Animals are multicellular eukaryotic organisms that form the biological kingdom Animalia. With few exceptions, animals consume organic material, breathe oxygen, are able to move, can reproduce sexually, grow from a hollow sphere of cells, the blastula, during embryonic development. Over 1.5 million living animal species have been described—of which around 1 million are insects—but it has been estimated there are over 7 million animal species in total. Animals range in length from 8.5 millionths of a metre to 33.6 metres and have complex interactions with each other and their environments, forming intricate food webs. The category includes humans, but in colloquial use the term animal refers only to non-human animals; the study of non-human animals is known as zoology. Most living animal species are in the Bilateria, a clade whose members have a bilaterally symmetric body plan; the Bilateria include the protostomes—in which many groups of invertebrates are found, such as nematodes and molluscs—and the deuterostomes, containing the echinoderms and chordates.
Life forms interpreted. Many modern animal phyla became established in the fossil record as marine species during the Cambrian explosion which began around 542 million years ago. 6,331 groups of genes common to all living animals have been identified. Aristotle divided animals into those with those without. Carl Linnaeus created the first hierarchical biological classification for animals in 1758 with his Systema Naturae, which Jean-Baptiste Lamarck expanded into 14 phyla by 1809. In 1874, Ernst Haeckel divided the animal kingdom into the multicellular Metazoa and the Protozoa, single-celled organisms no longer considered animals. In modern times, the biological classification of animals relies on advanced techniques, such as molecular phylogenetics, which are effective at demonstrating the evolutionary relationships between animal taxa. Humans make use of many other animal species for food, including meat and eggs. Dogs have been used in hunting, while many aquatic animals are hunted for sport.
Non-human animals have appeared in art from the earliest times and are featured in mythology and religion. The word "animal" comes from the Latin animalis, having soul or living being; the biological definition includes all members of the kingdom Animalia. In colloquial usage, as a consequence of anthropocentrism, the term animal is sometimes used nonscientifically to refer only to non-human animals. Animals have several characteristics. Animals are eukaryotic and multicellular, unlike bacteria, which are prokaryotic, unlike protists, which are eukaryotic but unicellular. Unlike plants and algae, which produce their own nutrients animals are heterotrophic, feeding on organic material and digesting it internally. With few exceptions, animals breathe oxygen and respire aerobically. All animals are motile during at least part of their life cycle, but some animals, such as sponges, corals and barnacles become sessile; the blastula is a stage in embryonic development, unique to most animals, allowing cells to be differentiated into specialised tissues and organs.
All animals are composed of cells, surrounded by a characteristic extracellular matrix composed of collagen and elastic glycoproteins. During development, the animal extracellular matrix forms a flexible framework upon which cells can move about and be reorganised, making the formation of complex structures possible; this may be calcified, forming structures such as shells and spicules. In contrast, the cells of other multicellular organisms are held in place by cell walls, so develop by progressive growth. Animal cells uniquely possess the cell junctions called tight junctions, gap junctions, desmosomes. With few exceptions—in particular, the sponges and placozoans—animal bodies are differentiated into tissues; these include muscles, which enable locomotion, nerve tissues, which transmit signals and coordinate the body. There is an internal digestive chamber with either one opening or two openings. Nearly all animals make use of some form of sexual reproduction, they produce haploid gametes by meiosis.
These fuse to form zygotes, which develop via mitosis into a hollow sphere, called a blastula. In sponges, blastula larvae swim to a new location, attach to the seabed, develop into a new sponge. In most other groups, the blastula undergoes more complicated rearrangement, it first invaginates to form a gastrula with a digestive chamber and two separate germ layers, an external ectoderm and an internal endoderm. In most cases, a third germ layer, the mesoderm develops between them; these germ layers differentiate to form tissues and organs. Repeated instances of mating with a close relative during sexual reproduction leads to inbreeding depression within a population due to the increased prevalence of harmful recessive traits. Animals have evolved numerous mechanisms for avoiding close inbreeding. In some species, such as the splendid fairywren, females benefit by mating with multiple males, thus producing more offspring of higher genetic quality; some animals are capable of asexual reproduction, which results
Maria Sibylla Merian
Maria Sibylla Merian was a German-born naturalist and scientific illustrator, a descendant of the Frankfurt branch of the Swiss Merian family. Merian was one of the first naturalists to observe insects directly. Merian received her artistic training from her stepfather, Jacob Marrel, a student of the still life painter Georg Flegel. Merian published her first book of natural illustrations in 1675, she had started to collect insects as an adolescent and at age thirteen she raised silk worms. In 1679 Merian published the first volume of a two-volume series on caterpillars, the second volume followed in 1683; each volume contained 50 plates etched by Merian. Merian documented evidence on the process of metamorphosis and the plant hosts of 186 European insect species. Along with the illustrations Merian included a descriptions of their life cycles. In 1699 Merian travelled to Dutch Surinam to record the tropical insects. In 1705 she published Metamorphosis insectorum Surinamensium. Few colour images of the New World were printed before 1700 and thus Merian's Metamorphosis has been credited with influencing a range of naturalist illustrators.
Because of her careful observations and documentation of the metamorphosis of the butterfly, she is considered by David Attenborough to be among the most significant contributors to the field of entomology. She was a leading entomologist of her time and she discovered many new facts about insect life through her studies. Maria Sibylla Merian's father, the Swiss engraver and publisher Matthäus Merian the Elder, married her mother, his second wife, Johanna Sybilla Heyne, in 1646. Maria was born within the next year in 1647, her father died in 1650, in 1651 her mother remarried Jacob Marrel, the flower and still life painter. Marrel encouraged Merian to paint. While he lived in Holland, his pupil Abraham Mignon trained her. At the age of thirteen she painted her first images of insects and plants from specimens she had captured. Early on, she had access to many books about natural history. Regarding her youth, in the foreword to Metamorphosis insectorum Surinamensium, Merian wrote: I spent my time investigating insects.
At the beginning, I started with silk worms in my home town of Frankfurt. I realized that other caterpillars produced beautiful butterflies or moths, that silkworms did the same; this led me to collect all the caterpillars. In May 1665, Merian married Marrel's apprentice, Johann Andreas Graff from Nuremberg. In January 1668, she had her first child, Johanna Helena, the family moved to Nuremberg in 1670, her husband's home town. While living there, Merian continued painting, working on parchment and linen, creating designs for embroidery, she gave drawing lessons to unmarried daughters of wealthy families, which helped her family financially and increased its social standing. This provided her with access to the finest gardens, maintained by the wealthy and elite, where she could continue collecting and documenting insects. In 1675 Merian was included in Joachim von Sandrart's German Academy. Aside from painting flowers she made copperplate engravings. After attending Sandrart's school she published flower pattern books.
In 1678, she gave birth to her second daughter Dorothea Maria. Other women still-life painters, such as Merian's contemporary Margaretha de Heer, included insects in their floral pictures, but did not breed or study them. While women of Merian's day did collect butterflies, the amateur science of naturalism was practised by men. In 1679 she published her first work on insects, the first of a two-volume illustrated book focusing on insect metamorphosis. In 1678, the family had moved to Frankfurt am Main, she moved in with her mother, after her stepfather died in 1681. In 1683 she was attracted to the Labadists community in Holstein. In 1685 Merian travelled with her mother and children to Friesland where her half-brother Caspar Merian had lived since 1677. From 1685 onwards Merian, her daughters and her mother lived with the Labadist community, who had settled on the grounds of a stately home – Walta Castle – at Wieuwerd in Friesland, they stayed there for three years and Merian found the time to study natural history and Latin, the language in which scientific books were written.
In the moors of Friesland she observed the birth and development of frogs, collected them to dissect them. Merian stayed with the community until 1691. In Wieuwerd the Labadists engaged in printing and many other occupations, including farming and milling. At its peak, the religious community numbered around 600 with many more adherents further afield. Visitors came from England, Italy and elsewhere, but not all approved of the strict discipline and community property. Merian's husband came back twice. In 1690, Merian's mother had died. A year she moved with her daughters to Amsterdam. In 1692, her husband divorced her. In Amsterdam the same year, her daughter Johanna married Jakob Hendrik Herolt, a successful merchant on Surinam from Bacharach; the flower painter Rachel Ruysch became Merian's pupil. Merian made a living selling her paintings, she and her daughter Johanna sold flower pictures to art collector Agnes Block. By 1698 Merian lived in a well-furnished house on Kerkstraat. In 1699, the city of Amsterdam granted Merian permission to travel to Suriname in South America, along with her younger daughter Dorothea Maria.
On 10 July, the fifty-two year old Merian and her daughter set sa
Tropical forests are forested landscapes in tropical regions: i.e. land areas bounded by the tropic of Cancer and Capricorn, but affected by other factors such as prevailing winds. Some categories of tropical forest types are difficult. While forests in temperate areas are categorised on the basis of tree canopy density, such schemes do not work well in tropical forests. There is no single scheme that defines what a forest is, in elsewhere; because of these difficulties, information on the extent of tropical forests varies between sources. However, Tropical Forests are extensive. Tropical forests are thought of as evergreen rainforests and moist forests, however in reality only up to 60% of tropical forest is rainforest; the remaining tropical forests are a diversity of many different forest types including: seasonally-dry tropical forest, tropical freshwater swamp forests, dry forest, open Eucalyptus forests, tropical coniferous forests, savanna woodland and mountain forests. Over relatively short distances, the boundaries between these biomes may be unclear, with ecotones between the main types.
The nature of tropical forest in any given area is affected by a number of factors, most importantly: Geographical: location and climatic zone, with: Precipitation levels and seasonality, with strong dry seasons affecting flora. Historical: prehistoric age of forest and level of recent disturbance, changing primary into secondary forest, degenerating into bamboo forest after prolonged swidden agriculture. Soil characteristics: including depth and drainage; the Global 200 scheme, promoted by the World Wildlife Fund, classifies three main tropical forest habitat types, grouping together tropical and sub-tropical areas: Tropical and subtropical moist broadleaf forests and subtropical dry broadleaf forests and subtropical coniferous forests. Extent of tropical and sub-tropical - A number of tropical forests have been designated High-Biodiversity Wilderness Areas, but remain subject to a wide range of disturbances, both natural and anthropogenic. All tropical forests have experienced at least some levels of disturbance.
A study in Borneo describes how, between 1973 and 2018, the old-growth forest had been reduced from 76% to 50% of the island due to fire and agricultural expansion. A widely-held view is that placing a value on the ecosystem services these forests provide may bring about more sustainable policies. However, clear monitoring and evaluation mechanisms for environmental and economic outcomes are needed. For example, a study in Vietnam indicated that poor and inconsistent data combined with a lack of human resources and political interest are hampering efforts to improve forest land allocation and a Payments for Forest Environmental Services scheme. Media related to Tropical forest at Wikimedia Commons
In evolutionary biology, mimicry is an evolved resemblance between an organism and another object an organism of another species. Mimicry may evolve between individuals of the same species. Mimicry functions to protect a species from predators, making it an antipredator adaptation. Mimicry evolves if a receiver perceives the similarity between a mimic and a model and as a result changes its behaviour in a way that provides a selective advantage to the mimic; the resemblances that evolve in mimicry can be visual, chemical, tactile, or electric, or combinations of these sensory modalities. Mimicry may be to the advantage of both organisms that share a resemblance, in which case it is a form of mutualism; the evolutionary convergence between groups is driven by the selective action of a signal-receiver or dupe. Birds, for example, use whilst avoiding the noxious ones. Over time, palatable insects may evolve to resemble noxious ones, making them mimics and the noxious ones models. In the case of mutualism, sometimes both groups are referred to as "co-mimics".
It is thought that models must be more abundant than mimics, but this is not so. Mimicry may involve numerous species. Mimicry between prey species and their predators involves three or more species. In its broadest definition, mimicry can include non-living models; the specific terms masquerade and mimesis are sometimes used. For example, animals such as flower mantises, planthoppers and geometer moth caterpillars resemble twigs, leaves, bird droppings or flowers. Many animals bear eyespots, they may not resemble any specific organism's eyes, whether or not animals respond to them as eyes is unclear. Nonetheless, eyespots are the subject of a rich contemporary literature; the model is another species, except in automimicry, where members of the species mimic other members, or other parts of their own bodies, in inter-sexual mimicry, where members of one sex mimic members of the other. Mimicry can result in an evolutionary arms race if mimicry negatively affects the model, the model can evolve a different appearance from the mimic.p161 Mimicry should not be confused with other forms of convergent evolution that occurs when species come to resemble each other by adapting to similar lifestyles that have nothing to do with a common signal receiver.
Mimics may have different models for different life cycle stages, or they may be polymorphic, with different individuals imitating different models, such as in Heliconius butterflies. Models themselves may have more than one mimic, though frequency dependent selection favours mimicry where models outnumber mimics. Models tend to be closely related organisms, but mimicry of vastly different species is known. Most known mimics are insects, though many other examples including vertebrates are known. Plants and fungi may be mimics, though less research has been carried out in this area. Use of the word mimicry dates to 1637, it derives from the Greek term mimetikos, "imitative", in turn from mimetos, the verbal adjective of mimeisthai, "to imitate". Used to describe people, "mimetic" was used in zoology from 1851, "mimicry" from 1861. Many types of mimicry have been described. An overview of each follows, highlighting the similarities and differences between the various forms. Classification is based on function with respect to the mimic.
Some cases may belong to more than one class, e.g. automimicry and aggressive mimicry are not mutually exclusive, as one describes the species relationship between model and mimic, while the other describes the function for the mimic. The terminology used is not without debate and attempts to clarify have led to new terms being included; the term "masquerade" is sometimes used when the model is inanimate but it is differentiated from "crypsis" in its strict sense by the potential response of the signal receiver. In crypsis the receiver is assumed to not respond while a masquerader confuses the recognition system of the receiver that would otherwise seek the signaller. In the other forms of mimicry, the signal is not filtered out by the sensory system of the receiver; these are not mutually exclusive and in the evolution of wasp-like appearance, it has been argued that insects evolve to masquerade wasps since predatory wasps do not attack each other but this mimetic resemblance deters vertebrate predators.
Defensive or protective mimicry takes place when organisms are able to avoid harmful encounters by deceiving enemies into treating them as something else. The first three such cases discussed here entail mimicry of animals protected by warning coloration: Batesian mimicry, where a harmless mimic poses as harmful. Müllerian mimicry, where two or more harmful species mutually advertise themselves as harmful. Mertensian mimicry, where a deadly mimic resembles a less harmful but lesson-teaching model; the fourth case, Vavilovian mimicry, where weeds resemble crops, involves humans as the agent of selection. In Batesian mimicry the mimic shares signals similar to the model, but does not have the attribute that makes it unprofitable to predators. In other words, a Batesian mimic is a sheep in wolf's clothing, it is named after Henry Walter Bates, an English naturalist whose
Carl Linnaeus known after his ennoblement as Carl von Linné, was a Swedish botanist and zoologist who formalised binomial nomenclature, the modern system of naming organisms. He is known as the "father of modern taxonomy". Many of his writings were in Latin, his name is rendered in Latin as Carolus Linnæus. Linnaeus was born in the countryside of Småland in southern Sweden, he received most of his higher education at Uppsala University and began giving lectures in botany there in 1730. He lived abroad between 1735 and 1738, where he studied and published the first edition of his Systema Naturae in the Netherlands, he returned to Sweden where he became professor of medicine and botany at Uppsala. In the 1740s, he was sent on several journeys through Sweden to find and classify plants and animals. In the 1750s and 1760s, he continued to collect and classify animals and minerals, while publishing several volumes, he was one of the most acclaimed scientists in Europe at the time of his death. Philosopher Jean-Jacques Rousseau sent him the message: "Tell him I know no greater man on earth."
Johann Wolfgang von Goethe wrote: "With the exception of Shakespeare and Spinoza, I know no one among the no longer living who has influenced me more strongly." Swedish author August Strindberg wrote: "Linnaeus was in reality a poet who happened to become a naturalist." Linnaeus has been called Princeps botanicorum and "The Pliny of the North". He is considered as one of the founders of modern ecology. In botany and zoology, the abbreviation L. is used to indicate Linnaeus as the authority for a species' name. In older publications, the abbreviation "Linn." is found. Linnaeus's remains comprise the type specimen for the species Homo sapiens following the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature, since the sole specimen that he is known to have examined was himself. Linnaeus was born in the village of Råshult in Småland, Sweden, on 23 May 1707, he was the first child of Christina Brodersonia. His siblings were Anna Maria Linnæa, Sofia Juliana Linnæa, Samuel Linnæus, Emerentia Linnæa, his father taught him Latin as a small child.
One of a long line of peasants and priests, Nils was an amateur botanist, a Lutheran minister, the curate of the small village of Stenbrohult in Småland. Christina was the daughter of the rector of Samuel Brodersonius. A year after Linnaeus's birth, his grandfather Samuel Brodersonius died, his father Nils became the rector of Stenbrohult; the family moved into the rectory from the curate's house. In his early years, Linnaeus seemed to have a liking for plants, flowers in particular. Whenever he was upset, he was given a flower, which calmed him. Nils spent much time in his garden and showed flowers to Linnaeus and told him their names. Soon Linnaeus was given his own patch of earth. Carl's father was the first in his ancestry to adopt a permanent surname. Before that, ancestors had used the patronymic naming system of Scandinavian countries: his father was named Ingemarsson after his father Ingemar Bengtsson; when Nils was admitted to the University of Lund, he had to take on a family name. He adopted the Latinate name Linnæus after a giant linden tree, lind in Swedish, that grew on the family homestead.
This name was spelled with the æ ligature. When Carl was born, he was named Carl Linnæus, with his father's family name; the son always spelled it with the æ ligature, both in handwritten documents and in publications. Carl's patronymic would have been Nilsson, as in Carl Nilsson Linnæus. Linnaeus's father began teaching him basic Latin and geography at an early age; when Linnaeus was seven, Nils decided to hire a tutor for him. The parents picked a son of a local yeoman. Linnaeus did not like him, writing in his autobiography that Telander "was better calculated to extinguish a child's talents than develop them". Two years after his tutoring had begun, he was sent to the Lower Grammar School at Växjö in 1717. Linnaeus studied going to the countryside to look for plants, he reached the last year of the Lower School when he was fifteen, taught by the headmaster, Daniel Lannerus, interested in botany. Lannerus gave him the run of his garden, he introduced him to Johan Rothman, the state doctor of Småland and a teacher at Katedralskolan in Växjö.
A botanist, Rothman broadened Linnaeus's interest in botany and helped him develop an interest in medicine. By the age of 17, Linnaeus had become well acquainted with the existing botanical literature, he remarks in his journal that he "read day and night, knowing like the back of my hand, Arvidh Månsson's Rydaholm Book of Herbs, Tillandz's Flora Åboensis, Palmberg's Serta Florea Suecana, Bromelii Chloros Gothica and Rudbeckii Hortus Upsaliensis...."Linnaeus entered the Växjö Katedralskola in 1724, where he studied Greek, Hebrew and mathematics, a curriculum designed for boys preparing for the priesthood. In the last year at the gymnasium, Linnaeus's father visited to ask the professors how his son's studies were progressing. Rothman believed otherwise; the doctor offered to have Linnaeus live with his family in Växjö and to teach him physiology and botany. Nils accepted this offer. Rothman showed Linnaeus that botany was a serious sub
Zanthoxylum is a genus of about 250 species of deciduous and evergreen trees and shrubs in the citrus or rue family, native to warm temperate and subtropical areas worldwide. It is the type genus of the tribe Zanthoxyleae in the subfamily Rutoideae. Several of the species have yellow heartwood; the fruit of several species is used to make the spice Sichuan pepper. They are used as bonsai trees; the bark was used in traditional medicine. Common names include "prickly ash" and "Hercules club". Zanthoxylum albuquerquei D. C. Zanthoxylum acanthopodium D. R. Simpson Zanthoxylum ailanthoides Siebold & Zucc. – alianthus-like prickly ash Zanthoxylum amapaense P. G. Waterm. Zanthoxylum americanum Mill. – northern prickly ash, prickly ash, toothachetree Zanthoxylum anadenium J. Jiménez Alm. Zanthoxylum anison L. O. Williams Zanthoxylum anodynum Ant. Molina Zanthoxylum apiculatum P. G. Waterm. Zanthoxylum arborescens Rose Zanthoxylum armatum DC. – winged prickly ash Zanthoxylum atchoum Waterm. Zanthoxylum austrosinense C.
C. Huang Zanthoxylum avicennae DC. Zanthoxylum backeri T. G. Hartley Zanthoxylum bifoliolatum Leonard – Maricao prickly ash Zanthoxylum bissei Beurton Zanthoxylum bluettianum Rock Zanthoxylum bouetense P. G. Waterm. Zanthoxylum brachyacanthum F. Muell. – thorny yellowwood Zanthoxylum brisasanum P. G. Waterm. Zanthoxylum buesgenii P. G. Waterm. Zanthoxylum bungeanum Maxim. – Chinese pepper, Sichuan pepper, Szechuan pepper Zanthoxylum buesgenii P. G. Waterm. Zanthoxylum calcicola C. C. Huang Zanthoxylum capense Harv. Zanthoxylum caribaeum Lam. – Yellow prickly ash Zanthoxylum chalybeum Engl. Zanthoxylum chevalieri Waterm. Zanthoxylum claessensii P. G. Waterm. Zanthoxylum clava-herculis L. – Hercules' club, southern prickly ash, West Indian yellowwood Zanthoxylum coco Gillies ex Hook. f. & Arn. – coco, smelly sauco Zanthoxylum collinsiae W. G. Craib Zanthoxylum comosum P. G. Waterm. Zanthoxylum compactum P. G. Waterm. Zanthoxylum coreanum Nakai – large-leaflet prickly ash Zanthoxylum coriaceum A. Rich. – Biscayne prickly ash Zanthoxylum culantrillo Kunth Zanthoxylum davyi Waterm.
-- forest knobwood. Zanthoxylum deremense Kokwaro Zanthoxylum dinklagei P. G. Waterm. Zanthoxylum dipetalum H. Mann – Kāwaʻu Zanthoxylum dissitum Hemsl. Zanthoxylum djalma-batistae P. G. Waterm. Zanthoxylum dumosum A. Rich. Zanthoxylum echinocarpum Hemsl. Zanthoxylum ekmanii Alain Zanthoxylum elegantissimum P. Wilson Zanthoxylum elephantiasis Macfad. Zanthoxylum engleri Waterm. Zanthoxylum esquirolii H. Lév. Zanthoxylum fagara Sarg. – Lime prickly ash Zanthoxylum falcifolia Engl. Zanthoxylum fauriei Ohwi – lesser alianthus-like prickly ash Zanthoxylum flavum Vahl – West Indian Satinwood Zanthoxylum foliolosum Donn. Sm. Zanthoxylum formiciferum P. G. Waterm. Zanthoxylum furcyensis J. Jiménez Alm. Zanthoxylum gardneri Engl. Zanthoxylum gilletii P. G. Waterm. Zanthoxylum glomeratum C. C. Huang Zanthoxylum hamadryadicum Pirani Zanthoxylum harrisii P. Wilson ex Britton Zanthoxylum hawaiiense Hillebr. – a'e, Hawai'i prickly ash Zanthoxylum heitzii P. G. Waterm. Zanthoxylum heterophyllum Sm. Zanthoxylum hillebrandii Waterm. Zanthoxylum holtzianum Waterm.
Zanthoxylum huberi P. G. Waterm. Zanthoxylum humile Waterm. Zanthoxylum insularis Rose Zanthoxylum integrifoliolum Merr. Zanthoxylum juniperinum Poepp. Zanthoxylum kauaense A. Gray – Kauai prickly ash Zanthoxylum khasianum Hook. f. Zanthoxylum kleinii P. G. Waterm. Zanthoxylum kwangsiense Chun ex C. C. Huang Zanthoxylum laetum Drake Zanthoxylum laurentii P. G. Waterm. Zanthoxylum lemairei P. G. Waterm. Zanthoxylum lenticellosum J. Jiménez Alm. Zanthoxylum lenticulare Reynel Zanthoxylum lepidopteriphilum Reynel Zanthoxylum leprieurii Guill. & Perr. Zanthoxylum liboense C. C. Huang Zanthoxylum liebmannianum P. Wilson Zanthoxylum limoncello Planch. & Oerst. Ex Triana & Planch. Zanthoxylum limonella Alston – makhwaen Zanthoxylum lindense Kokwaro Zanthoxylum lomincola A. H. Liogier Zanthoxylum macranthum C. C. Huang Zanthoxylum madagascariense Baker Zanthoxylum mananarense H. Perrier Zanthoxylum mantaro J. F. Macbr. Zanthoxylum martinicense DC. – white prickly ash Zanthoxylum maviense H. Mann Zanthoxylum mayanum Standl. Zanthoxylum megistophyllum T.
G. Hartley Zanthoxylum melanostictum Schltdl. & Cham. Zanthoxylum mezoneurispinosum W. D. Hawth. Zanthoxylum micranthum Hemsl. Zanthoxylum microcarpum Griseb. Zanthoxylum mildbraedii P. G. Waterm. Zanthoxylum molle Rehder Zanthoxylum mollissimum P. Wilson Zanthoxylum monophyllum P. Wilson – yellow prickle Zanthoxylum motuoense C. C. Huang Zanthoxylum multijugum Franch. Zanthoxylum myriacanthum Wall. Ex Hook. f. Zanthoxylum nadeaudii Drake Zanthoxylum nannophyllum A. H. Liogier Zanthoxylum nebuletorum P. G. Waterm. Zanthoxylum nemorale Mart
Binomial nomenclature called binominal nomenclature or binary nomenclature, is a formal system of naming species of living things by giving each a name composed of two parts, both of which use Latin grammatical forms, although they can be based on words from other languages. Such a name is called a binomen, binominal name or a scientific name; the first part of the name – the generic name – identifies the genus to which the species belongs, while the second part – the specific name or specific epithet – identifies the species within the genus. For example, humans belong within this genus to the species Homo sapiens. Tyrannosaurus rex is the most known binomial; the formal introduction of this system of naming species is credited to Carl Linnaeus beginning with his work Species Plantarum in 1753. But Gaspard Bauhin, in as early as 1623, had introduced in his book Pinax theatri botanici many names of genera that were adopted by Linnaeus; the application of binomial nomenclature is now governed by various internationally agreed codes of rules, of which the two most important are the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature for animals and the International Code of Nomenclature for algae and plants.
Although the general principles underlying binomial nomenclature are common to these two codes, there are some differences, both in the terminology they use and in their precise rules. In modern usage, the first letter of the first part of the name, the genus, is always capitalized in writing, while that of the second part is not when derived from a proper noun such as the name of a person or place. Both parts are italicized when a binomial name occurs in normal text, thus the binomial name of the annual phlox is now written as Phlox drummondii. In scientific works, the authority for a binomial name is given, at least when it is first mentioned, the date of publication may be specified. In zoology "Patella vulgata Linnaeus, 1758"; the name "Linnaeus" tells the reader who it was that first published a description and name for this species of limpet. "Passer domesticus". The original name given by Linnaeus was Fringilla domestica; the ICZN does not require that the name of the person who changed the genus be given, nor the date on which the change was made, although nomenclatorial catalogs include such information.
In botany "Amaranthus retroflexus L." – "L." is the standard abbreviation used in botany for "Linnaeus". "Hyacinthoides italica Rothm. – Linnaeus first named this bluebell species Scilla italica. The name is composed of two word-forming elements: "bi", a Latin prefix for two, "-nomial", relating to a term or terms; the word "binomium" was used in Medieval Latin to mean a two-term expression in mathematics. Prior to the adoption of the modern binomial system of naming species, a scientific name consisted of a generic name combined with a specific name, from one to several words long. Together they formed a system of polynomial nomenclature; these names had two separate functions. First, to designate or label the species, second, to be a diagnosis or description. In a simple genus, containing only two species, it was easy to tell them apart with a one-word genus and a one-word specific name; such "polynomial names" may sometimes look like binomials, but are different. For example, Gerard's herbal describes various kinds of spiderwort: "The first is called Phalangium ramosum, Branched Spiderwort.
The other... is aptly termed Phalangium Ephemerum Virginianum, Soon-Fading Spiderwort of Virginia". The Latin phrases are short descriptions, rather than identifying labels; the Bauhins, in particular Caspar Bauhin, took some important steps towards the binomial system, by pruning the Latin descriptions, in many cases to two words. The adoption by biologists of a system of binomial nomenclature is due to Swedish botanist and physician Carl von Linné, more known by his Latinized name Carl Linnaeus, it was in his 1753 Species Plantarum that he first began using a one-word "trivial name" together with a generic name in a system of binomial nomenclature. This trivial name is what is now known as specific name; the Bauhins' genus names were retained in many of these, but the descriptive part was reduced to a single word. Linnaeus's trivial names introduced an important new idea, namely that the function of a name could be to give a species a unique label; this meant. Thus Gerard's Phalangium ephemerum virginianum became Tradescantia virgi