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SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Functional group

In organic chemistry, functional groups are specific substituents or moieties or bonds within molecules that are responsible for the characteristic chemical reactions of those molecules. The same functional group will undergo the same or similar chemical reaction regardless of the size of the molecule it is a part of; this allows for systematic prediction of chemical reactions and behavior of chemical compounds and design of chemical syntheses. Furthermore, the reactivity of a functional group can be modified by other functional groups nearby. In organic synthesis, functional group interconversion is one of the basic types of transformations. Functional groups are groups of one or more atoms or bonds of distinctive chemical properties no matter what they are attached to; the atoms of functional groups are linked to each other and to the rest of the molecule by covalent bonds. For repeating units of polymers, functional groups attach to their nonpolar core of carbon atoms and thus add chemical character to carbon chains.

Functional groups can be charged, e.g. in carboxylate salts, which turns the molecule into a polyatomic ion or a complex ion. Functional groups binding to a central atom in a coordination complex are called ligands. Complexation and solvation are caused by specific interactions of functional groups. In the common rule of thumb "like dissolves like", it is the shared or mutually well-interacting functional groups which give rise to solubility. For example, sugar dissolves in water because both share the hydroxyl functional group and hydroxyls interact with each other. Plus, when functional groups are more electronegative than atoms they attach to, the functional groups will become polar, the otherwise nonpolar molecules containing these functional groups become polar and so become soluble in some aqueous environment. Combining the names of functional groups with the names of the parent alkanes generates what is termed a systematic nomenclature for naming organic compounds. In traditional nomenclature, the first carbon atom after the carbon that attaches to the functional group is called the alpha carbon.

If there is another functional group at a carbon, it may be named with the Greek letter, e.g. the gamma-amine in gamma-aminobutyric acid is on the third carbon of the carbon chain attached to the carboxylic acid group. IUPAC conventions call for numeric labeling of e.g. 4-aminobutanoic acid. In traditional names various qualifiers are used to label isomers, for example, isopropanol is an isomer of n-propanol; the term moiety has some overlap with the term "functional group". However, a moiety is an entire "half" of a molecule, which can be not only a single functional group, but a larger unit consisting of multiple functional groups. For example, an "aryl moeity" may be any group containing an aromatic ring, regardless of how many functional groups the said aryl has; the following is a list of common functional groups. In the formulas, the symbols R and R' denote an attached hydrogen, or a hydrocarbon side chain of any length, but may sometimes refer to any group of atoms. Hydrocarbons are a class of molecule, defined by functional groups called hydrocarbyls that contain only carbon and hydrogen, but vary in the number and order of double bonds.

Each one differs in type of reactivity. There are a large number of branched or ring alkanes that have specific names, e.g. tert-butyl, cyclohexyl, etc. Hydrocarbons may form charged structures: positively charged carbocations or negative carbanions. Carbocations are named -um. Examples are the cyclopentadienyl anion. Haloalkanes are a class of molecule, defined by a carbon–halogen bond; this bond can be weak or quite stable. In general, with the exception of fluorinated compounds, haloalkanes undergo nucleophilic substitution reactions or elimination reactions; the substitution on the carbon, the acidity of an adjacent proton, the solvent conditions, etc. all can influence the outcome of the reactivity. Compounds that contain C-O bonds each possess differing reactivity based upon the location and hybridization of the C-O bond, owing to the electron-withdrawing effect of sp-hybridized oxygen and the donating effects of sp2-hybridized oxygen. Compounds that contain nitrogen in this category may contain C-O bonds, such as in the case of amides.

Compounds that contain sulfur exhibit unique chemistry due to their ability to form more bonds than oxygen, their lighter analogue on the periodic table. Substitutive nomenclature is preferred over functional class nomenclature for sulfides, disulfides and sulfones. Compounds that contain phosphorus exhibit unique chemistry due to their ability to form more bonds than nitrogen, their lighter analogues on the periodic table. Compounds containing boron exhibit unique chemistry due to their having filled octets and therefore acting as Lewis acids. Note 1 Fluorine is too electronegative to be bonded to magnesium; these names are used to refer to the moieties themselves or to radical species, to form the names of halides and substituents in larger molecules. When the parent hydrocarbon is unsaturated, the suffix replaces "-ane"; when used to refer to moieties, multiple single bonds differ from a single multiple bond. For ex

Discourses of Epictetus

The Discourses of Epictetus are a series of informal lectures by the Stoic philosopher Epictetus written down by his pupil Arrian around 108 AD. Four books out of an original eight are still extant; the philosophy of Epictetus is intensely practical. He directs his students to focus attention on their opinions, anxieties and desires, so that "they may never fail to get what they desire, nor fall into what they avoid." True education lies in learning to distinguish what is our own from what does not belong to us, in learning to assent or dissent to external impressions. The purpose of his teaching was to make people happy; the Discourses have been influential. They are quoted by Marcus Aurelius. Since the 16th century they have been reprinted many times; the books did not have a formal title in ancient times. Although Simplicius called them Diatribai, other writers gave them titles such as Dialexis, Apomnêmoneumata, Homiliai; the modern name comes from the titles given in the earliest medieval manuscript: "Arrian's Diatribai of Epictetus".

The Greek word Diatribai means "informal talks". As to the date, it is agreed that the Discourses were composed sometime in the years around 108 AD. Epictetus himself refers to the coins of Trajan. Arrian was suffect consul in around 130, since forty-two was the standard age for that position, he would have been at the right age of around twenty in 108. Furthermore the "commissioner" of the "free cities" to whom Discourse iii. 7 is addressed is thought to be the same man Pliny the Younger addresses his Letter viii. 24—a letter, dated to around 108. There were eight books, but only four now remain in their entirety, along with a few fragments of the others. In a preface attached to the Discourses, Arrian explains how he came to write them: I neither wrote these Discourses of Epictetus in the way in which a man might write such things, but whatever I heard him say, the same I attempted to write down in his own words as nearly as possible, for the purpose of preserving them as memorials to myself afterwards of the thoughts and the freedom of speech of Epictetus.

The Discourses purport to be the actual words of Epictetus. They are written in Koine Greek unlike the Attic Greek Arrian uses in his own compositions; the differences in style are marked, they portray a vivid and separate personality. The precise method Arrian used to write the Discourses has long been a matter of vigorous debate. Extreme positions have been held ranging from the view that they are Arrian's own compositions to the view that Epictetus wrote them himself; the mainstream opinion is that the Discourses report the actual words of Epictetus if they cannot be a pure verbatim record. A. A. Long writes: More perhaps, he made his own detailed notes, used his memory to fill them out. No doubt he worked up the material into a more finished form. In some cases he may have relied on others' reports, or checked his own record with Epictetus himself; however Arrian compiled the discourses, there are numerous reasons, internal to the text, for taking the gist of his record to be authentic to Epictetus' own style and language.

These include a distinctive vocabulary, repetition of key points throughout, a strikingly urgent and vivid voice quite distinct from Arrian's authorial persona in his other works. The Discourses are set in Epictetus' own classroom in Nicopolis and they show him conversing with visitors, reproving and encouraging his pupils; these pupils appear to have been young men like Arrian, of high social position and contemplating entering the public service. The Discourses are neither formal are they part of the curriculum proper; the regular classes involved reading and interpreting characteristic portions of Stoic philosophical works, which, as well as ethics, must have included instruction in the logic and physics which were part of the Stoic system. The Discourses instead record conversations, they dwell on points which Epictetus regarded as of special importance, which gave him an opportunity for friendly discourse with his pupils and to discuss their personal affairs. They are not, therefore, a formal presentation of Stoic philosophy.

Instead the Discourses are intensely practical. They are concerned with the conscious moral problem of right living, how life is to be carried out well. Epictetus divides philosophy with especial application to ethics; the three fields, according to Epictetus, desire. The first has to do with desires and aversions, that they may never fail to get what they desire, nor fall into what they avoid; the first and most essential practice is directed towards our passions and desires, which are themselves only types of impression, as such they press and compel us. A continued practice is thus required to oppose them. To this first practice must be added a sec

John Tytler

Brigadier General John Adam Tytler VC CB was a recipient of the Victoria Cross, the highest and most prestigious award for gallantry in the face of the enemy that can be awarded to British and Commonwealth forces. He was born in the son of John Tytler, an East India Company surgeon. Tytler was 22 years old, a lieutenant in the 66th Bengal Native Infantry, Bengal Army, during the Indian Rebellion of 1857 when the following deed took place on 10 February 1858 at Choorpoorah, India for which he was awarded the VC: On the attacking parties approaching the enemy's position under a heavy fire of round shot and musketry, on the occasion of the Action at Choorpoorah, on the 10th February last, Lieutenant Tytler dashed on horseback ahead of all, alone, up to the enemy's guns, where he remained engaged hand to hand, until they were carried by us, he served in the Umbeyla Campaign and retired with the rank of brigadier general. His Victoria Cross is displayed at The Gurkha Museum in Winchester, England.

List of Brigade of Gurkhas recipients of the Victoria Cross Monuments to Courage The Register of the Victoria Cross John Tytler at Find a Grave

Metropolitan Borough of Wigan

The Metropolitan Borough of Wigan is a metropolitan borough of Greater Manchester, in North West England. It is named after the former county borough and includes the towns and villages of Leigh, part of Ashton-in-Makerfield, Ince-in-Makerfield, Orrell, Atherton, Golborne, Billinge, Astley and Aspull; the borough was formed in 1974 and is an amalgamation of several former local government districts and parishes. The borough has three civil parishes and lies directly to the west of the City of Salford and southwest of the Metropolitan Borough of Bolton; the local authority is Wigan Metropolitan Borough Council. Wigan metropolitan borough was created on 1 April 1974 by the Local Government Act 1972, it was formed from the former county borough of Wigan along with other local government units from the administrative county of Lancashire. These were the Municipal Borough of Leigh, the urban districts of Abram, Atherton, Ince-in-Makerfield, Orrell and Tyldesley. Ashton-in-Makerfield except for the parish of Seneley Green, the Golborne Urban District except for the parish of Culcheth and Glazebury in Warrington, the Higher End part of Billinge and Winstanley Urban District and the civil parishes of Haigh and Worthington from the Wigan Rural District were included.

Before its creation, the name Wigan-Leigh was used in the Redcliffe-Maud Report. It was suggested; however both names were rejected by a vote of 12 to 2. According to an opinion poll in 2003, 26% of 299 residents surveyed felt they belonged "very strongly" or "fairly strongly" to Greater Manchester, 64% to the borough of Wigan, 63% to Lancashire; the metropolitan borough was created from a industrialised area of Lancashire, part of the Lancashire Coalfield and had an important textile industry. Wigan borough covers an area of 77 square miles and is the 9th largest metropolitan borough, out of 36, in England; the borough is the most north western in Greater Manchester. Within Greater Manchester, it borders the Metropolitan Borough of Bolton to the north-east and east, the City of Salford to the east. Outwith Greater Manchester, in the south it borders Warrington. To the west it borders the West Lancashire borough, to the north it borders the Chorley borough, both in Lancashire. Wigan borough has seven Local Nature Reserves: including Wigan Flashes LNR, Borsdane Wood LNR, between Hindley and Aspull, Greenslate Water Meadows LNR within Orrell Water Park in Orrell, Low Hall LNR between Hindley and Platt Bridge, Pennington Flash LNR, Kirkless LNR at Ince and Three Sisters LNR, Ashton-In-Makerfield.

For 12 years after the county was created in 1974, the borough had a two-tier system of local government, Wigan Council shared power with the Greater Manchester County Council. The county council was abolished in 1986 by the Local Government Act 1985. In April 2011 the Greater Manchester Combined Authority became the top tier of local government within Greater Manchester covering ten boroughs including Wigan; the first elections to the borough council were held on 10 May 1973. The Metropolitan Borough Council is divided into 25 wards. Elections are with one councillor from each ward up for re-election in each election year; the borough council has a cabinet system. The current leader is David Molyneux who took over from Peter Smith, who resigned in May 2018, having been leader since 1991; the council rejected the idea of a directly-elected mayor following a consultation in 2001. The Metropolitan Borough of Wigan is traditionally a Labour stronghold - the council has been Labour Party-controlled since its creation.

The local elections in 1998 resulted in a council with only 2 non-Labour members. Labour had a majority with 43 seats at the 2006 election; the second largest party was the local Community Action Party. Community Action first contested Wigan elections in 2002, won 18 seats in the 2004 election following the re-warding - their councilors are for wards in the middle of the borough, between Wigan and Leigh; the Conservative Party had nine seats, the Liberal Democrats eight. At the 2008 elections Labour was the largest party with 41 seats out of a total of 75, the Conservative Party had 14 seats, Community Action Party 8 seats, Independent 7 seats, Liberal Democrats 4 seats and one was vacant; as of November 2010, Labour was the largest party with 51 seats out of a total of 75, the Conservative Party had 8 seats, 7 Independent, Community Action Party 4 seats and Liberal Democrats seats and the'Independent Conservative' members with 2 seats. As of June 2011, Labour continued to be the largest party with 58 seats out of 75, the Independent Councillor group with 8 seats form the official opposition, the Conservative Party had 5 seats, the Liberal Democrats hold 2 seats, Community Action Party 1 seat and 1 Independent councillor.

In May 2012 the composition of the council was Labour 63, Others 9, Liberal Democrats 2 and Conservatives 1. Presently in May 2018, the Council's political composition is: Labour 60, Conservatives 7, Independent 4, Independent Network 2, Shevington Independents 1, Standish Independents 1; the council uses Wigan Town Hall as its main headquarters. Leigh Town Hall is used as a secondary base; the borough is divided into 25 electoral wards. The present wards were adopted in 2003, following a review b

Silwan necropolis

The Silwan necropolis is the most important ancient cemetery in Israel, is assumed to have been used by the highest-ranking officials residing in Jerusalem. Its tombs were cut between the 9th and 7th centuries BCE, it is situated on the rocky eastern slope of the Kidron Valley. Part of the Palestinian village of Silwan was built atop the necropolis. Although the existence of ancient tombs in the village of Silwan had been known since the 19th century, the first careful survey was not performed until 1968. Charles Warren, thwarted in his efforts to carry out a full survey of the tombs, in some of which villagers were living, attributed this to "the hostile nature of the villagers" whom he described as "a lawless set." All of the tombs were long since their contents removed. A great deal of destruction was done to the tombs over the centuries by quarrying and by their conversion for use as housing, both by monks in the Byzantine period, when they were used as monks' cells and some as churches, by Muslim villagers "When the Arab village was built.

The Silwan necropolis is an archaeological site of major significance. In the 19th century, it contained some forty rock-cut tombs of distinguished caliber, of which most were still preserved by the late 1960s; the inscriptions found on three of the tombs are in Hebrew. The architecture of the tombs and the manner of burial is different "from anything known from contemporary Palestine. Elements such as entrances located high above the surface, gabled ceilings, straight ceilings with a cornice, trough-shaped resting-places with pillows, above-ground tombs, inscriptions engraved on the facade appear only here." The stone benches on which bodies were laid out and the small square entrance doors are similar to those found elsewhere in Judah. David Ussishkin believes that the architectural similarity to building styles of the Phoenician cities validates the Biblical description of Phoenician influence on the Israelite kingdoms. If the ancient Israelite kingdoms followed the practice of other west-Semitic kingdoms, the kings themselves would have been buried within the city walls, underneath the royal palace.

The scholarly consensus is. There are three different types of tombs in the Silwan necropolis, each type concentrated in one specific area. Seven of the tombs feature gabled ceilings and fine stonework. Ussishkin describes them as "among the most beautifully rock-cut tombs known in the Jerusalem area when compared with tombs of periods." In contrast with the extensive family tombs of periods, these are for single or double burials, with only one of the seven having room for three bodies. Destruction has effaced the original doorways. A second tomb type described by Ussishkin has flat ceilings and 1, 2 or 3 chambers of well-dressed stone squared into spacious rooms. One features a rear chamber of "impressive" scale and quality. There are tombs combining characteristics of the two described here above; the third type consists of just three "magnificent" monolith tombs, now located in the northern part of the village. These have been carved out of the cliff to create free-standing buildings above the underground burial chambers.

Hebrew inscriptions survive on these three tombs. The following are the three monolith tombs: The most famous of the ancient rock-cut tombs in Silwan is the finely carved monolith known as the Tomb of Pharaoh's Daughter, it is the only one of the three free-standing tombs in which the above-ground chamber survives, although the pyramid-shaped roof is missing because it was quarried for stone. The ceiling is gabled. Another notable tomb, called the Tomb of the Royal Steward, is now incorporated into a modern-period house in the main street of the village. At one point plastered for use as a cistern, in 1968 it was in use as a storage room, it was discovered in 1874 by Charles Simon Clermont-Ganneau. The ancient inscription reads "This is the tomb of yahu, over the house. No silver or gold is here but and the bones of his Amma. Cursed be the man who opens this." The first part of the Hebrew name is effaced, but it refers to a Judean royal steward or chamberlain. Clermont-Ganneau shipped the tomb inscription to the British Museum, but it was only deciphered in the 1950s by Nahman Avigad.

Some scholars believe that this is the tomb of the biblical Shebna, the steward and treasurer of King Hezekiah. It is thought that at the relevant time the same name could be written with or without the ending -yahu, thus allowing Shebanyahu as a variation of Shebna. According to David Ussishkin, the tomb contained two chambers, the outer chamber with a probable double bench for the occupant and his wife, an inner chamber with a single burial bench for a relative who may be referred to in the second inscription fragment; the Book of Isaiah reproaches Shebna for his presumption: "What hast thou here and whom hast thou here, that thou hast hewn thee out a sepulchre here, as he that heweth him out a sepulchre on high, that graveth an inhabitation for himself in the rock?" Another former monolith was first described in 1968 by Ussishkin. At that time it was located under the courtyard of a modern-period house serving as a cistern, it has "the finest and most delicate stone dressing in the Silwan necropolis."

The upper story was destroyed for use as quarried stone in the Roman/Byzantine period. Only a small section of the inscription survived to be recorded by Ussishkin; the first line is " burial of Z...". The second line " who op[

Catriona Matthew

Catriona Isobel Matthew is a Scottish professional golfer who plays on the US-based LPGA Tour and is a member of the Ladies European Tour. Catriona Lambert was born in Edinburgh, grew up in North Berwick, she learned to play golf on North Berwick West Links in the town. She had a successful junior and amateur career, becoming Scottish Girls champion in 1986 and Scottish Under-21 Stroke Play champion in 1988 and 1989, she captured the Scottish Amateur title in 1991, 1993 and 1994, the British Amateur title in 1993. She is a two time winner of the St Rule Trophy played at St. Andrews, she was a member of the 1992 and 1994 Great Britain & Ireland Curtis Cup teams. She graduated from the University of Stirling in 1992 having studied accountancy, this being one of a few British universities offering golf scholarships. Matthew qualified for the LPGA Tour by tying for fifth at the 1994 LPGA Final Qualifying Tournament to earn exempt status for the 1995 season, she soon established herself on the Tour, her best seasons were 2001 and 2005, when she finished tenth on the money list.

Matthew qualified for the Ladies European Tour in 1995 and plays several events on that tour each season. She won her maiden professional tournament at the Holden Women's Australian Open in 1996, she won the 1998 McDonald's WPGA Championship on the Ladies European Tour. She was a member of the 1998 Solheim Cup Team and first reserve for the 2000 matches held in her native Scotland; when Helen Alfredsson hurt her wrist she was called into the team but Alfredsson recovered and Matthew did not play. She was somewhat controversially left out of the 2002 Solheim Cup team but was a captain's pick for the 2003 team, gaining the Cup winning point, she was a captain's pick for the 2005 team as well. She qualified outright for the 2009 and 2011 Solheim Cup teams, she teamed with Janice Moodie to represent Scotland at the 2005 and 2006 Women's World Cup of Golf. and was a member of the victorious International team captained by Annika Sörenstam in the inaugural Lexus Cup. She won the 2007 Scandinavian TPC hosted by Annika.

In January 2009, she won the inaugural HSBC LPGA Brasil Cup 2009, an unofficial LPGA event with a field of 14 LPGA players and a Brazilian national amateur. Matthew was five months pregnant with her second child at the time of the victory. On 2 August 2009 at Royal Lytham & St Annes, Matthew won the Ricoh Women's British Open with a final score of 3-under-par over second-place finisher Karrie Webb, it was her first win in a major tournament. The victory came 11 weeks, she was the first player from Scotland to win a women's major golf tournament. On 13 November 2011, Matthew won her fourth LPGA title at the Lorena Ochoa Invitational in Mexico. At the 2013 LPGA Championship, Matthew finished runner-up after losing a sudden-death playoff against the world number one Inbee Park. Matthew and Park finished the tournament tied together at five-under-par, with Matthew coming from seven strokes behind Park at the start of the final round. In the playoff, they both parred the first two extra holes, but Matthew lost out on the third extra hole when Park made birdie.

In July 2016, Matthew was named as a vice-captain for the 2017 Solheim Cup but ended up playing in the match after an injury to Suzann Pettersen. On 21 September 2017, Matthew was announced as captain for the 2019 Solheim Cup, which will take place at Gleneagles. In October 2019, Matthew was announced as Solheim Cup captain for 2021. Matthew's husband Graeme is her caddy and in December 2006 they had their first child, a daughter, Katie. Matthew gave birth to a second daughter named Sophie in May 2009. In July 2009, Matthew and her husband escaped a fire at the hotel they were staying in while she played in the Evian Masters. Graeme was unable to caddy for two rounds. Matthew was appointed Member of the Order of the British Empire in the 2010 New Year Honours and Officer of the Order of the British Empire in the 2020 New Year Honours for services to golf. LPGA Tour playoff record 1 The Ricoh Women's British Open is co-sanctioned by the LPGA Tour and the Ladies European Tour. Majors championships are shown in bold.

Results not in chronological order before 2019. ^ The Women's British Open replaced the du Maurier Classic as an LPGA major in 2001. ^^ The Evian Championship was added as a major in 2013 CUT = missed the half-way cut. "T" = tied Most consecutive cuts made – 10 Longest streak of top-10s – 2 official through 2019 season Position in Women's World Golf Rankings at the end of each calendar year. Amateur Vagliano Trophy: 1989, 1991, 1993 Curtis Cup: 1990, 1992, 1994 Professional Solheim Cup: 1998, 2003, 2005, 2007, 2009, 2011, 2013, 2015, 2017, 2019 Lexus Cup: 2005, 2007 World Cup: 2005, 2006, 2008 Handa Cup: 2015 The Queens: 2015, 2016 European Championships: 2018 Catriona Matthew at the LPGA Tour official site Catriona Matthew at the Ladies European Tour official site Catriona Matthew at the Women's World Golf Rankings official site Catriona Matthew on Twitter