Beth Cordingly is an English actress, known for her appearances in the television series Family Affairs and The Bill. Cordingly went to Brighton and Hove High School, she is the daughter of historian David Cordingly. Cordingly went to the University of Birmingham where she gained a double First in Drama, she went on to train as an actor at Webber Douglas Academy of Dramatic Art in London. She made her first major television appearance in the soap opera, Family Affairs as troubled teenager Sara Warrington, she left the soap after a year to play the lead in Noël Coward's Semi-Monde at the Lyric Theatre, West End. The play was produced by Thelma Holt, she played Rose, a cabinet secretary reporting to Derek Jacobi's Major Merton, in Two Men went to War, a film starring Kenneth Cranham and Leo Bill. In 2002, she joined The Bill as PC Kerry Young After her departure from the show when her character was murdered in 2004, ITV made an hour-long spin off called Kerry's Story that aired on ITV3. In 2005 she played Vienna Keen, an exotic dancer, in BBC's Funland and in 2007 played Naomi in Secret Diary of a Call Girl, a call girl who has a threesome together with the shows main protagonist, played by Billie Piper.
In March and April 2017, Cordingly appeared as Debbie Morton, Shirley Carter's cellmate in British soap opera EastEnders. She has played a variety of roles on television, notably filming two series for Charlie Brooker, playing Veronica in his zombie series Dead Set and featuring in his sketch show, How TV Ruined Your Life with Kevin Eldon. In theatre she has worked abroad. In 2006 she played the role of Nina in the Menier Chocolate Factory's production of Breakfast with Jonny Wilkinson. In 2013 it was made into an independent feature film and she reprised her role, this time opposite George MacKay, Nigel Lindsay and Norman Pace; when playing Amy in Salt at Manchester Royal Exchange she was nominated for the Manchester Evening News Award for Best Performance in a Studio Production. She worked with Sharon Gless on A Round Heeled Woman in the West End and has twice played lead roles in Feydeau farces for Sam Walters at the Orange Tree Theatre. In 2012 she played Louisa in Children's Children at the Almeida Theatre, a play directed by Jeremy Herrin and written by Matthew Dunster.
In 2015 Dunster directed her in Love's Sacrifice for the RSC, in the Swan Theatre, Stratford-upon-Avon. In the same RSC season she played Bellamira in The Jew of Malta. Cordingly has an MA in Creative Writing from University of London. In 2009, her short story Marianne and Ellie was selected by Sarah Waters to be published in an anthology of short stories, Dancing with Mr. Darcy. In 2012, she won the Litro magazine Double Dutch short story competition for her short story about Amsterdam, The Bike Ride. Cordingly is an Ambassador for ChildLine and speaks on their behalf, she ran the London Marathon in 2004 for them and spoke at the 2006 Anti-bullying week conference at Westminster Central Hall. In 2009 she was given an award at the House of Commons of the United Kingdom for her outstanding contributions to the NSPCC. Official website Beth Cordingly on IMDb Beth Cordingly at Spotlight Cordingly interview at icSouthlondon
Bleak House (2005 TV serial)
Bleak House is a fifteen-part BBC television drama serial adaptation of the Charles Dickens novel of the same name, published in 1852–53 as itself a print serialisation over 20 months. Produced with an all-star cast, the serial was shown on BBC One from 27 October to 16 December 2005, drew much critical and popular praise, it has been reported. Written by Andrew Davies, the serial was produced by Nigel Stafford-Clark and directed by Justin Chadwick and Susanna White; the longstanding estate battle of Jarndyce v Jarndyce hangs over the heads of many conflicting heirs, confused by multiple wills. Possible beneficiary John Jarndyce of Bleak House welcomes orphaned cousins Ada Clare and Richard Carstone—also potential heirs—as his wards, has hired Esther Summerson as a housekeeper and companion for Ada. Honoria, Lady Dedlock, the wife of the married to the imperious baronet Sir Leicester, is a possible beneficiary of the estate; the Dedlocks' lawyer, sniffs out a connection between Lady Dedlock and a newly deceased man called Nemo.
Meanwhile and Ada are falling in love. Richard keeps changing his mind on which career to pursue—first a physician a lawyer and a soldier—but the prospect of his inheritance from the ongoing litigation begins to consume him, despite warnings from John, now his formal guardian. Esther and the young doctor Allan Woodcourt are attracted to each other, but Esther feels unworthy and Allan accepts a commission as a navy physician; the law clerk Mr. Guppy, enamoured of Esther, hopes to win her affection by helping her discover the identity of her parents, he finds connections to both Lady Dedlock and the deceased Nemo, identified as Captain James Hawdon, is alerted to the existence of letters left behind by Hawdon but kept by his drunken landlord, Krook. Realizing that Esther is her daughter whom she was told had died—fathered by Hawdon before her current marriage—Lady Dedlock confesses to Esther but swears her to secrecy. Esther is stricken by smallpox and nearly dies. John proposes marriage to Esther, but though she accepts, he convinces her to keep it secret until she is sure it is what she wants.
While amassing other enemies, Tulkinghorn deduces Lady Dedlock's secret and tries to use it to keep her in line. Tulkinghorn is murdered, with no shortage of suspects. Lady Dedlock is implicated, but Inspector Bucket reveals that her former maid Hortense is the murderess and had tried to frame Lady Dedlock. Richard and Ada are secretly married, but he is obsessed with the lawsuit, encouraged by John's unscrupulous friend Harold Skimpole and the conniving lawyer Vholes; as a result, Richard is penniless and his health is failing. Hawdon's letters—written by a young Lady Dedlock and revealing her secret–find their way back into the hands of the moneylender Smallweed, who sells them to Sir Leicester. Guilty over her deception and not wanting to bring ruin to her husband, Lady Dedlock flees into a storm before Sir Leicester is able to tell her he does not care about her past, he sends Bucket after her. Bucket realizes where she must be—the graveyard where Hawdon is buried—but Esther arrives to find her mother dead from exposure.
A final Jarndyce will is found that closes the case in favour of Richard and Ada, but the estate has been consumed by years of legal fees. Richard collapses, overcome by tuberculosis, soon dies. Allan professes his love for Esther, who rebuffs him out of obligation to John, a pregnant Ada returns to Bleak House. John releases Esther from their engagement, knowing that she loves Allan. Esther and Allan marry, with all in attendance; the adaptation is eight hours in length and covers most of the characters and storylines in the novel. Characters from the book who are not present include the wife of the law stationer; the character of Clamb, clerk to the lawyer Tulkinghorn, was created by the screenwriter as a device for showing Tulkinghorn's motives and deeds without recourse to a narrator. Most of the storylines are portrayed as they are in the novel, but somewhat abbreviated; the exceptions to this are in large part consequent to the aforementioned cull of minor characters. The plot mechanics around the possession of Lady Dedlock's letters, which involve Tony Jobling and Smallweed Junior in the novel, are altered, as are the mechanics of the reconciliation between George and his mother, brought about by Mrs. Bagnet in the book.
The storyline concerning Mrs. Snagsby's paranoid jealousy of her husband is omitted altogether; the serial was produced in-house by the BBC with some co-production funding from United States PBS broadcaster WGBH. It was shown on BBC One, on Thursdays at 20:00 and Fridays at 20:30, following the BBC's most popular programme—EastEnders—in an attempt to attract more viewers younger ones; the series started with an hour long on Thursday 27 October 2005, with subsequent episodes being 30 minutes, shown twice weekly. The serial was designed to air in the format of a soap opera, somewhat experimental for the television drama genre, but in keeping with Dickens' original serialisation. BBC One showed omnibus editions of each week's episodes on the Sunday following first broadcast. Though some critics have argued against the series being shown in this format, programme makers and commentators defended their decision by saying
BBC Three was a British television channel operated by the British Broadcasting Corporation. Launched on 9 February 2003 as a replacement for BBC Choice, the service's remit was to provide "innovative programming" to a target audience of viewers between 16 and 34 years old, leveraging technology as well as new talent. Unlike its commercial rivals, 90% of BBC Three's output originated from the United Kingdom. 70% was original, covering all genres, including animation, current affairs, drama. BBC Three had a unique 60 Seconds format for its news bulletins, adopted so that operation of the channel could be automated, without the complication of dealing with variable-length live news broadcasts; the former controller of the station, Zai Bennett, left to join Sky Atlantic in July 2014, at which point BBC Three commissioner Sam Bickley became acting controller. Until February 2016, the network broadcast on Freeview, digital cable, IPTV and Satellite television platforms, was on-air from 7 pm to around 4 am each night to share terrestrial television bandwidth with CBBC.
In March 2014, as a result of a planned £100 million budget cut across the BBC, it was proposed that BBC Three be discontinued as an'open' television service, be converted to an over-the-top Internet television service with a smaller programming budget and a focus on short-form productions. Despite significant public opposition, the proposal was provisionally approved by the BBC Trust in June 2015, with a new consultation open until 30 September of that year; the TV channel ceased operations on 16 February 2016. In late 2001, the BBC decided to reposition and rebrand their two digital channels so that they could be more linked to the well established BBC One and BBC Two, their plan was for BBC Knowledge to be replaced with BBC Four—which took place in 2002—and for BBC Choice to be replaced with BBC Three. However, questions were raised over the proposed format of the new BBC Three, as some thought the new format would be too similar to the BBC's commercial rivals, namely ITV2 and E4, would be unnecessary competition.
The channel was given the go ahead, eleven months after the original launch date, launched on 9 February 2003. The channel was launched by Stuart Murphy, who ran BBC Choice, before that UK Play, the now-discontinued UKTV music and comedy channel. At 33, Murphy was still the youngest channel controller in the country, a title he had held since launching UK Play at the age of 26. On 12 May 2011, BBC Three was added to the Sky EPG in the Republic of Ireland on channel 229, it was moved to channel 210 on 3 July 2012, to free up space for new channels. It was moved to 115. For the duration of the 2012 Summer Olympics, BBC Three increased its broadcasting hours to 24 hours to provide extra coverage of Olympic events. Broadcast hours were extended again for the 2014 Commonwealth Games with BBC Three broadcasting from 9:00 am to 4:00 am for the duration of the games. On 16 July 2013 the BBC announced that a high-definition simulcast of BBC Three would be launched by early 2014; the channel launched on 10 December 2013.
In February 2014, BBC Director-General Tony Hall announced that cuts of £100 million would have to be made at the corporation. On 5 March 2014, Hall announced a proposal to convert BBC Three to an online-only service, with an 50% cut in its programming budget, a larger emphasis on short form content due to the cut in funding; these changes formed part of a package of proposals from the BBC, including extending CBBC's hours, respending £30m on BBC One audiences for drama, launching a one-hour timeshift channel of BBC One. There was notable backlash against the measures, with celebrities including Greg James, Matt Lucas and Jack Whitehall speaking out. A petition against the move on change.org has gathered over 300,000 signatures. However, there was some support from media commentators, those who backed a "slimmer" BBC; when the BBC revealed the full detail in December 2014, it admitted there was widespread opposition from BBC Three viewers but said there was support for the wider package of proposals.
They believed the public welcomed a BBC One +1 as it admits "a vast majority of viewing still takes place on linear channels". The'Save BBC Three' campaign pointed out this was a contradiction to what the BBC said about BBC Three; the BBC Trust began a 28-day public consultation regarding the plans on 20 January 2015 and it ended with a protest outside Broadcasting House. As part of the consultation a letter of 750 names against the move from the creative industry was sent to the BBC Trust, this had the backing of a number of celebrities including Daniel Radcliffe, Aidan Turner, Olivia Colman and Lena Headey; the polling company ICM concluded a "large majority" of those that replied to the consultation were against the move with respondents concerned about those who cannot stream programming online, the effect of the content budget cuts, the BBC's own admission the audience numbers would drop. The Save BBC Three campaign has argued the transition period is too short and that programmes like Family Guy and Don't Tell the Bride have not performed as well on BBC One and BBC Two with the 16-34 year old audience, in comparison to BBC Three.
It did not consider the proposals cost-effective because the BBC will need to spend on a new brand and triple advertising budgets to increase awareness of the new service. Nonetheless, the BBC Trust issued its final decision to approve the transition in November 2015, citing the fact th
Jeremy Dyson is an English author and screenwriter who, along with Mark Gatiss, Steve Pemberton and Reece Shearsmith, is one of the League of Gentlemen. He created and co-wrote the popular West End show Ghost Stories and its film adaptation. Dyson was born in Leeds, England, son of Elaine Saville and Melvin Dyson, he has one older brother, Andrew Dyson, a younger sister, Jayne Dyson. He was educated at Leeds Grammar School, now The Grammar School at Leeds, he studied Philosophy at the University of Leeds and completed an MA in screenwriting at the Northern Film School. He lived in Highbury, but now lives in Ilkley, West Yorkshire. Dyson is best known as co-creator of the hit West End play Ghost Stories, as a member of the sketch comedy team The League of Gentlemen, the latter along with fellow performers Mark Gatiss, Steve Pemberton, Reece Shearsmith, all of whom he met while they were studying at Bretton Hall drama school; the League of Gentlemen began as a stage act in 1995, transferred to BBC Radio 4 in 1997 as On the Town with the League of Gentlemen, became a television series on BBC Two in 1999.
The latter saw Dyson and his colleagues awarded a British Academy Television Award, a Royal Television Society Award, the prestigious Golden Rose of Montreux. Dyson has written several books including Bright Darkness: Lost Art of the Supernatural Horror Film, a non-fiction guide to horror films, two collections of short stories entitled Never Trust a Rabbit – short-listed for the Macmillan Silver Pen award – and The Cranes That Build The Cranes which won the 2010 Edge Hill award, his novel What Happens Now was published on 6 April 2006 to favourable reviews and was nominated for the Goss first novel award. He has co-created the BAFTA-nominated television series Funland, which aired on BBC Three, wrote the Billy Goats Gruff episode of the BBC's 2008 series Fairy Tales, he has worked as script editor and writer on BBC1's BAFTA-award-winning The Armstrong & Miller Show, where he created the licentious Flanders and Swann parodying Brabbins and Fyffe, accident-prone historian Dennis Lincoln Park, disapproving lingerie saleswomen Lisa and Yvonne and the ‘Kill Them’ sketches, amongst others.
He was the script editor of BBC Two sitcom Grandma's House, BBC Three's Dead Boss and Walking and Talking for Sky Atlantic. Due to Dyson's self-confessed lack of acting skills, he does not appear in The League of Gentlemen television series or any of its offshoots, apart from brief cameos, he worked as the assistant producer instead. In the film adaptation he is played by Michael Sheen, although Dyson appears in the background of a few scenes. Dyson has an interest in the supernatural fiction of English writer Robert Aickman and has adapted Aickman's work in a number of media. Alongside his writing work, Dyson plays keyboards in a pop band called Rudolf Rocker, has been a member of Leeds band Flowers for Agatha in the 1980s, he is a patron of the charity No Panic. With Andy Nyman, he co-directed the supernatural-themed stage production Ghost Stories; the play broke box office records at the Liverpool Playhouse and Lyric Hammersmith theatres, where it had its first run between February and April 2010.
It transferred to the Duke of York's Theatre in the West End in June 2010, where it ran for thirteen months. In January 2011, he returned to the Lyric Hammersmith with Roald Dahl's Twisted Tales, the first stage adaptation of Roald Dahl's short stories Tales of the Unexpected. Dyson was script editor on the BBC Two comedy-thriller The Wrong Mans written by James Corden, Mathew Baynton and Tom Basden; the show is about a pair of lowly office workers who become unwittingly embroiled in a deadly criminal conspiracy. Its first series was broadcast in 2013, he has written and acted as script supervisor for the BBC sketch comedy series Tracey Ullman's Show and Tracey Breaks the News starring Tracey Ullman. A film adaptation of Ghost Stories, directed by Dyson and Nyman, starring Nyman, premiered in 2017. Jeremy Dyson on IMDb Transcript of talk with Jeremy Dyson 2001 article about The League of Gentlemen
Mark Gatiss is an English actor, comedian and novelist. His work includes acting in the TV series Doctor Who and Sherlock. Together with Reece Shearsmith, Steve Pemberton and Jeremy Dyson, he is a member of the comedy team The League of Gentlemen, he played Tycho Nestoris in the HBO series Game of Thrones. Gatiss was born in England, to Winifred Rose and Maurice Gatiss, he grew up opposite the Edwardian psychiatric hospital. His family background is working class, his childhood passions included watching Doctor Who and Hammer Horror films on television, reading Sherlock Holmes and H. G. Wells, collecting fossils. One of his early forays into theatre was in the role of Dad in The Waiting Room by Tony Stowers in Darlington in March 1983, a macabre and surreal Pinteresque comedy exploring a disintegrating family unit, he would have been in the Stowers follow-up A Sense of Insecurity in Darlington in July of the same year but he was unable to take the role because his Dad wouldn't allow him to and insisted he take his exams instead All of these interests have fuelled his creative work as an adult.
He attended Heighington Church of England Primary School and Woodham Comprehensive School in Newton Aycliffe. He studied Theatre Arts at Bretton Hall College, an arts college affiliated to Leeds University. Gatiss was awarded an honorary doctorate of letters by the University of Huddersfield in 2003. Gatiss is a member of the sketch comedy team The League of Gentlemen, he first met his co-writers and performers in his late teens at Bretton Hall, Yorkshire, a drama school which he attended after finishing school and having spent a gap year travelling around Europe. The League of Gentlemen began as a stage act in 1995, which won the Perrier Award at Edinburgh Festival Fringe in 1997. In the same year the show transferred to BBC Radio 4 as On the Town with the League of Gentlemen, arrived on television on BBC Two in 1999; the television programme has earned Gatiss and his colleagues a British Academy Television Award, a Royal Television Society Award and the prestigious Golden Rose of Montreux. In 2005, the film The League of Gentlemen's Apocalypse was released, to positive reviews.
Shearsmith and Pemberton reunited in 2009 to create a dark BBC sitcom, which featured an episode guest-starring Gatiss. The three reunited again in 2012 to film a series of sketches for the fourth series of CBBC show Horrible Histories. Outside the League, Gatiss' television work has included writing for the 2001 revival of Randall & Hopkirk and script editing the popular sketch show Little Britain in 2003, making guest appearances in both. In 2001 he guested in Spaced as a villainous government employee modelled on the character of Agent Smith from The Matrix film series. In the same year he appeared in several editions of the documentary series SF:UK. Other acting appearances include the comedy-drama In the Red, the macabre sitcom Nighty Night, Agatha Christie's Marple as Ronald Hawes in The Murder at the Vicarage, a guest appearance in the Vic & Bob series Catterick in 2004 and the live 2005 remake of the classic science fiction serial The Quatermass Experiment. A second series of Nighty Night and the new comedy-drama Funland, the latter co-written by his League cohort Jeremy Dyson, both featured Gatiss and aired on BBC Three in the autumn of 2005.
He appeared as Johnnie Cradock, alongside Nighty Night star Julia Davis as Fanny Cradock, in Fear of Fanny on BBC Four in October 2006, featured as Ratty in a new production of The Wind in the Willows shown on BBC One on 1 January 2007. He wrote and starred in the BBC Four docudrama The Worst Journey in the World, based on the memoir by polar explorer Apsley Cherry-Garrard. Gatiss has made three credited appearances in Doctor Who. In 2007, he played Professor Lazarus in "The Lazarus Experiment". In 2011, he returned in the Series 6 episode "The Wedding of River Song" as a character known as Gantok, in the 2017 Christmas special "Twice Upon A Time" as "The Captain". In 2007, he appeared as Robert Louis Stevenson in Jekyll, a BBC One serial by his fellow Doctor Who scriptwriter Steven Moffat. In 2008, he appeared in Clone as Colonel Black. In 2010, he portrayed Malcolm McLaren in the BBC drama Worried About the Boy which focused on the life and career of Boy George, appeared as Mycroft Holmes in the BBC drama Sherlock, which he co-created with Steven Moffat.
He adapted H. G. Wells' The First Men in the Moon into a television film of the same name for the BBC playing Professor Cavor, he made a three-part BBC documentary series entitled A History of Horror, a personal exploration of the history of horror cinema. This was followed on 30 October 2012 with a look at European horror with the documentary Horror Europa. On 25 December 2013, a version of the ghost story "The Tractate Middoth" by M. R. James and adapted by Gatiss was broadcast on BBC2 as part of the long-running A Ghost Story for Christmas series, it starred Sacha Dhawan, John Castle, Louise Jameson, Una Stubbs, David Ryall, Eleanor Bron, Nick Burns and Roy Barraclough. It was followed on 25 December 2013 by a screening on BBC2 of a new documentary by Gatiss titled M. R. James: Ghost Writer; the programme saw Gatiss explore the work of James and look at how his work still inspires contemporary horror today. He appeared in season four of Game of Thrones in 2014 playing Tycho Nestoris and reprised this role in season five and season seven.
In the BBC'
In a modern sense, comedy refers to any discourse or work intended to be humorous or amusing by inducing laughter in theatre, film, stand-up comedy, or any other medium of entertainment. The origins of the term are found in Ancient Greece. In the Athenian democracy, the public opinion of voters was influenced by the political satire performed by the comic poets at the theaters; the theatrical genre of Greek comedy can be described as a dramatic performance which pits two groups or societies against each other in an amusing agon or conflict. Northrop Frye depicted these two opposing sides as a "Society of Youth" and a "Society of the Old." A revised view characterizes the essential agon of comedy as a struggle between a powerless youth and the societal conventions that pose obstacles to his hopes. In this struggle, the youth is understood to be constrained by his lack of social authority, is left with little choice but to take recourse in ruses which engender dramatic irony which provokes laughter.
Satire and political satire use comedy to portray persons or social institutions as ridiculous or corrupt, thus alienating their audience from the object of their humor. Parody subverts popular genres and forms, critiquing those forms without condemning them. Other forms of comedy include screwball comedy, which derives its humor from bizarre, surprising situations or characters, black comedy, characterized by a form of humor that includes darker aspects of human behavior or human nature. Scatological humor, sexual humor, race humor create comedy by violating social conventions or taboos in comic ways. A comedy of manners takes as its subject a particular part of society and uses humor to parody or satirize the behavior and mannerisms of its members. Romantic comedy is a popular genre that depicts burgeoning romance in humorous terms and focuses on the foibles of those who are falling in love; the word "comedy" is derived from the Classical Greek κωμῳδία kōmōidía, a compound either of κῶμος kômos or κώμη kṓmē and ᾠδή ōidḗ.
The adjective "comic", which means that which relates to comedy is, in modern usage confined to the sense of "laughter-provoking". Of this, the word came into modern usage through the Latin comoedia and Italian commedia and has, over time, passed through various shades of meaning; the Greeks and Romans confined their use of the word "comedy" to descriptions of stage-plays with happy endings. Aristotle defined comedy as an imitation of men worse than the average. However, the characters portrayed in comedies were not worse than average in every way, only insofar as they are Ridiculous, a species of the Ugly; the Ridiculous may be defined as a deformity not productive of pain or harm to others. In the Middle Ages, the term expanded to include narrative poems with happy endings, it is in this sense that Dante used the term in the title of La Commedia. As time progressed, the word came more and more to be associated with any sort of performance intended to cause laughter. During the Middle Ages, the term "comedy" became synonymous with satire, with humour in general.
Aristotle's Poetics was translated into Arabic in the medieval Islamic world, where it was elaborated upon by Arabic writers and Islamic philosophers, such as Abu Bischr, his pupils Al-Farabi and Averroes. They disassociated comedy from Greek dramatic representation and instead identified it with Arabic poetic themes and forms, such as hija, they viewed comedy as the "art of reprehension", made no reference to light and cheerful events, or to the troubling beginnings and happy endings associated with classical Greek comedy. After the Latin translations of the 12th century, the term "comedy" gained a more general meaning in medieval literature. In the late 20th century, many scholars preferred to use the term laughter to refer to the whole gamut of the comic, in order to avoid the use of ambiguous and problematically defined genres such as the grotesque and satire. Starting from 425 BCE, Aristophanes, a comic playwright and satirical author of the Ancient Greek Theater, wrote 40 comedies, 11 of which survive.
Aristophanes developed his type of comedy from the earlier satyr plays, which were highly obscene. The only surviving examples of the satyr plays are by Euripides, which are much examples and not representative of the genre. In ancient Greece, comedy originated in bawdy and ribald songs or recitations apropos of phallic processions and fertility festivals or gatherings. Around 335 BCE, Aristotle, in his work Poetics, stated that comedy originated in phallic processions and the light treatment of the otherwise base and ugly, he adds that the origins of comedy are obscure because it was not treated from its inception. However, comedy had its own Muse: Thalia. Aristotle taught that comedy was positive for society, since it brings forth happiness, which for Aristotle was the ideal state, the final goal in any activity. For Aristotle, a comedy did not need to involve sexual humor. A comedy is about the fortunate rise of a sympathetic character. Aristotle divides comedy into three categories or subgenres: farce, romantic comedy, satire.
On the contrary, Plato taught. He believed that it produces an emotion that overrides ra
Blackpool Pleasure Beach
Blackpool Pleasure Beach is an amusement park situated along the Fylde coast in Blackpool, North-West England. The park was founded in 1896 and has been owned and operated by the Thompson family since its inception, it is one of the most visited tourist attractions in the United Kingdom, one of the top twenty most visited amusement parks in the world, with a peak estimate of 5.5 million visitors in 2007. In 2014 it was voted as the best theme park in the United Kingdom and the ninth best park in Europe by the Travelers' Choice Awards; the park is host to many records, including the largest number of roller coasters of any park in the United Kingdom with ten, of which four are wooden: the Big Dipper, Blue Flyer, Grand National and Nickelodeon Streak. Many of the roller coasters in the park are record breaking attractions; when it opened in 1994, the Big One was the fastest roller coaster in the world. It was the steepest, with an incline angle of 65° and one of the longest, measuring 5,497 feet.
The ride holds the record as the tallest roller coaster in the United Kingdom, standing at 213 ft, with a first drop of 205 ft. The park was the first in Europe to introduce a inverting steel coaster, Revolution and is the last remaining park in the world to still operate a Steeplechase roller coaster; the Grand National is one of only three Möbius Loop coasters in existence, where a singular track "loops" around itself, offering a facsimile out-and-back layout and creating a "racing" effect on two parallel tracks. Sir Hiram Maxims Captive Flying Machine is the oldest amusement park ride in Europe having opened in August 1904. At a cost of £15 million, Valhalla was one of the largest and most expensive indoor dark ride in the world. Designed by Sarner and manufactured by Intamin, Valhalla won "Best Water Ride" at the 2018 Golden Ticket awards, an accolade it has held over a consecutive number of years; the park operates a Nickelodeon Land and the world's only Wallace & Gromit ride, the Thrill-O-Matic.
In 2016 the park introduced Red Arrows Sky Force, a Gerstlauer Sky Fly thrill ride, the first ride of its kind in the United Kingdom. The latest record is taken by Icon, a multi-launch coaster manufactured by Mack Rides in Germany. Icon is the first coaster in the UK to feature a double launch and is the largest single investment at the park costing £16.25 million. Pleasure Beach was founded in 1896 by Alderman William George Bean after he failed in his attempt to become an advertising man on New York's Madison Avenue, he opened two separate amusement parks. The Great Yarmouth amusement park failed to generate much interest and so Bean moved to Blackpool full-time towards the end of the century. In 1903, along with local businessman John Outhwaite, purchased 30 acres of land known as the "Watson Estate", used to expand the amusement park in Blackpool; the original Pleasure Beach was built on the sand dunes along the promenade and consisted of a few roundabouts, a Bicycle Railway and several Gypsy stalls.
Bean and Outhwaite decided to grow the business after visiting Coney Island in the United States. Using a small static fairground in London's Earls Court for inspiration, Bean added more rides and sideshows to the Pleasure Beach which began to garner the attention of holidaymakers. Beans' aim was to establish a fun park of relative size that would make adults feel like children again and inspire gaiety of a innocent character; the first notable attraction of interest to open at Pleasure Beach was Sir Hiram Maxim's Captive Flying Machine, a rotary swing ride designed by the British inventor of the same name in 1904. A Mill Chute water ride followed in 1905, which opened under the name The River Caves of the World, both of which are still operational today. In 1907 the park opened its first wooden roller coaster, known as The Scenic Railway, it was during this time. In 1909, Bean expanded the Pleasure Beach business by purchasing a second amusement park up the coast in Morecambe under the name West End Amusement Park, which would become Frontierland, Morecambe.
The success of the Morecambe park led to a third amusement park opening four years in Southport under the name Pleasureland Southport. Meanwhile, the Pleasure Beach was developed with frequent large scale investments including The Velvet Coaster, the House of Nonsense, The Joy Wheel and The Whip. Outhwaite died in 1911, leaving most of the remaining business to Bean, however the Outhwaite family still obtained shares in the park and would have input into its growth. Following the First World War investment at the park ceased due to the difficulty in exporting rides from the United States and the next investments would not be until 1922 when The Virginia Reel and Noah's Ark opened. Despite the lack of investment, profits at the Pleasure Beach soared and the company was noted as being one of the most prolific employers in the north-west of England. Further into the 1920s Bean invested in the Casino Building, a triple-tiered Art-Deco building designed by local architect and Blackpool Mayor Alderman R.
B. Mather, JP; the exterior of the building featured a white ferro-concrete façade with white electric lighting and the interior housed a billiard hall, cinema and gift shop. Today the Casino Building features a number of function rooms and offices and the ground floor space is used as the main ticket centre. In 1923, land was reclaimed from Blackpool seafront and it was during this period that the Pleasure Beach moved to its 42-acre current location along the promena