Functionalism (architecture)

In architecture, functionalism is the principle that buildings should be designed based on the purpose and function of the building. This principle is a matter of confusion and controversy within the profession in regard to modern architecture, as it is less self-evident than it first appears; the theoretical articulation of functionalism in buildings can be traced back to the Vitruvian triad, where utilitas stands alongside firmitas and venustas as one of three classic goals of architecture. Functionalist views were typical of some Gothic Revival architects. In particular, Augustus Welby Pugin wrote that "there should be no features about a building which are not necessary for convenience, construction, or propriety" and "all ornament should consist of enrichment of the essential construction of the building"; the debate about functionalism and aesthetics is framed as a mutually exclusive choice, when in fact there are architects, like Will Bruder, James Polshek and Ken Yeang, who attempt to satisfy all three Vitruvian goals.

In the wake of World War I, an international functionalist architecture movement emerged as part of the wave of Modernism. The ideas were inspired by the need to build a new and better world for the people, as broadly and expressed by the social and political movements of Europe after the devastating world war. In this respect, functionalist architecture is linked with the ideas of socialism and modern humanism. A new slight addition to this new wave of functionalism was that not only should buildings and houses be designed around the purpose of functionality, architecture should be used as a means to physically create a better world and a better life for people in the broadest sense; this new functionalist architecture had the strongest impact in Czechoslovakia, Poland, the USSR and the Netherlands, from the 1930s in Scandinavia and Finland. In 1896, Chicago architect Louis Sullivan coined the phrase Form follows function. However, this aphorism does not relate to a contemporary understanding of the term'function' as utility or the satisfaction of user needs.

In the mid-1930s, functionalism began to be discussed as an aesthetic approach rather than a matter of design integrity. The idea of functionalism was conflated with a lack of ornamentation, a different matter, it became a pejorative term associated with the baldest and most brutal ways to cover space, like cheap commercial buildings and sheds finally used, for example in academic criticism of Buckminster Fuller's geodesic domes as a synonym for'gauche'. For 70 years the influential American architect Philip Johnson held that the profession has no functional responsibility whatsoever, this is one of the many views today; the position of postmodern architect Peter Eisenman is based on a user-hostile theoretical basis and more extreme: "I don't do function." Popular notions of modern architecture are influenced by the work of the Franco-Swiss architect Le Corbusier and the German architect Mies van der Rohe. Both were functionalists at least to the extent that their buildings were radical simplifications of previous styles.

In 1923, Mies van der Rohe was working in Weimar Germany, had begun his career of producing radically simplified, lovingly detailed structures that achieved Sullivan's goal of inherent architectural beauty. Le Corbusier famously said "a house is a machine for living in"; the former Czechoslovakia was an early adopter of the functionalist style, with notable examples such as Villa Tugendhat in Brno, designed by Mies van der Rohe in 1928, Villa Müller in Prague, designed by Adolf Loos in 1930, the majority of the town of Zlin, developed by the Bata shoe company as a factory town in the 1920s and designed by Le Corbusier's student František Lydie Gahura. Numerous villas, apartment buildings and interiors, office blocks and department stores can be found in the functionalist style throughout the country, which industrialised in the early 20th century while embracing the Bauhaus-style architecture, emerging concurrently in Germany. Large urban extensions to Brno in particular contain numerous apartment buildings in the functionalist style, while the domestic interiors of Adolf Loos in Plzeň are notable for their application of functionalist principles.

In Scandinavia, the international movement and ideas of modernist architecture became known among architects at the 1930 Stockholm Exhibition, under the guidance of director and Swedish architect Gunnar Asplund. Enthusiastic architects collected their ideas and inspirations in the manifesto acceptera and in the years thereafter, a functionalist architecture emerged throughout Scandinavia; the genre involves some peculiar features unique to Scandinavia and it is referred to as "funkis", to distinguish it from functionalism in general. Some of the common features are flat roofing, stuccoed walls, architectural glazing and well-lit rooms, an industrial expression and nautical-inspired details, including round windows; the global stock market crisis and economic meltdown in 1929, instigated the needs to use affordable materials, such as brick and concrete, to build and efficiently. These needs became another signature of the Nordic version of functionalist architecture, in particular in buildings from the 1930s, carried over into modernist architectur


Stryx was an Italian TV series, aired in 1978 on Rai 2. Stryx thematically referred to Hell and underworld; the scenography featured elements resembling caves. The show featured acting as well as musical performances from such artists as Amanda Lear, Asha Puthli, Grace Jones or Patty Pravo; the musical part was divided into a number of smaller parts, with each part featuring a performance from one specific artist, for example Asha Puthli in "Indian Stryx", Amanda Lear in Sexy Stryx or Grace Jones in Rumstryx. The show was produced in the disco era, therefore this genre dominates the musical background of Stryx; the show caused many controversies in more conservative societies because of its devilish theme and referring to underworld as well as exposing nudity. Due to numerous protests the show was taken off the broadcast and the production of following episodes was cancelled. Apart from six known episodes there exists the seventh one, which has never been aired on television. Amanda Lear - Sexy Stryx Anna Oxa - Stereo Stryx Asha Puthli- Indian Stryx Corrado Lojacono Gal Costa - Stryx do Brasil Gianni Cajfa Grace Jones - Rumstryx Hal Yamanduchi Mia Martini - Gipsy Stryx Luis Agudo Ombretta Colli - Ludmilla Patty Pravo - Subliminal Stryx Tony Renis - Piloconduttore Walter Valdi Enzo Trapani - director Ennio di Majo - script Gianna Sgarbossa - costumes Tony De Vita - music Renato Greco - choreography Enzo Torroni - light

CCT2 (gene)

T-complex protein 1 subunit beta is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CCT2 gene. This gene encodes a molecular chaperone, member of the chaperonin containing TCP1 complex known as the TCP1 ring complex; this complex consists of two identical stacked rings. Unfolded polypeptides enter the central cavity of the complex and are folded in an ATP-dependent manner; the complex folds various proteins, including tubulin. Alternate transcriptional splice variants of the gene described in this record have been observed but have not been characterized. CCT2 has been shown to interact with PPP4C. Human CCT2 genome location and CCT2 gene details page in the UCSC Genome Browser. Overview of all the structural information available in the PDB for UniProt: P78371 at the PDBe-KB