New York (state)
New York is a state in the Northeastern United States. New York was one of the original thirteen colonies. With an estimated 19.54 million residents in 2018, it is the fourth most populous state. To distinguish the state from the city with the same name, it is sometimes called New York State; the state's most populous city, New York City, makes up over 40% of the state's population. Two-thirds of the state's population lives in the New York metropolitan area, nearly 40% lives on Long Island; the state and city were both named for the 17th century Duke of York, the future King James II of England. With an estimated population of 8.62 million in 2017, New York City is the most populous city in the United States and the premier gateway for legal immigration to the United States. The New York metropolitan area is one of the most populous in the world. New York City is a global city, home to the United Nations Headquarters and has been described as the cultural and media capital of the world, as well as the world's most economically powerful city.
The next four most populous cities in the state are Buffalo, Rochester and Syracuse, while the state capital is Albany. The 27th largest U. S. state in land area, New York has a diverse geography. The state is bordered by New Jersey and Pennsylvania to the south and Connecticut and Vermont to the east; the state has a maritime border with Rhode Island, east of Long Island, as well as an international border with the Canadian provinces of Quebec to the north and Ontario to the northwest. The southern part of the state is in the Atlantic coastal plain and includes Long Island and several smaller associated islands, as well as New York City and the lower Hudson River Valley; the large Upstate New York region comprises several ranges of the wider Appalachian Mountains, the Adirondack Mountains in the Northeastern lobe of the state. Two major river valleys – the north-south Hudson River Valley and the east-west Mohawk River Valley – bisect these more mountainous regions. Western New York is considered part of the Great Lakes region and borders Lake Ontario, Lake Erie, Niagara Falls.
The central part of the state is dominated by the Finger Lakes, a popular vacation and tourist destination. New York had been inhabited by tribes of Algonquian and Iroquoian-speaking Native Americans for several hundred years by the time the earliest Europeans came to New York. French colonists and Jesuit missionaries arrived southward from Montreal for trade and proselytizing. In 1609, the region was visited by Henry Hudson sailing for the Dutch East India Company; the Dutch built Fort Nassau in 1614 at the confluence of the Hudson and Mohawk rivers, where the present-day capital of Albany developed. The Dutch soon settled New Amsterdam and parts of the Hudson Valley, establishing the multicultural colony of New Netherland, a center of trade and immigration. England seized the colony from the Dutch in 1664. During the American Revolutionary War, a group of colonists of the Province of New York attempted to take control of the British colony and succeeded in establishing independence. In the 19th century, New York's development of access to the interior beginning with the Erie Canal, gave it incomparable advantages over other regions of the U.
S. built its political and cultural ascendancy. Many landmarks in New York are well known, including four of the world's ten most-visited tourist attractions in 2013: Times Square, Central Park, Niagara Falls, Grand Central Terminal. New York is home to the Statue of Liberty, a symbol of the United States and its ideals of freedom and opportunity. In the 21st century, New York has emerged as a global node of creativity and entrepreneurship, social tolerance, environmental sustainability. New York's higher education network comprises 200 colleges and universities, including Columbia University, Cornell University, New York University, the United States Military Academy, the United States Merchant Marine Academy, University of Rochester, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Rockefeller University, which have been ranked among the top 40 in the nation and world; the tribes in what is now New York were predominantly Algonquian. Long Island was divided in half between the Wampanoag and Lenape; the Lenape controlled most of the region surrounding New York Harbor.
North of the Lenape was the Mohicans. Starting north of them, from east to west, were three Iroquoian nations: the Mohawk, the original Iroquois and the Petun. South of them, divided along Appalachia, were the Susquehannock and the Erie. Many of the Wampanoag and Mohican peoples were caught up in King Philip's War, a joint effort of many New England tribes to push Europeans off their land. After the death of their leader, Chief Philip Metacomet, most of those peoples fled inland, splitting into the Abenaki and the Schaghticoke. Many of the Mohicans remained in the region until the 1800s, however, a small group known as the Ouabano migrated southwest into West Virginia at an earlier time, they may have merged with the Shawnee. The Mohawk and Susquehannock were the most militaristic. Trying to corner trade with the Europeans, they targeted other tribes; the Mohawk were known for refusing white settlement on their land and banishing any of their people who converted to Christianity. They posed a major threat to the Abenaki and Mohicans, while the Susquehannock conquered the Lenape in the 1600s.
The most devastating event of the century, was the Beaver Wars. From 1640–1680, Iroquoian peoples waged campaigns which extended from modern-day Michigan to Virginia against Algonquian and Siouan tribes, as well as each other; the ai
Daniel Cady was a prominent American lawyer and judge in upstate New York. While better known today as the father of Elizabeth Cady Stanton, Judge Cady had a full and accomplished life of his own. Cady was born in that part of Canaan, Columbia County, New York, split off to form Chatham, New York, he was a son of Tryphena Cady. His siblings included Zilpha Cady Halsey, Eleazer Cady, Ruth Cady, Sally Cady Eaton. Through his elder brother Eleazer, he was uncle to John Watts Cady a U. S. Representative from New York, he learned the shoemaker's trade, but accidentally injured an eye and lost the sight of it at age 18. He studied law, first in Canaan with Judge Whiting in Troy with John Woodworth at the Albany Law School. Cady was admitted to the bar in 1795, commenced practice in Florida, Montgomery County. After a year in Florida, he moved to Johnstown the county seat; as a young lawyer, he worked with such notables as Alexander Hamilton and Aaron Burr, toward the end of his career, he served on a case with Abraham Lincoln, where they each represented clients in a land dispute associated with Beloit College.
Cady was elected as a member of the New York State Assembly in 1808, serving three consecutive terms in the 32nd, 33rd and 34th New York State Legislatures beginning on July 1, 1808 and continuing until June 30, 1811. From February to April 1813, Cady again served in the Assembly, this time the 36th New York State Legislature, while he was the District Attorney of the Fifth District, which comprised Albany, Montgomery and Schenectady counties. Cady was elected as a Federalist to the 14th United States Congress, holding office from March 4, 1815, to March 3, 1817, he was not a candidate for renomination and after serving in the U. S. Congress, returned to the practice of law. From June 7, 1847 to January 1, 1855, Cady was a justice of the New York Supreme Court until he retired and resigned. Cady served as an ex officio judge of the New York Court of Appeals in 1849 and 1853. In 1856, Cady was a presidential elector on the Republican John C. Fremont ticket. Cady presided over the New York electoral college, which cast 35 votes for Fremont who lost the election to Democrat James Buchanan.
He is considered by some the father of Fulton County engineering the county's creation in 1838 after the Montgomery county seat was moved from Johnstown to Fonda, New York. The newly established county was named after a cousin of Cady's wife. On July 8, 1801, Cady was married to Margaret Livingston, the daughter of Col. James Livingston, an officer in the Continental Army during the American Revolution who fought at Saratoga and Quebec, assisted in the capture of Major John Andre at West Point. Five of their children died in early infancy. A sixth child, a son named Eleazar, died at age 20 just before his graduation from Union College in Schenectady, New York. Only five daughters lived well into old age, their surviving children included: Tryphenia Cady, who married Edward Bayard, a Union College classmate of Eleazar and son of James Bayard, a U. S. Senator. Eleazer Livingston Cady, who died at age 20 just before his graduation from Union College. Harriet Elizabeth Cady, who married Daniel Cady Eaton, a son of Amos Eaton and brother of General Amos Beebe Eaton, her first cousin.
Elizabeth Smith Cady, who married Henry Brewster Stanton, brother of Robert L. Stanton, in 1840. Margaret Chinn Cady, who married Duncan McMartin, son of Duncan McMartin Jr. a New York State Senator. Catherine Henry Cady, who married Samuel Wilkeson, son of a Mayor of Buffalo, his wife was an unusually tall woman for her time, had a commanding presence, whom their daughter Elizabeth described as "queenly." Margaret was said to have been devastated by the loss of so many children and fell into a depression, which prevented her from being involved in the lives of her surviving children. Cady died in Johnstown on October 31, 1859, he was buried at Johnstown Cemetery. Daniel Cady's wife's sister Elizabeth, who married Peter Gerrit Smith, was the mother of Gerrit Smith, the prominent abolitionist, married to Ann Carroll Fitzhugh. Gerrit Smith was a candidate for President of the United States in 1848, 1856, 1860. Through his daughter Elizabeth, Daniel Cady was the grandfather of Daniel Cady Stanton, Henry Brewster Stanton, Jr. Gerrit Smith Stanton, Theodore Weld Stanton, Margaret Livingston Stanton Lawrence, Harriot Eaton Stanton Blatch, Robert Livingston Stanton.
Through his daughter Harriet, he was the grandfather of Daniel Cady Eaton, professor of botany at Yale College from the 1860s and the first Governor of the Society of Colonial Wars in the State of Connecticut. Baker, Jean H. Sisters: The Lives of America's Suffragists. Hill and Wang, New York, 2005. ISBN 0-8090-9528-9. Blatch, Harriot Stanton and Alma Lutz. P. Putnam's Sons. Griffith, Elisabeth. In Her Own Right: The Life of Elizabeth Cady Stanton. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-503729-4. United States Congress. "Daniel Cady". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Beloit College Archives National Park Service - Judge Cady Daniel Cady Memorial Website Da
1870 United States Census
The United States Census of 1870 was the ninth United States Census. Conducted by the Census Bureau in June 1870, the 1870 Census was the first census to provide detailed information on the African-American population, only years after the culmination of the Civil War when slaves were granted freedom; the population was said to be 38,555,983 individuals, a 22.62% increase since 1860. The 1870 Census' population estimate is controversial, as many believed it underestimated the true population numbers in New York and Pennsylvania; this was the first census in which all 100 largest cities recorded populations of over 10,000. Under the Census Act of 1850, two new structural changes during the 1870 Census occurred: marshals had to return the completed population questionnaire to the Census Office in September and penalties for refusing to reply to enumerator questions were extended to encompass every question on the questionnaires; the past-used slave questionnaires were redesigned to reflect the American society after the Civil War.
The five schedules for the 1870 Census were the following: General Population, Agriculture, Products of Industry, Social Statistics. The general population saw a 22.62% increase to 38,555,983 individuals in 1870. Charges of an undercount, have been brought against Francis Amasa Walker, the Superintendent of the Census. Mortality rates in 1870, in general, decreased as a fraction of the total population by 0.03% from 1860 and by 0.11% from 1850. The lower death rates indicate that the standard of living increased, due to some exogenous factor, over the period of twenty years from 1850 to 1870. In terms of products of industry, total U. S. wealth increases by 17.3% from 1860 to 1870, to reach an assessed wealth of $14,178,986,732. The four main state contributors to this wealth were New York, Massachusetts and Ohio, in that order. Most of the wealth was concentrated in the developed Northeast region, as newer states like Wyoming were beginning to develop their young economies; the 1870 Census was the first of its kind to record the nativity of the American population.
This social statistic indicates which areas were more composed of immigrants than native-born Americans. New York City had the most foreign-born individuals, with 419,094 foreigners, who comprised 44.5% of the city's total population. Philadelphia, Chicago, St. Louis, San Francisco had a great population of foreigners that made up a significant fraction of their total populations. Therefore, a great ethnic and cultural change was witnessed from 1860 to 1870, as part of the population growth was due to immigrants moving in and a shuffling of residents across state borders; the 1870 census collected the following information name age sex color citizenship for males over 21 profession, occupation or trade value of real estate owned value of personal estate place of birth whether father and mother were foreign born born within the year married within the year attended school within the year whether able to read and write whether deaf and dumb, insane or idioticFull documentation for the 1870 population census, including census forms and enumerator instructions, is available from the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series.
Although Francis Walker, the Superintendent of the 1870 Census, defended the quality of the census, arguing that standardized and statistical approaches and practices were carried out across all regions of the United States, the public at the time was disappointed in the national growth rate and suspected underenumeration. With bitter complaints coming from New York and Philadelphia claiming up to a third of the population was not counted, the President made the rare move to order a recount in those areas. While it was thought a large fraction of the population was not counted for being indoors in the wintry cold, newer estimates resulted in only a 2.5% increase in Philadelphia's population and a 2% increase in New York's. This controversy of the 1870 undercount resurfaced in 1890, when the national growth rate between 1880 and 1890 was discovered to be much lower than it was between 1870 and 1880. Critics asserted that the 1870 population must have been underenumerated by over 1.2 million people to account for the discrepancy between growth rates.
Despite the fact that modern investigations have yet to quantify the exact effect of the undercount, most modern social scientists do not believe the undercount was as severe as 1890 investigators assumed. Today most analyzers compare the 1870 undercount to the non-response rates seen in most modern census data. J. David Hacker, et al. "Integrated Public Use Microdata Series USA. "Public Use of Microdata Samples of the 1860 and 1870 U. S. Censuses of Population. University of Minnesota. 1 March 2011. "U. S. Census Bureau." Census of Population and Housing. 1 June 1870. 1 March 2011. "U. S. Census Bureau." Nativity of the Population for the 50 Largest Urban Places: 1870 to 1990. 1 March 2011. 1871 U. S Census Report Contains 1870 Census results "Library Bibliography Bulletin 88, New York State Census Records, 1790-1925". New York State Library. October 1981