP performance in terms of VfM and efficiency, for example, is mixed and unavailable. According to Weimer and Vining, "A P3 involves a private entity financing, constructing, or managing a project in return for a promised stream of payments directly from government or indirectly from users over the projected life of the project or some other specified period of time"; because P3s are directly responsible for a variety of activities, as indicated by Weimer and Vining, P3s can evolve into monopolies motivated by rent-seeking behavior. PPPs involve a contract between a public sector authority and a private party, in which the private party provides a public service or project and assumes substantial financial and operational risk in the project. In some types of PPP, the cost of using the service is borne by the users of the service and not by the taxpayer.
In other types, capital investment is made by the private sector on the basis of a contract with government to provide agreed services and the cost of providing the service is borne wholly or in part by the government. Government contributions to a PPP may be in kind. In projects that are aimed at creating public goods like in the infrastructure sector, the government may provide a capital subsidy in the form of a one-time grant, so as to make the project economically viable. In some other cases, the government may support the project by providing revenue subsidies, including tax breaks or by guaranteed annual revenues for a fixed time period. In all cases, the partnerships include a transfer of significant risks to the private sector in an integrated and holistic way, minimizing interfaces for the public entity. An optimal risk allocation is the main value generator for this model of delivering public service. There are many drivers for PPPs. One common driver involves the claim that PPPs enable the public sector to harness the expertise and efficiencies that the private sector can bring to the delivery of certain facilities and services traditionally procured and delivered by the public sector.
Another common driver is that PPPs may be structured so that the public sector body seeking to make a capital investment does not incur any borrowing. Rather, the PPP borrowing is incurred by the private sector vehicle implementing the project. On PPP projects where the cost of using the service is intended to be borne by the end user, the PPP is, from the public sector's perspective, an "off-balance sheet" method of financing the delivery of new or refurbished public sector assets. On PPP projects where the public sector intends to compensate the private sector through availability payments once the facility is established or renewed, the financing is, from the public sector's perspective, "on-balance sheet". Financing costs will be higher for a PPP than for a traditional public financing, because of the private sector higher cost of capital. However, extra financing costs can be offset by private sector efficiency, savings resulting from a holistic approach to delivering the project or se
A train station, railway station, railroad station, or depot is a railway facility or area where trains stop to load or unload passengers or freight. It consists of at least one track-side platform and a station building providing such ancillary services as ticket sales and waiting rooms. If a station is on a single-track line, it has a passing loop to facilitate traffic movements; the smallest stations are most referred to as "stops" or, in some parts of the world, as "halts". Stations elevated. Connections may be available to intersecting rail lines or other transport modes such as buses, trams or other rapid transit systems. In British English, traditional usage favours railway station or station though train station, perceived as an Americanism, is now about as common as railway station in writing. In British usage, the word station is understood to mean a railway station unless otherwise qualified. In American English, the most common term in contemporary usage is train station. In North America, the term depot is sometimes used as an alternative name for station, along with the compound forms train depot, railway depot, railroad depot, but applicable for goods, the term depot is not used in reference to vehicle maintenance facilities in American English.
The world's first recorded railway station was The Mount on the Oystermouth Railway in Swansea, which began passenger service in 1807, although the trains were horsedrawn rather than by locomotives. The two-storey Mount Clare station in Baltimore, which survives as a museum, first saw passenger service as the terminus of the horse-drawn Baltimore and Ohio Railroad on 22 May 1830; the oldest terminal station in the world was Crown Street railway station in Liverpool, built in 1830, on the locomotive hauled Liverpool to Manchester line. As the first train on the Liverpool-Manchester line left Liverpool, the station is older than the Manchester terminal at Liverpool Road; the station was the first to incorporate a train shed. The station was demolished in 1836 as the Liverpool terminal station moved to Lime Street railway station. Crown Street station was converted to a goods station terminal; the first stations had little in the way of amenities. The first stations in the modern sense were on the Liverpool and Manchester Railway, opened in 1830.
Manchester's Liverpool Road Station, the second oldest terminal station in the world, is preserved as part of the Museum of Science and Industry in Manchester. It resembles a row of Georgian houses. Early stations were sometimes built with both passenger and goods facilities, though some railway lines were goods-only or passenger-only, if a line was dual-purpose there would be a goods depot apart from the passenger station. Dual-purpose stations can sometimes still be found today, though in many cases goods facilities are restricted to major stations. In rural and remote communities across Canada and the United States, passengers wanting to board the train had to flag the train down in order for it to stop; such stations were known as "flag stops" or "flag stations". Many stations date from the 19th century and reflect the grandiose architecture of the time, lending prestige to the city as well as to railway operations. Countries where railways arrived may still have such architecture, as stations imitated 19th-century styles.
Various forms of architecture have been used in the construction of stations, from those boasting grand, Baroque- or Gothic-style edifices, to plainer utilitarian or modernist styles. Stations in Europe tended to follow British designs and were in some countries, like Italy, financed by British railway companies. Stations built more often have a similar feel to airports, with a simple, abstract style. Examples of modern stations include those on newer high-speed rail networks, such as the Shinkansen in Japan, THSR in Taiwan, TGV lines in France and ICE lines in Germany. Stations have staffed ticket sales offices, automated ticket machines, or both, although on some lines tickets are sold on board the trains. Many stations include a convenience store. Larger stations have fast-food or restaurant facilities. In some countries, stations may have a bar or pub. Other station facilities may include: toilets, left-luggage, lost-and-found and arrivals boards, luggage carts, waiting rooms, taxi ranks, bus bays and car parks.
Larger or manned stations tend to have a greater range of facilities including a station security office. These are open for travellers when there is sufficient traffic over a long enough period of time to warrant the cost. In large cities this may mean facilities available around the clock. A basic station might only have platforms, though it may still be distinguished from a halt, a stopping or halting place that may not have platforms. Many stations, either larger or smaller, offer interchange with local transportation. In many African, South American countries, Asian countries, stations are used as a place for public markets and other informal businesses; this is true on tourist routes or stations near tourist destinations. As well as providing services for passengers and loading facilities for goods, stations can sometimes have locomotive and rolling stock depots (usually with facilities for storing and refuelling rolling stock an
In the United Kingdom and in Australia, a bay platform is a dead-end railway platform at a railway station that has through lines. It is normal for bay platforms to be shorter. Bay and island platforms are so named because they resemble the geographic features of the same name. Examples of stations with bay platforms include Carlisle railway station. Chicago's CTA O'Hare Airport Station features a bay platform with one track on the bay and a track on each side of the platform; the Hoboken and 33 St Stations on the PATH train line have bay platforms. Ferry Avenue on the PATCO Speedline has a bay platform. However, in the New York City Subway, such platforms are thought of as side or island platforms connected at the ends, rather than bay platforms. Trains which use a bay platform have to reverse direction and depart in the direction from which they arrived. Dock platforms are similar to bay platforms but are shorter and used to unload freight