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Full width at half maximum is an expression of the extent of function given by the difference between the two extreme values of the independent variable at which the dependent variable is equal to half of its maximum value. In other words, it is the width of a spectrum curve measured between those points on the y-axis which are half the maximum amplitude. Half width at half maximum is half of the FWHM. FWHM is applied to such phenomena as the duration of pulse waveforms and the spectral width of sources used for optical communications and the resolution of spectrometers; the term full duration at half maximum is preferred. The convention of "width" meaning "half maximum" is widely used in signal processing to define bandwidth as "width of frequency range where less than half the signal's power is attenuated", i.e. the power is at least half the maximum. In signal processing terms, this is at most −3 dB of attenuation, called "half-power point". If the considered function is the density of a normal distribution of the form f = 1 σ 2 π exp ⁡ where σ is the standard deviation and x0 is the expected value the relationship between FWHM and the standard deviation is F W H M = 2 2 ln ⁡ 2 σ ≈ 2.355 σ.

The width does not depend on the expected value x0. In spectroscopy half the width at half maximum, HWHM, is in common use. For example, a Lorentzian/Cauchy distribution of height 1/πγ can be defined by f = 1 π γ and F W H M = 2 γ. Another important distribution function, related to solitons in optics, is the hyperbolic secant: f = sech ⁡. Any translating element was omitted, since it does not affect the FWHM. For this impulse we have: F W H M = 2 arcsech ⁡ X = 2 ln ⁡ X ≈ 2.634 X where arcsech is the inverse hyperbolic secant. If the FWHM of a Gaussian function is known it can be integrated by simple multiplication. Gaussian function Cutoff frequency This article incorporates public domain material from the General Services Administration document "Federal Standard 1037C". FWHM at Wolfram Mathworld

Thomas Banyacya was a Hopi Native American traditional leader. In 1948, he was one of four Hopis who were named by elders to reveal Hopi traditional wisdom and teachings, including the Hopi prophecies for the future, to the general public, after the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki in Japan. Banyacya was a member of the Wolf and Coyote clans. Banyacya grew up in the village of Moenkopi and first attended Sherman Indian School in Riverside and Bacone College in Muskogee, Oklahoma, he lived in Arizona on the Hopi Reservation. During World War II, Banyacya was a draft resister, who spent time in prison over seven years each time he refused to register for the draft. Banyacya died on February 1999 in Keams Canyon, Arizona. Janet McCloud Hibakusha Uranium in the environment Anti-nuclear movement in the United States The Navajo People and Uranium Mining Manuel Pino "Voice of Indigenous People - Native People Address the United Nations" Edited by Alexander Ewen, Clear Light Publishers, Santa Fe New Mexico, 1994, 176 pages.

Thomas Banyacya et al. at the United Nations Native Americans in the twentieth century By James Stuart Olson, Raymond Wilson,VNR AG, 1984 Remembering Thomas Banyacya Testimony/ Thomas Banyacya Sr. World Uranium Hearings, 14 September 1992, Salzburg Thomas Banyacya Hopi Traditional Elder Uranium Mining and Indigenous People

The Queen's Nose is a children's novel by Dick King-Smith, first published by Gollancz in 1983 with illustrations by Jill Bennett. Set in England, where King-Smith lived, it features a girl who can use a fifty pence coin to make wishes, it was adapted as the 1995 TV series The Queen's Nose, a great success and ran for 7 series. The book by Dick King Smith features the story of Harmony Parker, a 10-year-old girl who wants an animal of her own but is not allowed by her parents, who think animals are dirty. Harmony has a 15-year-old sister, who spends most of her time looking in a mirror. Harmony's best friend is Rex Ruff Monty. Harmony believes animals are more interesting than humans and so she pictures the people she meets as animals, her father is a sea lion, her mother a Pouter pigeon and her sister a Siamese cat. She receives a magic coin from her uncle, that grants her seven wishes; the Queen's Nose in libraries —immediately, first US edition

Anthony Rex Hunter is a British-American biologist, a Professor of Biology at the Salk Institute for Biological Studies and the University of California San Diego. His research publications list his name as Tony Hunter. Hunter was born in 1943 in the United Kingdom and educated at Felsted School, prior to Christ's College, Cambridge where he was awarded a PhD in 1969 for research on protein synthesis. Following his PhD, Hunter held a fellowship at Cambridge in Cambridge and. From 1971 to 1973, he was a postdoctoral research associate of the Salk Institute for Biological Studies in La Jolla, California, he was assistant professor 1975–78, associate professor 1978–82, professor 1982 onwards and since 2008 director of the Salk Institute Cancer Center. He sits on the Selection Committee for Life Science and Medicine which chooses winners of the Shaw Prize. Hunter is one of the foremost recognized leaders in the field of cell growth control, growth factor receptors and their signal transduction pathways.

He is well known for discovering that tyrosine phosphorylation is a fundamental mechanism for transmembrane-signal transduction in response to growth factor stimulation and that disregulation of such tyrosine phosphorylation, by activated oncogenic protein tyrosine kinases, is a pivotal mechanism utilized in the malignant transformation of cells. His work is important in signaling their disorders. Hunter was a founder of Signal Pharmaceuticals, he won the Wolf Prize in Medicine in 2005 for "the discovery of protein kinases that phosphorylate tyrosine residues in proteins, critical for the regulation of a wide variety of cellular events, including malignant transformation". He has been granted along with Charles Sawyers and Joseph Schlessinger with the 2014 BBVA Foundation Frontiers of Knowledge Award in the Biomedicine category for “carving out the path that led to the development of a new class of successful cancer drugs.” 1987 Fellow of the Royal Society 1994 Charles S. Mott Prize by the General Motors Cancer Research Foundation.

1994 Gairdner Foundation International Award. 1998 Member of the US National Academy of Sciences. 2001 Keio Medical Science Prize 2004 Louisa Gross Horwitz Prize from Columbia University. 2005 Wolf Prize in Medicine 2006 Pasarow Award in Cancer Research. 2014 Royal Medal 2014 BBVA Foundation Frontiers of Knowledge Award in Biomedicine 2017 Sjöberg Prize for Cancer Research 2018 Tang Prize 2018 Pezcoller Foundation-AACR International Award for Cancer Research

Earth's crustal evolution involves the formation and renewal of the rocky outer shell at that planet's surface. The variation in composition within the Earth's crust is much greater than that of other terrestrial planets. Mars, Venus and other planetary bodies have quasi-uniform crusts unlike that of the Earth which contains both oceanic and continental plates; this unique property reflects the complex series of crustal processes that have taken place throughout the planet's history, including the ongoing process of plate tectonics. The proposed mechanisms regarding Earth's crustal evolution take a theory-orientated approach. Fragmentary geologic evidence and observations provide the basis for hypothetical solutions to problems relating to the early Earth system. Therefore, a combination of these theories creates both a framework of current understanding and a platform for future study; the early Earth was molten. This was due to high temperatures created and maintained by the following processes: Compression of the early atmosphere Rapid axial rotation Regular impacts with neighbouring planetesimals.

The mantle remained hotter than modern day temperatures throughout the Archean. Over time the Earth began to cool as planetary accretion slowed and heat stored within the magma ocean was lost to space through radiation. A theory for the initiation of magma solidification states that once cool enough, the cooler base of the magma ocean would begin to crystallise first; this is. The formation of a thin'chill-crust' at the extreme surface would provide thermal insulation to the shallow sub surface, keeping it warm enough to maintain the mechanism of crystallisation from the deep magma ocean; the composition of the crystals produced during the crystallisation of the magma ocean varied with depth. Experiments involving the melting of peridotite magma show that deep in the ocean, the main mineral present would be Mg-perovskite, whereas olivine would dominate in the shallower areas along with its high pressure polymorphs e.g. garnet and majorite. A contributing theory to the formation of the first continental crust is through intrusive plutonic volcanism.

The product of these eruptions formed a hot, thick lithosphere which underwent regular cycling with the mantle. The heat released by this form of volcanism, as well as assisting mantle convection, increased the geothermal gradient of the early crust; the crustal dichotomy is the distinct contrast in composition and nature of the oceanic and continental plates, which together form the overall crust. Oceanic and continental crusts are, at the present day and maintained through plate tectonic processes. However, the same mechanisms are unlikely to have produced the crustal dichotomy of the early lithosphere; this is thought to be true on the basis that sections of the thin, low density continental lithosphere thought to have covered the planet could not have been subducted under each other. A proposed relative timing for crustal dichotomy has been put forward stating that the dichotomy began before the commencement of global plate tectonics; this is. Large and numerous impact craters can be recognised on planetary bodies across the Solar System.

These craters are thought to date back to a period where there was an increased frequency and intensity of asteroid impacts with terrestrial planets, known as the Late Heavy Bombardment, which terminated 4 billion years ago. This proposal goes on to claim the Earth would have sustained the same relative intensity of cratering as other planetesimals in the Solar System, it is therefore only due to Earth's high erosional rates and constant plate tectonics that the craters are not visible today. By scaling up the number and size of impact craters seen on the Moon to fit the size of Earth, it is predicted that at least 50% of the Earth's initial crust was covered in impact basins; this estimate provides a lower limit of the effect impact cratering had on the Earth's surface. The main effects of impact cratering on the early lithosphere were: Formation of large craters. Isostatic rebound would adjust the depth of the craters making them shallow in comparison to their diameter. Topographic division between the low-lying impact basins and the now elevated surface.

Release in pressure at the surface from the removal of overburden. This produced a greater increase in temperature with depth below the surface. Increased surface temperatures caused the partial melting of mantle which erupted and deposited within the surface basins; the pyrolite mantle would have produced basaltic partial melts, compositionally contrasting to the existing sialic crust. The magnitude of these impacts is interpreted, with a high level of uncertainty, to have converted half of the'continental' crust into terrestrial maria, thereby providing a method for the formation of crustal dichotomy, as seen today; the initial crystallisation of minerals from the magma ocean formed the primordial crust. A potential explanation of this process states the resultant solidification of the mantle edge took place 4.43 Ga. This would subsequently produce continents composed of komatiite, an ultramafic rock rich in magnesium with a high melting point and low dynamic viscosity. Another line of research follows up on this, proposing that differences in the densities of newly formed crystals caused separation of crustal rocks.

The overall result of initial crystallisation formed a primordial crust 60 km in depth. The lack