Anzac Highway, Adelaide
The Anzac Highway is an 8.7-kilometre-long main arterial road heading southwest from the city of Adelaide, the capital of South Australia, to the beachside suburb of Glenelg. The Bay Road, it follows the track made by the pioneer James Chambers from Holdfast Bay, the first governor's landing site, to Adelaide, it gained its current name in 1923 to honour the contribution of the Anzacs in World War I. The highway is serviced by a 15-minute Go Zone, serviced by the 263 and 265 buses; the South Road intersection with Anzac Highway saw major construction works in 2007-2009 as part of a South Australian Government initiative to transform South Road into a non-stop north-south route. Under the works, both routes became grade-separated, with South Road proceeding through an underpass with bi-directional controlled exits onto Anzac Highway; the underpass model is a diamond interchange. Construction began in October 2007, the underpass was opened in March 2009, with construction completed in late 2009.
The underpass was named the Gallipoli Underpass, in keeping with the Anzac theme, each of the 4 corners of the intersection has a display to commemorate those who fought in the war. Anzac Highway is mentioned in the song "One More Boring Night in Adelaide" by Redgum on their 1978 album If You Don't Fight You Lose. Highways in Australia List of highways in South Australia
Adelaide is the capital city of the state of South Australia, the fifth-most populous city of Australia. In June 2017, Adelaide had an estimated resident population of 1,333,927. Adelaide is home to more than 75 percent of the South Australian population, making it the most centralised population of any state in Australia. Adelaide is north of the Fleurieu Peninsula, on the Adelaide Plains between the Gulf St Vincent and the low-lying Mount Lofty Ranges which surround the city. Adelaide stretches 20 km from the coast to the foothills, 94 to 104 km from Gawler at its northern extent to Sellicks Beach in the south. Named in honour of Adelaide of Saxe-Meiningen, queen consort to King William IV, the city was founded in 1836 as the planned capital for a freely-settled British province in Australia. Colonel William Light, one of Adelaide's founding fathers, designed the city and chose its location close to the River Torrens, in the area inhabited by the Kaurna people. Light's design set out Adelaide in a grid layout, interspaced by wide boulevards and large public squares, surrounded by parklands.
Early Adelaide was shaped by wealth. Until the Second World War, it was Australia's third-largest city and one of the few Australian cities without a convict history, it has been noted for early examples of religious freedom, a commitment to political progressivism and civil liberties. It has been known as the "City of Churches" since the mid-19th century, referring to its diversity of faiths rather than the piety of its denizens; the demonym "Adelaidean" is used in reference to its residents. As South Australia's seat of government and commercial centre, Adelaide is the site of many governmental and financial institutions. Most of these are concentrated in the city centre along the cultural boulevard of North Terrace, King William Street and in various districts of the metropolitan area. Today, Adelaide is noted for its many festivals and sporting events, its food and wine, its long beachfronts, its large defence and manufacturing sectors, it ranks in terms of quality of life, being listed in the world's top 10 most liveable cities, out of 140 cities worldwide by The Economist Intelligence Unit.
It was ranked the most liveable city in Australia by the Property Council of Australia in 2011, 2012 and 2013. Before its proclamation as a British settlement in 1836, the area around Adelaide was inhabited by the indigenous Kaurna Aboriginal nation. Kaurna culture and language were completely destroyed within a few decades of European settlement of South Australia, but extensive documentation by early missionaries and other researchers has enabled a modern revival of both. South Australia was proclaimed a British colony on 28 December 1836, near The Old Gum Tree in what is now the suburb of Glenelg North; the event is commemorated in South Australia as Proclamation Day. The site of the colony's capital was surveyed and laid out by Colonel William Light, the first Surveyor-General of South Australia, through the design made by the architect George Strickland Kingston. Adelaide was established as a planned colony of free immigrants, promising civil liberties and freedom from religious persecution, based upon the ideas of Edward Gibbon Wakefield.
Wakefield had read accounts of Australian settlement while in prison in London for attempting to abduct an heiress, realised that the eastern colonies suffered from a lack of available labour, due to the practice of giving land grants to all arrivals. Wakefield's idea was for the Government to survey and sell the land at a rate that would maintain land values high enough to be unaffordable for labourers and journeymen. Funds raised from the sale of land were to be used to bring out working-class emigrants, who would have to work hard for the monied settlers to afford their own land; as a result of this policy, Adelaide does not share the convict settlement history of other Australian cities like Sydney, Melbourne and Hobart. As it was believed that in a colony of free settlers there would be little crime, no provision was made for a gaol in Colonel Light's 1837 plan, but by mid-1837 the South Australian Register was warning of escaped convicts from New South Wales and tenders for a temporary gaol were sought.
Following a burglary, a murder, two attempted murders in Adelaide during March 1838, Governor Hindmarsh created the South Australian Police Force in April 1838 under 21-year-old Henry Inman. The first sheriff, Samuel Smart, was wounded during a robbery, on 2 May 1838 one of the offenders, Michael Magee, became the first person to be hanged in South Australia. William Baker Ashton was appointed governor of the temporary gaol in 1839, in 1840 George Strickland Kingston was commissioned to design Adelaide's new gaol. Construction of Adelaide Gaol commenced in 1841. Adelaide's early history was marked by questionable leadership; the first governor of South Australia, John Hindmarsh, clashed with others, in particular the Resident Commissioner, James Hurtle Fisher. The rural area surrounding Adelaide was surveyed by Light in preparation to sell a total of over 405 km2 of land. Adelaide's early economy started to get on its feet in 1838 with the arrival of livestock from Victoria, New South Wales and Tasmania.
Wool production provided an early basis for the South Australian economy. By 1860, wheat farms had been established from Encounter Bay in the south to Clare in the north. George Gawler took over from Hindmarsh in late 1838 and, despite being under orders from the Select Committee on South Australia in Britain not to undertake any public works, promptly oversaw construction of a governo
South Eastern Freeway
The South Eastern Freeway is a 76 kilometre controlled-access highway in South Australia. It carries traffic over the Adelaide Hills between Adelaide and the River Murray, near Murray Bridge, connecting via the Swanport Bridge to the Dukes Highway, the main road route to Victoria, it is referred to by South Australians as the Freeway, as it was the first freeway in South Australia, is still the longest, the only one with "Freeway" in its name rather than "Expressway" or "Highway". It is a part of the National Highway network linking the state capital cities Adelaide to Melbourne and signed as National Highway M1; the South Eastern Freeway includes 500-metre-long twin-tube tunnels in the descent towards Adelaide, the first of their kind on the National Highway. It is designated as the M1; the South Eastern Freeway features 6 lanes of traffic, arrester beds and concrete median barriers, with street lighting between Glen Osmond and Crafers. The remainder of the length to the Swanport Bridge is dual carriageways with two lanes in each direction.
Prior to the initial construction of the freeway in the 1960s, all inbound and outbound road traffic between Adelaide and south-eastern South Australia and Victoria had to travel on a two-lane highway built in the early part of the 20th century. With growth in Adelaide's population issues of congestion and safety mandated reconstruction. Studies began in 1962 for a freeway commencing from Crafers, that endpoint selected arguably due to the massive expenditure required with the precedent upgrade of the Mount Barker Road. Road construction began in 1965 from Crafers and the first stage of eastbound traffic lanes were opened in 1967, the first westbound section in 1969; the freeway was opened in stages. The final section bypassing the town of Murray Bridge and connecting to the new Swanport Bridge over the River Murray opened in 1979, replacing the historic bridge in the town for through traffic; the opening of the freeway resulted in the less direct Bridgewater railway line losing patronage, the line closed to passengers in 1987.
The Adelaide–Crafers Highway extension came as a much-needed upgrade and replacement to the previous link road, the Mount Barker Road, contoured to the Adelaide Hills, giving rise to many steep turns, ascending a tortuous route. The tightest hairpin turn on the Mount Barker Road became infamous as'the Devils Elbow' the site of car and semi-trailer accidents. On 16 May 1995, Prime Minister Paul Keating announced the construction of the new Adelaide-Crafers section; the Heysen Tunnels, named after well-known South Australian artist and benefactor Hans Heysen, were completed in 1998. Construction was completed early 2000 and on 5 March 2000 Prime Minister John Howard opened the new road, it was the largest South Australian road project at that time, costing a total of A$151 million, wholly funded by the Australian Federal Government. An additional exit was built at Monarto around 1999 to service an expanding commercial zone and Monarto Zoo in the area. Another exit was announced in 2014 at Bald Hills Road 4 km southeast of the Mount Barker interchange to service growing housing estates in southern Mount Barker and Nairne.
The contract was announced on 1 April 2015 that Bardavcol would commence construction in May 2015, with the interchange including entry and exit ramps in both directions opening in mid-2016. The $27M project was funded $16M by the Australian government, $8M from South Australia and $3M from Mount Barker district council; the new interchange opened on 15 August 2016. The Freeway bypasses many towns along the Princes Highway including Shortly after the Adelaide-Crafers section opened, several incidents involving semi-trailers drew media attention to the road. While the previous Mount Barker Road was a notorious stretch, its dangers were well known. Heavy vehicles with inadequate braking found it hard to slow down once they had exceeded a certain speed, it took some time, the addition of several warning signs prior to the descent, for heavy vehicles to become familiar with the freeway's characteristics. Semi-trailers can be seen travelling as slow as 20–30 km/h downhill. In 2005 changeable electronic road signs were installed every 200 metres, so that the speed limit of the road can be adjusted from Transport SA headquarters in Adelaide.
This has both improved safety for commuters, emergency service workers like the Country Fire Service. In 2010 and 2011, after more incidents involving trucks having problems braking down the hill, including one going into a bus stop, another going straight through the intersection at the bottom, the government added new laws that any vehicle with 5 axles or more must stay in the left lane and must not exceed a 60 km/h limit from the interchange at Crafers to the old tollhouse. More Safety cameras are installed in an attempt to ensure trucks abide by this new limit. Additional signs for the two arrester beds on the descent have been added, to encourage out of control drivers to use them as a safer alternative. In August 2014, another truck collided with many cars at the lower part of the highway, killing two people. Brake failure was suspected to be the cause of the accident; the Adelaide end of the South Eastern Freeway leads downhill to traffic lights at the intersection of Glen Osmond Road which continues northwest as route number A1 into the Adelaide city centre, Portrush Road which carries the National Highway designation north to bypass the city and towards Port Adelaide, Cross Road which leads west towar
Mount Barker Road
Mount Barker Road was once the main road from Adelaide through the Adelaide Hills to Mount Barker on the eastern slopes of the Mount Lofty Ranges. The main route has now been replaced by part of the South Eastern Freeway, but most of it remains in some form; the remaining sections of Mount Barker Road are still classified as state roads. Mount Barker Road starts from the "Old Toll Gate" at Glen Osmond, it has been replaced by the South Eastern Freeway as far as the Devil's Elbow. Mount Barker Road turns a sharp hairpin and has a winding uphill through Eagle On The Hill and rejoins the South Eastern Freeway near Measday's Hill. Mount Barker Road resumes from the south side of the Stirling exit from the freeway, it passes through the main shopping strips of Stirling and Aldgate as State Route B33. From Aldgate, Route B33 continues on Strathalbyn Road, while Mount Barker Road follows the railway line as Tourist Route 57 to Bridgewater and under the freeway at Verdun where it joins State Route B34 for a little over 3 kilometres through Hahndorf.
At the south end of Hahndorf Route B34 turns under the freeway towards Echunga and Mount Barker Road continues on the north side to end at the Mount Barker Interchange. The last part of the South Eastern Freeway to be built reconstructed the Adelaide end of Mount Barker Road including a grade-separated intersection at Mount Osmond Road, it replaced the infamous Devil's Elbow hairpin with a partial interchange. The new freeway passes through the Heysen Tunnels and rejoins the former alignment the other side of a steep ridge. Mount Barker Road itself climbs around the ridge. Since the four-lane dual carriageway is no longer required, part of the uphill side has been replaced with a bike path used as part of a popular cycling route to Mount Lofty and all motor traffic uses the former downhill carriageway; the section between the Measdays interchange and Crafers was completely replaced by the freeway being built on the same alignment at a lower level in a deep cutting. Mount Barker Road between Crafers and Stirling was replaced by the first stage of the Freeway to be built, in the late 1960s.
Mount Barker Road remains as the main street of Stirling, continuing to Aldgate, under the freeway at Verdun through Hahndorf to end near the Mount Barker interchange of the freeway. The road on the other end of the bridge over the interchange is "Adelaide Road", reflecting the reverse journey. In 1841 a special Act "... for the making, maintaining the Great Eastern Road" was passed, construction of the first section from Glen Osmond to Crafers begun at public expense. It was soon realised that this undertaking would be hugely expensive, so a novel plan was hatched to relieve the Government of all expense by vesting the management of the road in a private company; the successful tenderer would have the responsibility of completing and maintaining the road, have the right to levy tolls on users of the road. As this was the only route to and from the burgeoning agricultural districts around Mount Barker, not to mention all road traffic to the eastern colonies, this had all the hallmarks of a great money-maker.
The author of The History and Topology of Glen Osmond, Under-Treasurer Tom Gill, no stranger to public finances, described this a'curiosity in road legislation'. A toll gate and accommodation for the gate-keeper were erected and one Samuel Selby appointed keeper of the toll-bar, to be staffed 24 hours, seven days a week; the tolls levied were: — For every coach, chaise, hearse, caravan, or other carriage, every cart, dray, or other vehicle, if drawn by one horse or two bullocks, 1/.'For'such carriage or vehicle' drawn by two horses or four bullocks, 1/6. Only one full toll in any one day might be demanded for any animal or vehicle, except stage coaches or carriages plying for hire. Exempt from payment were: the Governor and police agricultural produce not bought or sold, but going to be sold or disposed of persons travelling to and from Divine Service on Sundays; the tolls were vexatious and led to a great deal of ill-feeling and were abolished in 1847 by the Legislative Council on the motion of Samuel Davenport.
The company failed to reap the rewards anticipated on account of the increased cost of labour as a result of the exodus of able-bodied men to the Victorian goldfields. The octagonal toll-house, much restored, still stands at Glen Osmond, between the up and down tracks at the start of the Mount Barker Road, now the South-Eastern Freeway
Greenhill Road, Adelaide
Greenhill Road is a major road in Adelaide, South Australia, that provides a connection to the eastern and hills suburbs. The eastern end of Greenhill Road is in Balhannah in the Adelaide Hills, it winds through Carey Gully, Uraidla and Greenhill as a two-lane road. In the metropolitan area, it is four lanes and passes by the City of Burnside suburbs of Burnside, Hazelwood Park, Linden Park, Toorak Gardens and Glenside until it reaches the edge of the Adelaide Parklands; the road expands to six lanes and heads past Eastwood and the City of Unley suburbs of Parkside and Wayville as part of the City Ring Route. This section was designated "Park Terrace". Greenhill Road continues west as Richmond Road from the intersection of Anzac Highway. Australian Roads portal
North–South Corridor, Adelaide
The North–South Corridor is a series of road projects under construction or planning which travel through Adelaide, South Australia that will form a continuous link from Old Noarlunga in the outer southern metropolitan Adelaide suburbs through to Nuriootpa in the inner northern rural area around the Barossa Valley, a distance of over 100 km, aiming to be without a single stop by 2030. The route comprises a number of major road links in the metropolitan area, from north to south, the Northern Expressway, the under construction Northern Connector and North–South Motorway, the Southern Expressway. By 2030, all of these major road links are proposed to have been completed, thus making a major route through the Adelaide metropolitan area a much more efficient way to travel, its expected to take only one hour to travel from Noarlunga in the South to Gawler in the North. The government has a strategy to deliver the complete project in ten years from May 2015; the components identified by the Department of Planning and Infrastructure are: The Sturt Highway continues the north–south motor traffic corridor to Nuriootpa as a dual carriageway road with the second carriageway added between 2007 and 2009, providing a total of two lanes in each direction.
The Sturt Highway continues beyond Nuriootpa as just one lane each way. The next major bottleneck is the town of Truro. A bypass is proposed in 5 to 15 years from the 2015 integrated plan; the Northern Expressway opened in September 2010 and was subsequently named the Max Fatchen Expressway, as the longest new road project in South Australia for a number of decades. Max Fatchen was a popular author and journalist who had grown up and lived most of his life in the area traversed by the expressway; the 4 lane highway extends from Port Wakefield Road, northwest through 5 interchanges in Penfield, Andrews Farm, Angle Vale and Gawler River to where it joins the Sturt Highway just outside Gawler. Cycling is prohibited on the expressway; the Stuart O'Grady Bikeway was constructed in conjunction with the expressway and follows the southeastern side of it. The Northern Connector is another link in the North–South corridor under construction, it will begin at the south end of the Northern Expressway in Virginia and terminate at the interchange in Dry Creek which links the South Road Superway, Salisbury Highway and Port River Expressway.
This interchange will be free-flowing for all directions, keeping with the free-flowing plan of the North–South Motorway. The connector will be an alternate route from the Northern Expressway to Dry Creek, without the traffic light intersections of Port Wakefield Road, it will have interchanges in the suburbs of Waterloo Corner. The North–South Motorway is an incomplete planned motorway traversing the inner western suburbs of Adelaide from Wingfield in the north to Bedford Park in the south, it is planned to be a non-stop north–south route overlaying the same motor traffic corridor as South Road by grade separation connecting the Northern Expressway and Southern Expressway. For the purposes of construction planning the motorway is divided into several sections of which only two are complete and two are under construction. From north to south are the South Road Superway; the Southern Expressway opened in two stages in 1997 and 2001 as a one way freeway, closed for an hour twice a day, reversed direction to match peak traffic flow.
Duplication of the Expressway began in 2011, with the construction of a second carriageway allowing the expressway to operate in both directions at all hours. The duplication opened on 3 August 2014; the expressway commences in the north at Main South Road in Bedford Park, where both entry to and exit from the expressway is controlled by traffic lights. As of December 2018 the construction of the Darlington Interchange is underway, which will remove the need for traffic lights to enter and exit; the southern termination of the expressway is at Old Noarlunga. Northbound traffic has free-flowing entry onto the roadway, whereas southbound travellers have a set of traffic lights to exit the expressway. Heading south after the expressway, Victor Harbor can be accessed with one additional set of traffic lights, traffic to Cape Jervis only encounters three more sets of lights. Australian Roads portal
Glen Osmond Road, Adelaide
Glen Osmond Road is a major section of the Princes Highway and state Highway 1 in the city of Adelaide, South Australia. Connecting the Adelaide city centre with the Adelaide Hills via the South Eastern Freeway, it has intersections at Fullarton Road, Cross Road and Portrush Road. Glen Osmond Road houses a strip shopping precinct on the section between Greenhill and Fullarton Roads; the precinct is populated by independent boutiques. It is a community main street stationed in the leafy suburbs of Adelaide’s south east, it was earlier known as "The Gateway" because of its connection between the Adelaide CBD and Hills. The Glen Osmond Road Precinct Association is an association guiding the growth and development of Glen Osmond Road and marketing the local business community. GORPA is funded by an exclusive rate applied to properties on the City of Unley side of Glen Osmond Road. Glen Osmond Road forms the boundary of two Council areas -- the City of City of Burnside; the councils work together to promote the local community.
Each council has staff dedicated for Economic Development. Australian Roads portal Highway 1 Highway 1 Glen Osmond Road Precinct Directory