The term workload can refer to a number of different yet related entities. Workload is the amount of work an individual has to do, there is a distinction between the actual amount of work and the individuals perception of the workload. Workload can be classified as quantitative or qualitative, the assessment of operator workload has a vital impact on the design of new human-machine systems. By evaluating operator workload during the design of a new system, or iteration of a system, problems such as workload bottlenecks. As the human operator is a part of a human-machine system. An operating budget may include estimates of the workload for a specific activity. Work loads can vary in different situations, but the average workload is average. Workload can refer to the energy output of a system. In these and related uses of the word, workload can be broken up into work+load, referring to the work done with a given load. In terms of training, the load refers to the heaviness of the weight being lifted.
This theory was used to determine horse power, which was defined as the amount of work a horse could do with a given load over time. The wheel that the horse turned in Watts original experiment put a certain load on the muscles. Horses are, not perfect machines and over time periods are capable of as much as 14 hp. The theory can be applied to automobiles or other machines, making a car heavier, for instance, increases the load that the engine must pull. Likewise, making it more aerodynamic drag, which acts as a load on the car as well. Torque can be thought of as the ability to load. Therefore and revs together create kilowatts, or total power output, total output can be related to the workload of the engine/car, or how much work it can do with a given amount of load. In an occupational setting, dealing with workload can be stressful, there are three aspects of workload that can be stressful
An academic or scholarly journal is a periodical publication in which scholarship relating to a particular academic discipline is published. Academic journals serve as permanent and transparent forums for the presentation and they are usually peer-reviewed or refereed. Content typically takes the form of articles presenting original research, review articles, the term academic journal applies to scholarly publications in all fields, this article discusses the aspects common to all academic field journals. Upon receipt of an article, editors at the journal determine whether to reject the submission outright or begin the process of peer review. In the latter case, the submission becomes subject to review by scholars of the editors choosing who typically remain anonymous. Though these reports are confidential, some journals and publishers practice public peer review. The editors either choose to reject the article, ask for a revision and resubmission, even accepted articles are often subjected to further editing by journal editorial staff before they appear in print.
The peer review can take several weeks to several months. Review articles, called reviews of progress, are checks on the published in journals. Some journals are devoted entirely to review articles, some contain a few in each issue, such reviews often cover the research from the preceding year, some for longer or shorter terms, some are devoted to specific topics, some to general surveys. Some journals are enumerative, listing all significant articles in a subject, others are selective. Yet others are evaluative, judging the state of progress in the subject field, some journals are published in series, each covering a complete subject field year, or covering specific fields through several years. Unlike original research articles, review articles tend to be solicited submissions and they are typically relied upon by students beginning a study in a given field, or for current awareness of those already in the field. Reviews of scholarly books are checks upon the books published by scholars, unlike articles.
Journals typically have a book review editor determining which new books to review. If an outside scholar accepts the book review editors request for a book review, publishers send books to book review editors in the hope that their books will be reviewed. The length and depth of research book reviews varies much from journal to journal, as does the extent of textbook, an academic journals prestige is established over time, and can reflect many factors, some but not all of which are expressible quantitatively. In each academic discipline there are dominant journals that receive the largest number of submissions, not only the largest journals are of excellent quality
Government Accountability Office
The Government Accountability Office is a government agency that provides auditing and investigative services for the United States Congress. It is the audit institution of the federal government of the United States. The GAO was established as the General Accounting Office by the Budget and Accounting Act of 1921. reports recommendations looking to greater economy or efficiency in public expenditures. The name was changed in 2004 to Government Accountability Office by the GAO Human Capital Reform Act to better reflect the mission of the office, while most other countries have government entities similar to the GAO, their focus is primarily on conducting financial audits. The GAOs auditors conduct not only financial audits, but engage in an assortment of performance audits. News media often draw attention to the GAOs work by publishing stories on the findings, members of Congress frequently cite the GAOs work in statements to the press, congressional hearings, and floor debates on proposed legislation.
The GAO is headed by the general of the U. S. a professional. The comptroller general is appointed by the president, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate, for a 15-year, the president selects a nominee from a list of at least three individuals recommended by an eight-member bipartisan, bicameral commission of congressional leaders. During such term, the general has standing to pursue litigation to compel access to federal agency information. The comptroller general may not be removed by the president, since 1921, there have been only seven comptrollers general, and no formal attempt has ever been made to remove a comptroller general. Labor-management relations became fractious during the 9-year tenure of the 7th comptroller general, on September 19,2007, GAO analysts voted by a margin of two to one, in a 75% turnout, to establish the first union in the GAOs 86-year history. The analysts voted to affiliate with the International Federation of Professional and Technical Engineers, there are more than 1,800 analysts in the GAO analysts bargaining unit, the local voted to name itself IFPTE Local 1921, in honor of the date of the GAOs establishment.
On February 14,2008, the GAO analysts union approved its first-ever negotiated pay contract with management and these standards pertain to auditors professional qualifications, the quality of audit effort, and the characteristics of professional and meaningful audit reports. In 1992 the GAO hosted XIV INCOSAI, the triennial convention of the International Organization of Supreme Audit Institutions. Due to its nature of a specific meta-study, the Ig Nobel Prize motivation described it as a report about the report about reports about reports, GAO often produces highlights of its reports that serve as a statement for the record for various subcommittees of the United States Congress. Many reports are issued periodically and take a view of U. S. agencies operations. GAO produces annual reports on key issues such as Duplication and Cost savings, the GAO prepares some 900 reports annually. GAO publishes reports and information relating to, inter alia, Each year the GAO issues a report on the financial statements of the United States Government
Employees in some fields or sectors may receive gratuities, bonus payment or stock options. In some types of employment, employees may receive benefits in addition to payment, benefits can include health insurance, disability insurance or use of a gym. Employment is typically governed by employment laws or regulations or legal contracts, employers must balance interests such as decreasing wage constraints with a maximization of labor productivity in order to achieve a profitable and productive employment relationship. The main ways for employers to workers and for people to find employers are via jobs listings in newspapers and online. Employers and job seekers find each other via professional recruitment consultants which receive a commission from the employer to find, screen. However, a study has shown that such consultants may not be reliable when they fail to use established principles in selecting employees, a more traditional approach is with a Help Wanted sign in the establishment. Evaluating different employees can be quite laborious but setting up different techniques to analyze their skill to measure their talents within the field can be best through assessments and potential employee commonly take the additional step of getting to know each other through the process of job interview.
Training and development refers to the effort to equip a newly hired employee with necessary skills to perform at the job. An appropriate level of training and development helps to improve job satisfaction. There are many ways that employees are paid, including by hourly wages, by piecework, by yearly salary, in sales jobs and real estate positions, the employee may be paid a commission, a percentage of the value of the goods or services that they have sold. In some fields and professions, employees may be eligible for a bonus if they meet certain targets, employee benefits are various non-wage compensation provided to employee in addition to their wages or salaries. In some cases, such as with workers employed in remote or isolated regions, employee benefits can improve the relationship between employee and employer and lowers staff turnover. Organizational justice is a perception and judgement of employers treatment in the context of fairness or justice. The resulting actions to influence the relationship is a part of organizational justice.
Employees can organize into trade or labor unions, which represent the force to collectively bargain with the management of organizations about working. Usually, either an employee or employer may end the relationship at any time and this is referred to as at-will employment. The contract between the two parties specifies the responsibilities of each when ending the relationship and may include such as notice periods, severance pay. In some professions, notably teaching, civil servants, university professors, and some jobs, some employees may have tenure