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Full metal jacket bullet

A full metal jacket bullet is a small-arms projectile consisting of a soft core encased in a shell of harder metal, such as gilding metal, cupronickel, or, less a steel alloy. A bullet jacket allows for higher muzzle velocities than bare lead without depositing significant amounts of metal in the bore, it prevents damage to bores from steel or armor-piercing core materials. In military nomenclature, it is labeled ball ammunition; the bullet was invented in 1882 by Swiss Colonel Eduard Rubin while he was working for the Swiss Federal Ammunition Factory and Research Center, which developed ammunition for the Swiss military. The use of full metal jacketing in military ammunition came about in part because of the need for improved feeding characteristics in small arms that used internal mechanical manipulation of the cartridge in order to chamber rounds as opposed to externally hand-reloading single-shot firearms; the harder metal used in bullet jackets was less prone to deformation than softer exposed lead, which improved feeding.

It is sometimes thought that military use of FMJ ammunition was the result of The Hague Convention of 1899, Declaration III, prohibiting the use in international warfare of bullets that expand or flatten in the body. However, jacketed bullets had been in use since at least 1882, over a decade prior to the Hague Convention. By design jacketed projectiles have less capacity to expand after contact with the target than a hollow-point projectile. While this can be an advantage when engaging targets behind cover, it can be a disadvantage as an FMJ bullet may pierce through a target, leading to less severe wounding, failing to disable the target. Furthermore, a projectile that goes through a target can cause unintentional, collateral damage downrange of the target; the bullet design inspired the title of the film Full Metal Jacket, by Stanley Kubrick, Michael Herr, Gustav Hasford. Hollow-point bullet Soft-point bullet "Declaration concerning Expanding Bullets". International Peace Conference at The Hague, which entered into force on September 4, 1900.

1899. "European Ammunition Box Translations: FAQ". "Photos showing terminal effects of British Mark 7.303 bullets".


VP-152 was a Patrol Squadron of the U. S. Navy; the squadron was established as Bombing Squadron 152 on 1 April 1944, redesignated Patrol Bombing Squadron 152 on 1 October 1944, redesignated Patrol Squadron 152 on 15 May 1946 and disestablished on 14 June 1946. 1 April 1944: VB-152 was established at NAS Clinton, Oklahoma, as a medium bombing squadron flying the PV-1 Ventura. Unlike other PV-1 squadrons, VB-152 was organized as a special squadron under the operational control of the Training Task Force to carry a target seeking glide bomb known as Pelican; the device was equipped with beam-rider radar homing equipment developed by the Bureau of Ordnance Special Design Section in April 1942. Production of the missile was begun at South Carolina. In September 1943; the missile was developed to be used against submarines and was designed around the casing of the standard 525-pound Depth charge. The disadvantage of the missile was that it could not be used against defended targets because the signal was lost beyond 800-foot.

In order for the missile to locate its target the mother ship had to continue on a straight course while painting the target with its radar beams. 29 April 1944: The squadron was split into three divisions for the purpose of operational training. Each was sent in turn to NAS Houma, for training as Pelican carriers. 22 July – October 1944: After a number of test drops showing only limited success, the project was canceled in late July 1944. VB-152 transferred its specially modified Venturas to VB-153. Throughout the months of August and September, the squadron received standard training in preparation for normal combat deployment. During the month of October the squadron was given instrument flying training. During this period the squadron ferried new PV-1 aircraft to NAS Clinton. 23 November – December 1944: The first division of VPB-152 flew to NAS Alameda, California, to prepare for overseas duty. The squadron came under the operational control of FAW-8 at that time; the squadron's aircraft were flown to NAS Livermore, for installation of long-range fuel tanks at the factory.

During this interval, squadron personnel were sent to the Navigation Radar Lab at Alameda. In early December, the second division of the squadron returned from Philadelphia with the remainder of the aircraft. 1–25 January 1945: The squadron was split into three divisions: two at NAAS Arcata and the third at Moffett Field, California. All three divisions underwent rocket training through the 25th. 26 January – 16 February 1945: The three divisions of the squadron rejoined the headquarters staff at NAS Alameda, where preparations were undertaken for the squadron's overseas deployment. On 10 February, the squadron departed aboard USS Sangamon, arriving at Naval Base Pearl Harbor on the 16th. 17 February – 30 March 1945: VPB-152 was transported to NAS Kaneohe Bay, where the squadron's aircraft had drop tanks installed. FAW-2 assumed operational control over the squadron at this time. On 24 February, a detachment of six aircraft and seven crews was sent to Midway Island to relieve VPB-149 on patrol duty.

The remainder of the squadron at NAS Kaneohe began the standard pre-combat ground and flight training syllabus. On 30 March, the Midway detachment rejoined the squadron in training. 24 April – July 1945: VPB-152 was deployed to Peleliu Airfield, Palau island group, to relieve VPB-102. The squadron came under the operational control of FAW-18 at this time. Routine antishipping searches and patrols were conducted through 12 July. On that date, the squadron was assigned the mission of special weather flights and rescue missions, assisted by three aircraft from VPB-133. 2 August 1945: While on routine patrol Lieutenant William C. Gwinn spotted a large oil slick with 30 survivors in the water. Further examination of the area revealed another group of 150 survivors. An immediate call for assistance was made, with Dumbo aircraft and USS Bassett soon en route to rescue the survivors, it was discovered that these were the remainder of the crew of USS Indianapolis, sunk by Japanese submarine I-58 while outbound from Tinian.

The ship had gone down without a signal on 30 July, with the majority of the ship's company subsequently dying of exposure and shark attacks. The searches continued until 8 August. 26 November 1945: VPB-152 was transferred to Kobler Field, Saipan. In December, the squadron assumed the responsibility for the Saipan to Marcus Island freight and passenger run with two planes making a round trip each Tuesday and Friday. 14 June 1946: VP-152 was disestablished at NAS Kaneohe Bay. The squadron was assigned the following aircraft, effective on the dates shown: PV-1 - April 1944 PV-2 - October 1944 The squadron was assigned to these home ports, effective on the dates shown: NAS Clinton, Oklahoma - 1 April 1944 NAS Alameda, California - 23 November 1944 NAS Kaneohe Bay, Hawaii - 17 February 1945 Maritime patrol aircraft List of inactive United States Navy aircraft squadrons List of United States Navy aircraft squadrons List of squadrons in the Dictionary of American Naval Aviation Squadrons History of the United States Navy This article incorporates text from the public domain Dictionary of American Naval Aviation Squadrons

Acyl-CoA thioesterase 9

Acyl-CoA thioesterase 9 is a protein, encoded by the human ACOT9 gene. It is a member of the acyl-CoA thioesterase superfamily, a group of enzymes that hydrolyze Coenzyme A esters. There is no known function, however it has been shown to act as a long-chain thioesterase at low concentrations, a short-chain thioesterase at high concentrations; the ACOT9 gene is located at p22.11 on chromosome X. Located on the minus strand of the chromosome, the start is at 23,721,777 bp and the end is at 23,761,407 bp, a span of 39,631 base pairs. ACOT9 gene is known for encoding the Acyl-CoA thioesterase 9 protein. Other, less used names for the gene are ACATE2, MT-ACT48; the protein encoded by the ACOT9 gene is part of a family of Acyl-CoA thioesterases, which catalyze the hydrolysis of various Coenzyme A esters of various molecules to the free acid plus CoA. These enzymes have been referred to in the literature as acyl-CoA hydrolases, acyl-CoA thioester hydrolases, palmitoyl-CoA hydrolases; the reaction carried out by these enzymes is as follows: CoA ester + H2O → free acid + coenzyme A These enzymes use the same substrates as long-chain acyl-CoA synthetases, but have a unique purpose in that they generate the free acid and CoA, as opposed to long-chain acyl-CoA synthetases, which ligate fatty acids to CoA, to produce the CoA ester.

The role of the ACOT- family of enzymes is not well understood. Recent studies have shown that Acyl-CoA esters have many more functions than an energy source; these functions include allosteric regulation of enzymes such as acetyl-CoA carboxylase, hexokinase IV, the citrate condensing enzyme. Long-chain acyl-CoAs regulate opening of ATP-sensitive potassium channels and activation of Calcium ATPases, thereby regulating insulin secretion. A number of other cellular events are mediated via acyl-CoAs, for example signal transduction through protein kinase C, inhibition of retinoic acid-induced apoptosis, involvement in budding and fusion of the endomembrane system. Acyl-CoAs mediate protein targeting to various membranes and regulation of G Protein α subunits, because they are substrates for protein acylation. In the mitochondria, acyl-CoA esters are involved in the acylation of mitochondrial NAD+ dependent dehydrogenases; this mechanism may provide metabolic crosstalk and act to regulate the NADH/NAD+ ratio in order to maintain optimal mitochondrial beta oxidation of fatty acids.

The role of CoA esters in lipid metabolism and numerous other intracellular processes are well defined, thus it is hypothesized that ACOT- enzymes play a role in modulating the processes these metabolites are involved in. There are many orthologs of ACOT9, the house mouse being one of the most similar, where the ACOT9 gene is found at 72.38cM on chromosome X. The range of orthologs extends to mammals, amphibians, anamorphic fungi, others. In mice, one of the closest orthologs, ACOT10 is a known paralog of the ACOT9 gene. Expression of the ACOT9 is ubiquitous throughout the tissues in humans. Tissues with a value of over 500 in the large-scale analysis of the human transcriptome were the globus pallidus and colorectal adenocarcinoma; the expressed sequence tag abundance profile shows ubiquitous/near ubiquitous, expression throughout human tissues. There are numerous transcription factors throughout the ACOT9 promoter sequence; some of the notable factors are heat shock factors and transcription factor II B recognition elements.

There are two regions in the ACOT9 gene sequence that are labeled as BACH regions. These regions are part of a hotdog fold superfamily, found to be used in a variety of cell roles. Predictions show there to be various alpha-helices throughout the structure, suggesting it is a transmembrane protein. A mitochondrial cleavage site can be found at amino acid 30 in the ACOT9 sequence, the probability of export to the mitochondria is 0.9374. The Acyl-CoA thioesterase 9 protein is estimated to be 60.9% mitochondrial, 21.7% cytoplasmic, 8.7% nuclear, 4.3% in the plasma membrane, 4.3% in the endoplasmic reticulum. The ACOT9 protein has been found to interact with the following proteins either experimentally or through co-expression: C1orf151 MCTS1 C1GALT1C1 FBXW12 RLIM RPS6KA3 RAB9A UBC CXorf26 HCCS Human ACOT9 genome location and ACOT9 gene details page in the UCSC Genome Browser; this article incorporates text from the United States National Library of Medicine, in the public domain


Alan Milligan, known by his stage name Yelpy is an Irish singer-songwriter and musician from Dublin. He began his career as the lead singer/guitarist for the band Whover. After Whover he went on to form the band Yellow Room and released two studio albums. In 2010 he moved to Los Angeles to pursue a solo career as Yelpy. Yelpy will release his debut single "Feel It" on 21 November 2014. Yelpy was born in Dublin city and was raised in a musical household, he began playing guitar at the age of 15. While attending Ballyfermot College of Further Education, Dublin – the "Rock School" Yelpy formed the band Whover. Whover played on RTÉ and BBC television, their hit song "Ginger Coloured Yellow Man" was awarded song of the week on Dublin’s FM104. Yelpy formed the band Yellow Room with his two sisters Ruth and Niamh. Yellow Room released two studio albums "Outside" and the self-titled "Yellow Room", they played all over Ireland in such venues as The Spirit Store. Today FM featured their hit song "The One". In 2010 Yelpy moved to Los Angeles to pursue a solo career as a singer/songwriter.

He released his debut single "Feel It" on 21 November 2014. 1. Singer-Songwriter: Irish Artist Yelpy Paper Aquarium Magazine, 19 November 2012 2. Yelpy - Making His Mark In Los Angeles Meagan Sarget, Splash Magazine 3. Irish Gig Prodijee Magazine, October–November 2012 4. Irish Singer Songwriter Yelpy Releases New Single "Feel It" Convozine, 4 October 2014 Official website IMDb Official Facebook Official Twitter

Texas–Rio Grande Valley Vaqueros women's basketball

The Texas–Rio Grande Valley Vaqueros women's basketball team is the intercollegiate women's basketball program representing the University of Texas Rio Grande Valley. The school competes in the Western Athletic Conference in Division I of the National Collegiate Athletic Association; the Vaqueros play home basketball games at the UTRGV Fieldhouse on the university campus in Edinburg, Texas. The team was established in its current identity after the University of Texas at Brownsville and the University of Texas–Pan American were merged in 2015; the UTPA athletic program, nicknamed "Broncs", was directly converted to that of UTRGV, with UTPA's WAC membership and athletic history transferring to the new institution. The Broncs began play in women's basketball in 1982 when the school was known as Pan American University; the Broncs played their first three season as a NAIA Independent, with the first coach in school history being John McDowell. In their three seasons as a NAIA Independent, they finished 10–5, 7–11, 12–12, respectively.

In his fourth and final season, he coached them to a 7–19 record in their first season of Division I play. Tony McDaniel coached the team for one season. Becky De Los Santos took over for the 1987–88 season, the first season for the Broncs in the American South Conference. However, the team lost all 27 games, De Los Santos did not return. Tim Hicks did not win any games as coach of the 1988–89 season, but the next season saw an improvement from 0 wins to 3. After that season, the school's name changed to the University of Texas–Pan American when it joined the University of Texas System; the 1990–91 season was their last in the American South Conference, but it was the season in which they picked up their first conference wins. In four seasons in the American South Conference, they went 2–40 in conference play; the conference merged with the Sun Belt Conference in 1991. In the final season for Hicks as coach, the Broncs went 2 -- 14 in conference play. Traci Garner took over for the 1992–93 season.

In her two season as coach she went 3 -- 24 in conference play. Cletus Green coached for two seasons, going 3–24 and 10–17, respectively. Kathy Halligan coached for four seasons from 1996–2000, overseeing their departure from the Sun Belt Conference after the 1997–98 season. In the final two seasons playing under the Sun Belt label, they went 5–22 and 1–26 with the cumulative total of their seven seasons of conference play being a record of 14–86. Halligan's two seasons under the Independent label did not have much improvement, as she went 8–19 in 1998–99 and 6–21 in 1999–2000. On March 1, 2000, it was announced that Halligan would be reassigned within the Athletic Department, ending her tenure as coach. Two months Karin Nicholls was hired as coach, she coached for two seasons from 2000–2002. In her two seasons, her teams went 11–17 and 7–21 for a total record of 18–38. Tracy Anderson coached for only the 2002–03 season, going 7–21. DeAnn Craft took over starting with the 2003 -- 04 season; the Broncs finished with a 13 -- 15 record.

They improved to a 14–14 record the following year, their first ever.500 season since the 1984–85 season. They sunk to a 7–21 record in 2005; the next two seasons finished the same, with 11–18 records. The 2008–09 season proved to be the final season for Craft and the last season as an Independent for the Broncs, they finished 14–16, tying the school record for wins. Craft resigned with one year remaining on her contract, she cited the loss of a radio contract to broadcast both men's and women's basketball games, the decision to cease providing scholarship benefits to incoming players to the program in the summer before their first year and aid to ensure graduation for fifth-year students, both factors that she thought were de-emphasizing the program. Her 70 victories remained a school record until 2017, with her 192 games coached and 102 losses remaining school records as of 2018. Denny Downing took over as coach for the 2009–10 season, their first season as member of the Great West Conference.

They finished 13–17, with an 8–4 conference record, their first season with an above.500 record in conference. The next season was a downgrade, as they finished 12–19, they inched up with a 13–17 record in 2011–12, but they stepped back the next season, finishing 12–16. Downing's contract was not renewed. Larry Tidwell was hired to coach the team for the 2013–14 season, the first for the Broncs in Western Athletic Conference play, they finished 14–16, with an 8–8 conference record. The following year, the Broncs, in their final year before transitioning into being known as the UTRGV Vaqueros, finished the history of Pan American with a winning season, it was their first since finishing 10–5 in the NAIA Division II level back in their first season. They broke the record for most program victories with 19 victories. Other school records were set, such as conference victories, conference tournament wins, victories at home, victories on the road, victories on a neutral site, they finished 19–15. In the 2015 WAC Women's Basketball Tournament, they beat UMKC and Cal State Bakersfield to reach the Championship.

Though they subsequently lost to New Mexico State 70–52, the Broncs secured a Women's Basketball Invitational appearance, their first postseason appearance in program history. In the 2015 Women's

Silver box

A silver box is a modified DTMF keypad that adds four additional keys. This gives four columns of four keys each instead of three columns. In the now-obsolete Autovon phone system these keys, used to set priority of a military call, were the red buttons in the photo on the right. Autovon included four precedence levels: Routine, Priority and Flash with Flash Override as a capability; each had the ability to interrupt lower-priority calls in progress. Each was activated using a button in an additional column of the keypad: A: Flash Override B: Flash C: Immediate D: Priority Autovon was replaced in the early 1990s by the Defense Switched Network. Amateur radio equipment continues to be manufactured with 16-key DTMF keypads, keeping extra tones available for on-air use to control remote apparatus such as radio repeater stations; these tone pairs are used. Conversion of twelve-button keypads was accomplished with the addition of a toggle switch and a crystal that switched one column of a standard phone keypad into the "fourth column" used to generate 1633 Hz as the higher of the two tones output on a keypress.

Modern phones with an integrated circuit based DTMF generator can be modified by soldering a wire from the 1633 Hz leg to a switch that toggles between that leg and the 1477 Hz leg for the rightmost column of keys