Malcolm X was an American Muslim minister and human rights activist, a popular figure during the civil rights movement. He is best known for his controversial advocacy for the rights of blacks. Born Malcolm Little in Omaha, Nebraska, he relocated to New York City's Harlem neighborhood in 1943, after spending his teenage years in a series of foster homes following his father's murder and his mother's hospitalization. In New York, Malcolm X engaged in several illicit activities being sentenced to ten years in prison in 1946 for larceny and breaking and entering. In prison, he joined the Nation of Islam, became one of the organization's most influential leaders after being paroled in 1952. During the civil rights movement, Malcolm X served as the public face of the controversial group for a dozen years, where he advocated for black supremacy, the separation of black and white Americans, rejected the notion of the civil rights movement for its emphasis on racial integration, he expressed pride in some of the social achievements he made with the Nation its free drug rehabilitation program.
In the 1950s, Malcolm X endured surveillance from the Federal Bureau of Investigation for the Nation's supposed links to communism. In the 1960s, Malcolm X began to grow disillusioned with the Nation of Islam, in particular, with its leader Elijah Muhammad. Expressing many regrets about his time with them, which he had come to regard as wasted, he instead embraced Sunni Islam. Malcolm X began to advocate for racial integration and disavowed racism after completing Hajj, whereby he became known as el-Hajj Malik el-Shabazz. After a brief period of travel across Africa, he notably repudiated the Nation of Islam, founded Muslim Mosque, Inc. and the Organization of Afro-American Unity to emphasize Pan-Africanism. Throughout 1964, his conflict with the Nation of Islam intensified, he was sent death threats. On February 21, 1965, Malcolm X was planning to address the OAAU in Manhattan, when he was assassinated by Thomas Hagan, Thomas Johnson, Norman Butler, three members of the Nation of Islam; the trio were sentenced to indeterminate life sentences, were required to serve a minimum of 20 years in prison.
Conspiracies regarding the assassination, whether it was conceived or aided by leading members of the Nation or with law enforcement agencies, have persisted for decades after the shooting. Malcolm X was posthumously honored with Malcolm X Day, where he is commemorated in various cities and countries worldwide. Hundreds of streets and schools in the U. S. have been renamed in his honor, while the Audubon Ballroom, the site of his assassination, was in-part redeveloped in 2005 to accommodate the Malcolm X and Dr. Betty Shabazz Memorial and Educational Center. Malcolm Little was born May 19, 1925, in Omaha, the fourth of seven children of Grenada-born Louise Helen Little and Georgia-born Earl Little. Earl was an outspoken Baptist lay speaker, he and Louise were admirers of Pan-African activist Marcus Garvey. Earl was a local leader of the Universal Negro Improvement Association and Louise served as secretary and "branch reporter", sending news of local UNIA activities to Negro World. Malcolm X said that white violence killed four of his father's brothers.
Because of Ku Klux Klan threats—Earl's UNIA activities were said to be "spreading trouble"—the family relocated in 1926 to Milwaukee and shortly thereafter to Lansing, Michigan. There the family was harassed by the Black Legion, a white racist group; when the family home burned in 1929, Earl accused the Black Legion. When Malcolm was six, his father died in what was ruled a streetcar accident, though his mother Louise believed Earl had been murdered by the Black Legion. Rumors that white racists were responsible for his father's death were circulated and were disturbing to Malcolm X as a child; as an adult, he expressed conflicting beliefs on the question. After a dispute with creditors, Louise received a life insurance benefit in payments of $18 per month. To make ends meet Louise rented out part of her garden, her sons hunted game. In 1937 a man Louise had been dating—marriage had seemed a possibility—vanished from her life when she became pregnant with his child. In late 1938 she was committed to Kalamazoo State Hospital.
The children were sent to foster homes. Malcolm and his siblings secured her release 24 years later. Malcolm Little excelled in junior high school but dropped out after a white teacher told him that practicing law, his aspiration at the time, was "no realistic goal for a nigger". Malcolm X recalled feeling that the white world offered no place for a career-oriented black man, regardless of talent. From age 14 to 21, Little held a variety of jobs while living with his half-sister Ella Little-Collins in Roxbury, a African-American neighborhood of Boston. After a short time in Flint, Michigan, he moved to New York City's Harlem neighborhood in 1943, where he engaged in drug dealing, racketeering and pimping. According to recent biographies, Little occasionally had sex with other men for money, he befriended John Elroy Sanford, a fellow dishwasher at Jimmy's Chicken Shack in Harlem who aspired to be a professional comedian. Both men had reddish hair, so
World music is a musical category encompassing many different styles of music from around the globe, which includes many genres including some forms of Western music represented by folk music, Jazz, as well as selected forms of ethnic music, indigenous music, neotraditional music, music where more than one cultural tradition, such as ethnic music and Western popular music, intermingle. World music's inclusive nature and elasticity as a musical category may pose for some obstacles to a universal definition, but its ethic of interest in the culturally exotic is encapsulated in Roots magazine's description of the genre as "local music from out there"; the term was popularized in the 1980s as a marketing category for non-Western traditional music. Globalization has facilitated the expansion of scope, it has grown to include hybrid subgenres such as world fusion, global fusion, ethnic fusion, worldbeat. The term has been credited to ethnomusicologist Robert E. Brown, who coined it in the early 1960s at Wesleyan University in Connecticut, where he developed undergraduate through the doctoral programs in the discipline.
To enhance the process of learning, he invited more than a dozen visiting performers from Africa and Asia and began a world music concert series. The term became current in the 1980s as a marketing/classificatory device in the media and the music industry. There are several conflicting definitions for world music. One is that it consists of "all the music in the world", though such a broad definition renders the term meaningless; the term is taken as a classification of music that combines Western popular music styles with one of many genres of non-Western music that are described as folk music or ethnic music. However, world music is not traditional folk music, it may include cutting edge pop music styles as well. Succinctly, it can be described as "local music from out there", or "someone else's local music", it is a nebulous term with an increasing number of genres that fall under the umbrella of world music to capture musical trends of combined ethnic style and texture, including Western elements.
World music may incorporate distinctive non-Western scales, modes and/or musical inflections, features distinctive traditional ethnic instruments, such as the kora, the steel drum, the sitar or the didgeridoo. Music from around the world exerts wide cross-cultural influence as styles influence one another, in recent years world music has been marketed as a successful genre in itself. Academic study of world music, as well as the musical genres and individual artists associated with it appear in such disciplines as anthropology, performance studies and ethnomusicology. In the age of digital music production the increased availability of high-quality, ethnic music samples, sound bites and loops from every known region are used in commercial music production, which has exposed a vast spectrum of indigenous music texture to developing, independent artists; these influences proliferate in a web-based music industry, now percolating as a much larger, predominantly self-promoted menu, via an increasing number of indie-artist-friendly, streaming Internet options, such as Last.fm, Live365, Jango Artist Airplay and ReverbNation.
An amalgamation of roots music in the global, contemporary listening palette has become apparent, which weakens the role major entertainment labels can play in the cultural perception of genre boundaries. As a result, definitions of the genre have become varied, determined by wide-ranging and varied opinions. Similar terminology between distinctly different sub-categories under primary music genres, such as world and pop can be as ambiguous and confusing to industry moguls as it is to consumers; this is true in the context of world music, where branches of ethnically influenced pop trends are as genre-defined by consumer perception as they are by the music industry forums that govern the basis for categorical distinction. Academic scholars tend to agree that, in today's world of consumer music reviews and blogging, global music culture's public perception is what distils a prevailing basis for definition from genre ambiguity, regardless of how a category has been outlined by corporate marketing forums and music journalism.
The world music genre's gradual migration from a clear spectrum of roots music traditions to an extended list of hybrid subgenres is a good example of the motion genre boundaries can exhibit in a globalizing pop culture. The classic, original definition of world music was in part created to instill a perceived authenticity and distinction between indigenous music traditions and those that become diluted by pop culture, the modern debate over how possible it is to maintain that perception in the richly diverse genre of world music is ongoing. In a report on the 2014 globalFEST National Public Radio's Anastasia Tsioulcas said "Even within the "world music" community, nobody likes the term "world music." It smacks of all kinds of loaded issues, from cultural colonialism to questions about what's "authentic" and what isn't, forces an incredible array of styles that don't have anything in common under the label of "exotic Other." What's more: I believe that in many people's imaginations, "world music" means a kind of awful, hippy-ish, worldbeat fusion.
It's a problematic, horrible term that satisfies no one." Examples of popular forms of world music include the various forms of non-European classical music (e.g. Japanese koto and Chinese guzheng music, In
Bhaṅgṛā is a type of upbeat popular music associated with the Punjab region in the northern part of the Indian subcontinent, the Punjabi diaspora in Europe and North America. The roots of modern bhangra music date back to at least the mid 20th century in the Punjab region of the Indian subcontinent. An early pop music and modern recording artist/group of this type of music in the UK was Bhujhangy Group, founded by brothers Balbir Singh Khanpur and Dalbir Singh Khanpur in Birmingham in 1967. Bhujhangy Group's first major hit was "Bhabiye Akh Larr Gayee" in the early 1970s, released on Birmingham's Oriental Star Agencies label; this was the first song to combine traditional Asian music with modern western instruments, which would be followed by further developments of this in bhangra. A modern and commercial form of Bhangra music was said to rise in Britain in the 1970s by Punjabi immigrants who took their native folk music and began experimenting by altering it using instruments from their host country.
The new genre became popular in Britain replacing Punjabi folk singers due to it being influenced in Britain by the infusion of rock music and a need to move away from the simple and repetitive Punjabi folk music. It indicated the development of a self-conscious and distinctively rebellious British Asian youth culture centred on an experiential sense of self, e.g. language, bodily signification, etc. in a situation in which tensions with British culture and racist elements in British society had resulted in alienation in many minority ethnic groups, fostered a sense of need for an affirmation of a positive identity and culture, provided a platform for British Punjabi males to assert their masculinity. In the 1980s, distributed by record labels such as Multitone Records, Bhangra artists were selling over 30,000 cassettes a week in the UK, but no artists reached the Top 40 UK Chart despite these artists outselling popular British ones; the group Alaap formed in 1977 co-founded by Channi Singh and Harjeet Gandhi both hail from Southall, a Punjabi area in London.
Their album Teri Chunni De Sitaray was released in 1982 by Multitone. Alaap was considered the original superstar Bhangra band formed in the United Kingdom. Channi Singh has been awarded the OBE by the British Queen for his services to Bhangra music and services/ charity for the British Asian community. Co-founder Harjeet Gandhi died in 2003; the 1980s is known as the golden age, or the age of Bhangra music, which lasted from 1985 to 1993. The primary emphasis during these times was on the melody/riff, played out on a synthesizer, accordion or a guitar; the folk instruments were used. One of the biggest Bhangra stars of the last several decades is Malkit Singh and his band Golden Star. Singh was born in June 1963 in the village of Hussainpur in Punjab, he attended the Lyallpur Khalsa College, Jalandhar, in Punjab in 1980 to study for a bachelor of arts degree. There he met his mentor, Professor Inderjit Singh, who taught him Punjabi folk singing and Bhangra dancing. Due to Singh's tutelage, Malkit won song contests during this time.
In 1983, he won a gold medal at the Guru Nanak Dev University in Amritsar, for performing his song "Gurh Nalon Ishq Mitha", which featured on his first album, Nach Gidhe Wich, released in 1984. This album was created with the assistance of Tarlochan Singh Bilga; the band has toured 27 countries. Malkit has been awarded the MBE by the British Queen for his services to Bhangra music. Bhangra boy band, the Sahotas, composed of five brothers from Wolverhampton, their music is a fusion of Bhangra and dance. Heera, formed by Bhupinder Bhindi and fronted by Kumar and Dhami, was one of the most popular bands of the 1980s; the group established itself with the albums Jag Wala Mela, produced by Kuljit Bhamra, Diamonds from Heera, produced by Deepak Khazanchi, on Arishma records. These albums are notable for being amongst the first Bhangra albums to mix Punjabi drums and Punjabi synthesizers with traditional British instruments successfully. Bands like Alaap and Heera incorporated rock-influenced beats into Bhangra, because it enabled "Asian youth to affirm their identities positively" within the broader environment of alternative rock as an alternative way of expression.
However, some believe that the progression of Bhangra music created an "intermezzo culture" post-India's partition, within the unitary definitions of Southeast Asians within the diaspora, thus "establishing a brand new community in their home away from home". Several other influential groups appeared around the same time, including The Saathies, Premi Group, Bhujungy Group, Apna Sangeet. Apna Sangeet, best known for their hit "Mera Yaar Vajavey Dhol", re-formed for charity in May 2009 after a break-up; when Bhangra and General Indian sounds and lyrics were combined, British-Asian artists began incorporating them in their music. Some Asian artists, such as Mick St Clair, Bally Sagoo, Talvin Singh, Black Star Liner are creating their own form of British hip-hop; this era brought about Bhangra art, like the Bhangra music it represented was rebellious. Unlike folk music art, which consisted of a picture of the folk singer, Bhangra recordings had details such as distinctive artwork, clever album names and band/musician listings.
In the mid 1990s, many artists returned to the original, traditional folk beats away from Bhangra music incorporating more dhol drum beats and tumbi. This time saw the rise o
DAM is a Palestinian hip-hop group. Based in Lod, Israel, DAM was founded in 1999 by brothers Tamer and Suhell Nafar and their friend Mahmoud Jreri, their songs are about the Israeli–Palestinian conflict and poverty. The group's name is the Arabic verb for "to last forever/eternity" and the Hebrew word for "blood", but can be an acronym for "Da Arabian MCs." The Arabic word for "blood" is spelled but without an alif. DAM raps in Arabic, but in English and Hebrew. DAM has released more than 100 singles and two albums—Dedication and Dabke on the Moon—as well as an EP—Street Poetry. DAM's lyrics are protest-driven, their songs centering around fighting oppression, Israeli occupation, poverty and women's rights. In January 2017 they signed with the London-based independent record label publishing and services, Cooking Vinyl. For their UK and EU touring schedule the band are represented by X-Ray Touring. Tamer Nafar, Suhell Nafar and Mahmoud Jreri were raised in Lod, Israel. Tamer and Suhel were born to Nadia Awadi.
Fayez had been disabled for Suhel's lives due to a car accident. Mahmood Jreri was born to Shadia Hassuneh. Tamer and Mahmoud all grew up in poverty, neighborhoods they call "ghettos" in their music, that were full of drive by's and drug dealing. In 1996, when he was 17 years old, Tamer discovered Hip Hop through Tupac Amaru Shakur's songs, started to learn English while memorizing Tupac's lyrics and translating them into Arabic using an English-Arabic dictionary. Tamer recorded his first single "Untouchable," a reference to "The Untouchables” movie. In 1998, Tamer released his first EP "Stop Selling Drugs," featuring his younger brother, Suhell Nafar; the two met Mahmoud at a private show that they organized and together they decided to form DAM in late 1999. DAM started recording songs on their home computer, most of their songs back where recorded over known Hip Hop instrumentals. At the time, the Hip-Hop scene in Israel was developing in Jewish clubs, DAM in particular got their start performing in clubs in Tel Aviv.
As a result, most of their earlier music was performed in Hebrew. In the beginning of the group's history, DAM's music and lyrics focused around every day life and emotions, but this changed with time. On September 3rd, 2000, Tamer's friend Booba was shot down and killed during a drive by, an incident that drove Tamer to record his first protest song with a political reference, despite the fact that his friend was killed by an Arab. A cover of Abd al Majeed Abdalla's song "Ya Tayeb al Galb", the song was called "Booba" and featured Ibraheem Sakallah in the hook. In the outbreak of the Second Intifada in October, 2000, Tamer and Mahmood decided to write their first direct political song "Posheem Hapim me Peshaa' – Innocent Criminals." It was recorded over an instrumental of "Hail Mary" by Tupac, featured inciting lines such as "When Jews protest, the cops use clubs / When Arabs protest, the cops takes their souls" and "If it is a democracy how come I'm not mentioned in your Anthem" followed by the chorus "Before you judge me, before you understand me, walk in my shoes and you will hurt your feet, because we are criminal, innocent criminals."
The song created controversy in the Israeli media, it put DAM in conflict with some of their fellow Israeli rappers such as Subliminal, with much of the subsequent fall-out being recorded in the documentary Channels of Rage. Despite the controversy, the song was remixed by the Israeli rock musician Aviv Geffen, with American-Israeli director Udi Aloni making a music video for the song in 2003. Around that time, after listening to the Algerian French Hip Hop CD "MBS – Micro Brise le Silence" Tamer got convinced to give it a shot in Arabic, after a few experiences he released his first official single "Min al Ta lal Alef lal M E R – From the T to the A to the M E R" over the R. Kelly's instrumental feat Nas "Have you thought" the song hit number one charts in all of the Arab radios bringing DAM to the Palestinian mainstream and making them the group with the largest following and to a non stop shows in the years 2000 till 2003, a lot of Rappers and Hip Hop bands started their career after that single, the whole Palestinian Hip Hop scene started to spread, studios were opened and workshops for self-expression though rhymes started around.
Around 2001, after a Palestinian suicide bombing in Tel Aviv, a few Extremist Israelis gathered around the Hassan Beck mosque in Yafa throwing stones at it and screaming Death to the Arabs, Terrorists, DAM released their breakthrough single "Meen Erhabi? – Who is the terrorist?" the song opens with the screaming of the Israelis in front of the mosque over the Atmosphere instrumental "If I was Santa" they rap their verses. The song created an International buzz and was downloaded more than a million time in one month, The French magazine The Rolling Stone made a big article about the song and released a compilation with that magazine that featured DAM's Meen Erhabi and other International artists such as Manu Chao and Zibda, at that same time, Udi Aloni released his second documentary "Local Angel" that featured DAM and they toured around Europe with the film, the tour included France and Belgium and it was the beginning of DAM's international career. On a video clip of the song was made by Palestinian/Syrian director Jackie Salloum.
In 2003 Anat Halachmi an Israeli film director released the documentary Channels of Rage. The film follows Tamer Nafar and DAM on one side and on the other side the right wing Zionist rapper Kobi Shimoni (Subliminal and the Shadow
Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi was an Indian activist, the leader of the Indian independence movement against British colonial rule. Employing nonviolent civil disobedience, Gandhi led India to independence and inspired movements for civil rights and freedom across the world; the honorific Mahātmā was applied to him first in 1914 in South Africa – is now used worldwide. In India, he was called Bapu, a term that he preferred and Gandhi ji, is known as the Father of the Nation. Born and raised in a Hindu merchant caste family in coastal Gujarat and trained in law at the Inner Temple, Gandhi first employed nonviolent civil disobedience as an expatriate lawyer in South Africa, in the resident Indian community's struggle for civil rights. After his return to India in 1915, he set about organising peasants and urban labourers to protest against excessive land-tax and discrimination. Assuming leadership of the Indian National Congress in 1921, Gandhi led nationwide campaigns for various social causes and for achieving Swaraj or self-rule.
Gandhi led Indians in challenging the British-imposed salt tax with the 400 km Dandi Salt March in 1930, in calling for the British to Quit India in 1942. He was imprisoned upon many occasions, in both South Africa and India, he lived modestly in a self-sufficient residential community and wore the traditional Indian dhoti and shawl, woven with yarn hand-spun on a charkha. He ate simple vegetarian food, undertook long fasts as a means of both self-purification and political protest. Gandhi's vision of an independent India based on religious pluralism was challenged in the early 1940s by a new Muslim nationalism, demanding a separate Muslim homeland carved out of India. In August 1947, Britain granted independence, but the British Indian Empire was partitioned into two dominions, a Hindu-majority India and Muslim-majority Pakistan; as many displaced Hindus and Sikhs made their way to their new lands, religious violence broke out in the Punjab and Bengal. Eschewing the official celebration of independence in Delhi, Gandhi visited the affected areas, attempting to provide solace.
In the months following, he undertook several fasts unto death to stop religious violence. The last of these, undertaken on 12 January 1948 when he was 78 had the indirect goal of pressuring India to pay out some cash assets owed to Pakistan; some Indians thought. Among them was Nathuram Godse, a Hindu nationalist, who assassinated Gandhi on 30 January 1948 by firing three bullets into his chest. Captured along with many of his co-conspirators and collaborators and his co-conspirator Narayan Apte were tried and executed while many of their other accomplices were given prison sentences. Gandhi's birthday, 2 October, is commemorated in India as Gandhi Jayanti, a national holiday, worldwide as the International Day of Nonviolence. Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi was born on 2 October 1869 into a Gujarati Hindu Modh Baniya family in Porbandar, a coastal town on the Kathiawar Peninsula and part of the small princely state of Porbandar in the Kathiawar Agency of the Indian Empire, his father, Karamchand Uttamchand Gandhi, served as the diwan of Porbandar state.
Although he only had an elementary education and had been a clerk in the state administration, Karamchand proved a capable chief minister. During his tenure, Karamchand married four times, his first two wives died young, after each had given birth to a daughter, his third marriage was childless. In 1857, Karamchand sought his third wife's permission to remarry. Karamchand and Putlibai had three children over the ensuing decade: Laxmidas. On 2 October 1869, Putlibai gave birth to her last child, Mohandas, in a dark, windowless ground-floor room of the Gandhi family residence in Porbandar city; as a child, Gandhi was described by his sister Raliat as "restless as mercury, either playing or roaming about. One of his favourite pastimes was twisting dogs' ears." The Indian classics the stories of Shravana and king Harishchandra, had a great impact on Gandhi in his childhood. In his autobiography, he admits, he writes: "It haunted me and I must have acted Harishchandra to myself times without number."
Gandhi's early self-identification with truth and love as supreme values is traceable to these epic characters. The family's religious background was eclectic. Gandhi's father Karamchand was Hindu and his mother Putlibai was from a Pranami Vaishnava Hindu family. Gandhi's father was of Modh Baniya caste in the varna of Vaishya, his mother came from the medieval Krishna bhakti-based Pranami tradition, whose religious texts include the Bhagavad Gita, the Bhagavata Purana, a collection of 14 texts with teachings that the tradition believes to include the essence of the Vedas, the Quran and the Bible. Gandhi was influenced by his mother, an pious lady who "would not think of taking her meals without her daily prayers...she would take the hardest vows and keep them without flinching. To keep two or three consecutive fasts was nothing to her."In 1874, Gandhi's father Karamchand left Porbandar for the smaller state of Rajkot, where he became a counsellor to its ruler, the Thakur Sahib.
Nation of Islam
The Nation of Islam, abbreviated NOI, is an African American political and religious movement, founded in Detroit, United States, by Wallace D. Fard Muhammad on July 4, 1930, its stated goals are to improve the spiritual, mental and economic condition of African Americans in the United States and all of humanity. Critics have described the organization as being black supremacist and antisemitic; the Southern Poverty Law Center tracks the NOI as a hate group. Its official newspaper is The Final Call. In 2007, the core membership was estimated to be between 20,000 and 50,000. Fard disappeared in June 1934, his successor Elijah Muhammad established places of worship, a school named Muhammad University of Islam and real estate holdings in the United States and abroad. The Nation has long been a strong advocate of African-American businesses. There were a number of splits and splinter groups during Elijah Muhammad's leadership, most notably the departure of senior leader Malcolm X to become a Sunni Muslim.
After Elijah Muhammad's death in 1975, his son, Warith Deen Mohammed, changed the name of the organization to "World Community of Islam in the West", attempted to convert it to a mainstream Sunni Muslim ideology. In 1977, Louis Farrakhan rejected Warith Deen Mohammed's leadership and re-established the Nation of Islam on the original model, he took over Mosque Maryam in Chicago, Illinois. Since 2010, under Farrakhan, members have been encouraged to study Dianetics, the Nation claims it has trained 1,055 auditors; the NOI was founded in Detroit in 1930, by Wallace Fard Muhammad known as W. D. Fard Muhammad, his goal, according to the Nation of Islam, was to "teach the downtrodden and defenseless Black people a thorough Knowledge of God and of themselves, to put them on the road to Self-Independence with a superior culture and higher civilization than they had experienced." According to the NOI, Fard chose Elijah Muhammad to be his assistant in 1931. According to Muhammad, Fard trained him daily for nine months less for about two years.
In May 1933, shortly after naming Elijah Muhammad Minister of Islam, Fard disappeared without notifying his followers or designating a successor. In the wake of Fard's disappearance, several potential leaders emerged. Muhammad asserted that Fard had selected him to be his successor and trained him "day and night" for three years, he argued that Fard was God incarnate, that Fard had revealed this to him alone. Muhammad established a newspaper, The Final Call to Islam referring to Fard as a prophet and as Almighty God, he prevailed over his rivals as leader. In 1942, during World War II, Elijah Muhammad was convicted of violating the Selective Service Act and jailed. Many other Nation of Islam members were charged, as NOI opposed serving in the United States military. Upon his release in 1946, Elijah Muhammad built up the membership of his movement through recruitment in the postwar decades, his program called for the establishment of a separate nation for black Americans and the adoption of a religion based on the worship of Allah and on the belief that blacks were his chosen people.
During this time, the Nation of Islam attracted Malcolm Little. While in prison in Boston for burglary from 1946 to 1952, Little joined the Nation of Islam, he was influenced by his brother, who had become a member in Detroit. Little quit smoking and eating pork, in keeping with the Nation's practices and dietary restrictions, he spent long hours reading books in the prison library. He sharpened his oratory skills by participating in debating classes. Following Nation tradition, Elijah Muhammad ordered him to replace his surname, "Little", with an "X", a custom among Nation of Islam followers who considered their surnames to have been imposed by white slaveholders after their African names were taken from them. Malcolm X rose to become a minister and national spokesperson for the NOI, he is credited with the group's dramatic increase in membership between the early 1950s and early 1960s. In March 1964, Malcolm X left the Nation due to disagreements with Elijah Muhammad. Malcolm X said Muhammad had engaged in extramarital affairs with young Nation secretaries—a serious violation of Nation teachings.
On February 21, 1965, Malcolm X was shot and killed while giving a speech at the Audubon Ballroom in Washington Heights, New York. In March 1966, three NOI members were convicted of assassinating Malcolm X. In 1955, Louis Wolcott joined the Nation of Islam. Following custom, he replaced his surname with an "X", he was given his new name, "Farrakhan", by Elijah Muhammad. In 1965, following the assassination of Malcolm X, Farrakhan emerged as the protege of Malcolm. Like his predecessor, Farrakhan was a dynamic, charismatic leader and a powerful speaker with the ability to appeal to the African-American masses. At the time of Elijah Muhammad's death in 1975, there were 75 NOI centers across America; the Nation's leadership chose Wallace Muhammad known as Warith Deen Mohammad, the fifth of Elijah's sons—not Farrakhan—as the new Supreme Minister. At the time, Nation of Islam was founded upon the principles of self-reliance and black supremacy, a belief that mainstream Muslims consider heretical, he shunned his father's theology and black pride views, forging closer ties with mainstream Muslim communities in an attempt to transition the Nation of Islam into orthodoxy more simi