A chimney is an architectural ventilation structure made of masonry, clay or metal that isolates hot toxic exhaust gases or smoke produced by a boiler, furnace, incinerator or fireplace from human living areas. Chimneys are vertical, or as near as possible to vertical, to ensure that the gases flow smoothly, drawing air into the combustion in what is known as the stack, or chimney effect; the space inside a chimney is called the flue. Chimneys are adjacent to large industrial refineries, fossil fuel combustion facilities or part of buildings, steam locomotives and ships. In the United States, the term'Smokestack industry' refers to the environmental impacts of burning fossil fuels by industrial society including the electric industry during its earliest history; the term smokestack is used when referring to locomotive chimneys or ship chimneys, the term funnel can be used. The height of a chimney influences its ability to transfer flue gases to the external environment via stack effect. Additionally, the dispersion of pollutants at higher altitudes can reduce their impact on the immediate surroundings.
The dispersion of pollutants over a greater area can reduce their concentrations and facilitate compliance with regulatory limits. Romans used tubes inside the walls to draw smoke out of bakeries but chimneys only appeared in large dwellings in northern Europe in the 12th century; the earliest extant example of an English chimney is at the keep of Conisbrough Castle in Yorkshire, which dates from 1185 AD. However, they did not become common in houses until the 17th centuries. Smoke hoods were an early method of collecting the smoke into a chimney. Another step in the development of chimneys was the use of built in ovens which allowed the household to bake at home. Industrial chimneys became common in the late 18th century. Chimneys in ordinary dwellings were first built of plaster or mud. Since chimneys have traditionally been built of brick or stone, both in small and large buildings. Early chimneys were of a simple brick construction. Chimneys were constructed by placing the bricks around tile liners.
To control downdrafts, venting caps with a variety of designs are sometimes placed on the top of chimneys. In the 18th and 19th centuries, the methods used to extract lead from its ore produced large amounts of toxic fumes. In the north of England, long near-horizontal chimneys were built more than 3 km long, which terminated in a short vertical chimney in a remote location where the fumes would cause less harm. Lead and silver deposits formed on the inside of these long chimneys, periodically workers would be sent along the chimneys to scrape off these valuable deposits; as a result of the limited ability to handle transverse loads with brick, chimneys in houses were built in a "stack", with a fireplace on each floor of the house sharing a single chimney with such a stack at the front and back of the house. Today's central heating systems have made chimney placement less critical, the use of non-structural gas vent pipe allows a flue gas conduit to be installed around obstructions and through walls.
In fact, most modern high-efficiency heating appliances do not require a chimney. Such appliances are installed near an external wall, a noncombustible wall thimble allows a vent pipe to run directly through the external wall. On a pitched roof where a chimney penetrates a roof, flashing is used to seal up the joints; the down-slope piece is called an apron, the sides receive step flashing and a cricket is used to divert water around the upper side of the chimney underneath the flashing. Industrial chimneys are referred to as flue gas stacks and are external structures, as opposed to those built into the wall of a building, they are located adjacent to a steam-generating boiler or industrial furnace and the gases are carried to them with ductwork. Today the use of reinforced concrete has entirely replaced brick as a structural component in the construction of industrial chimneys. Refractory bricks are used as a lining if the type of fuel being burned generates flue gases containing acids. Modern industrial chimneys sometimes consist of a concrete windshield with a number of flues on the inside.
The 300 m chimney at Sasol Three consists of a 26 m diameter windshield with four 4.6 metre diameter concrete flues which are lined with refractory bricks built on rings of corbels spaced at 10 metre intervals. The reinforced concrete can be sliding formwork; the height is to ensure the pollutants are dispersed over a wider area to meet legal or other safety requirements. A flue liner is a secondary barrier in a chimney that protects the masonry from the acidic products of combustion, helps prevent flue gas from entering the house, reduces the size of an oversized flue. Since the 1950s, building codes in many locations require newly built chimneys to have a flue liner. Chimneys built without a liner can have a liner added, but the type of liner needs to match the type of appliance it services. Flue liners may be concrete tile, metal, or poured in place concrete. Clay tile flue liners are common in the United States, although it is the only liner that does not meet Underwriters Laboratories 1777 approval and they have problems such as cracked tiles and improper installation.
Clay tiles are about 2 feet long, available in various sizes and shapes, are installed in new construction as the chimney is built. A refractory cement is used between each tile. Metal liners may be stainless steel, aluminum, or galvanized iron and may be flexible or rigid pipes. Stainless stee
Hamburg America Line
The Hamburg-Amerikanische Packetfahrt-Actien-Gesellschaft referred to as Hamburg America Line, was a transatlantic shipping enterprise established in Hamburg, in 1847. Among those involved in its development were prominent citizens such as Albert Ballin, Adolph Godeffroy, Ferdinand Laeisz, Carl Woermann, August Bolten, others, its main financial backers were Berenberg Bank and H. J. Merck & Co, it soon developed into the largest German, at times the world's largest, shipping company, serving the market created by German immigration to the United States and immigration from Eastern Europe. On 1 September 1970, after 123 years of independent existence, HAPAG merged with the Bremen-based North German Lloyd to form Hapag-Lloyd AG. In the early years, the Hamburg America Line connected European ports with North American ports, such as Hoboken, New Jersey, or New Orleans, Louisiana. With time, the company established lines to all continents; the company built a large ocean liner terminal at Cuxhaven, Germany, in 1900.
Connected directly to Hamburg by a dedicated railway line and station, the HAPAG Terminal at Cuxhaven served as the major departure point for German and European immigrants to North America until 1969 when ocean liner travel ceased. Today it serves as a cruise ship terminal. In 1858, its liner Austria sank. In 1891, the cruise of the Augusta Victoria in the Mediterranean and the Near East from 22 January to 22 March, with 241 passengers including Albert Ballin and wife, is stated to have been the first passenger cruise. Christian Wilhelm Allers published an illustrated account of it as "Bakschisch". In 1897, its steamer Arcadia was wrecked on the rocks off Newfoundland. In 1900, 1901 and 1903 its liner Deutschland won the Blue Riband taking the prize from the Kaiser Wilhelm der Grosse. In 1906 Prinzessin Victoria Luise ran aground off the coast of Jamaica. No lives were lost by the grounding. In 1912, its liner SS Amerika was the first ship to warn Titanic of icebergs. HAPAG's general director, Albert Ballin, believed that safety, size and luxury would always win out over speed.
Thus he conceived the three largest liners yet to be built, named the Imperator and Bismarck. The first two were in service before the First World War. In 1914, the Vaterland was caught in port at Hoboken, New Jersey at the outbreak of World War I and interned by the United States, she was seized, renamed Leviathan after the declaration of war on Germany in 1917, served for the duration and beyond as a troopship. After the war, she was retained by the Americans in war reparations. In 1919 Vaterland's sister ships – Imperator and the unfinished Bismarck – were handed over to the allies as war reparations to Britain, they were sold to the Cunard Line and White Star Line and renamed Berengaria and Majestic. In 1917, its liner Allemannia was "torpedoed by German submarine near Alicante". In 1939, the HAPAG liner St. Louis was unable to find a port in Cuba, the United States, or Canada willing to accept the more than 950 Jewish refugees on board and had to return to Europe. On 9 April 1940, when German warships attacked Kristiansand, during Operation Weserübung, the HAPAG freighter Seattle sailed into the crossfire between the warships and Norwegian coastal artillery.
She was holed and sunk, her crew became prisoners of war. The Hamburg America Line lost the entirety of its fleet twice, as a result of World Wars I and II. In 1970, the company merged with its longstanding rival, Norddeutscher Lloyd of Bremen, to establish the present-day company Hapag-Lloyd. Holland America Line Norwegian America Line Scandinavian America Line Swedish American Line USS President Lincoln SS Imperator Hertford Fleet information The history of the Hamburg-America Line Historic photos of Hoboken and Hamburg America Line ports Passenger Lists from the Hamburg-Amerika Linie Hamburg-Amerika Line ships This collection contains 16 photographs depicting ship interior and exterior views of Hamburg-Amerika Line's luxury passenger ships Augusta Victoria and Normannia by Louis Koch, Bremen Documents and clippings about Hamburg America Line in the 20th Century Press Archives of the German National Library of Economics
RMS Saxonia (1954)
RMS Saxonia was a British passenger liner built by John Brown & Company at Clydebank, Scotland for the Cunard Steamship Company for their Liverpool-Montreal service. She was the first of four identical sister ships built by Browns between 1954 and 1957 for UK-Montreal service; the first two of these ships and Ivernia were extensively rebuilt in 1962/3 as dual purpose liner/cruise ships. They were renamed Carmania and Franconia and painted in the same green cruising livery as the Caronia. Carmania continued transatlantic crossings and cruises until September 1967 when she closed out Cunard's Montreal service, she and her sister had been painted white at the end of 1966 and from 1968 Carmania sailed as a full time cruise ship until withdrawal after arriving at Southampton on 31 October 1971. In August 1973 she was bought by the Soviet Union-based Black Sea Shipping Company and renamed SS Leonid Sobinov; the ship was scrapped in 1999. Prior to World War II, Cunard's Canadian services had been maintained by a group of six similar 14,000 GRT liners of the Andania class built between 1922 and 1925.
One of these was a war loss and another four were purchased by the Admiralty during the war and converted to naval repair ships. None of these returned to commercial service; this left Cunard with Ascania from its pre war Canadian fleet. She was joined in the post war service by three of the surviving units of the 20,000 GRT Scythia class, built for the Liverpool-New York service. Of the four, only Ascania was able to reach Montreal, draught causing the others to turn around at Quebec. With this unsatisfactory situation and the age of the ships, it was inevitable that the decision to build would be taken and at the end of 1951 Cunard announced its intention to order two new ships for the Canadian service. Saxonia was launched on 17 February 1954 by Lady Churchill, wife of the Prime Minister, revived a name used for the Cunard liner RMS Saxonia, launched in 1899 and scrapped in 1925. Completed early in August 1954, Saxonia arrived in Liverpool on the 23rd of that month and was prepared for her maiden voyage from Liverpool to Montreal which began on 2 September 1954.
She was joined by her sisters, Ivernia in July 1955, Carinthia in June 1956 and Sylvania in June 1957. The ship was given another Cunard name from earlier in the century, Carmania; as Carmania, the vessel continued service on the Rotterdam - Le Havre - Southampton - Canada route for several years, cruised in the Caribbean and Mediterranean in the winters. During 1968, difficulties with US fire regulations resulted in cancellation of a winter cruise from Port Everglades. Cunard made some minor modifications to the ship before the next sailing in January 1969. On a cruise the vessel ran aground on a sandbank off San Salvador Island in the Bahamas. Three months after returning to service the ship collided with the 3,900-ton Soviet tanker Frunze, but damage to both vessels was minor, she was laid up at Southampton in 1971. In August 1973 she was bought by the Soviet Union-based Black Sea Shipping Company and renamed after Leonid Sobinov. In January 1979, as the ship lay in Sydney Harbour, an 18-year-old crew member, Liliana Gasinskaya, slipped out of a porthole wearing only a red bikini, swam across the harbour to claim political asylum.
She achieved fame as the Red Bikini Girl, amongst other things, was the first nude centerfold in Australia's edition of Penthouse Magazine. By 1995, the liner was laid up, in 1999, she was brought to Alang and scrapped after a long and varied career. Saxonia on Chris' Cunard Page
SS Great Eastern
SS Great Eastern was an iron sailing steamship designed by Isambard Kingdom Brunel, built by J. Scott Russell & Co. at Millwall Iron Works on the River Thames, London. She was by far the largest ship built at the time of her 1858 launch, had the capacity to carry 4,000 passengers from England to Australia without refuelling, her length of 692 feet was only surpassed in 1899 by the 705-foot 17,274-gross-ton RMS Oceanic, her gross tonnage of 18,915 was only surpassed in 1901 by the 701-foot 21,035-gross-ton RMS Celtic, her 4,000-passenger capacity was surpassed in 1913 by the 4,935-passenger SS Imperator. The ship's five funnels were rare; these were reduced to four. Brunel knew her affectionately as the "Great Babe", he died in 1859 shortly after her ill-fated maiden voyage, during which she was damaged by an explosion. After repairs, she plied for several years as a passenger liner between Britain and North America before being converted to a cable-laying ship and laying the first lasting transatlantic telegraph cable in 1866.
Finishing her life as a floating music hall and advertising hoarding in Liverpool, she was broken up on Merseyside in 1889. After his success in pioneering steam travel to North America with Great Western and Great Britain, Brunel turned his attention to longer voyages as far as Australia and realised the potential of a ship that could travel round the world without the need of refuelling. On 25 March 1852, Brunel made a sketch of a steamship in his diary and wrote beneath it: "Say 600 ft x 65 ft x 30 ft"; these measurements were six times larger by volume than any ship afloat. Brunel realised. Using paddle wheels meant that the ship would be able to reach Calcutta, where the Hooghly River was too shallow for screws. Brunel showed his idea to John Scott Russell, an experienced naval architect and ship builder whom he had first met at the Great Exhibition. Scott Russell made his own calculations as to the ship's feasibility, he calculated that it would have a displacement of 20,000 tons and would require 8,500 horsepower to achieve 14 knots, but believed it was possible.
At Scott Russell's suggestion, they approached the directors of the Eastern Steam Navigation Company. The Eastern Company was formed in January 1851 with the plan of exploiting the increase in trade and emigration to India and Australia. To make this plan viable they needed a subsidy in the form of a mail contract from the British General Post Office, which they tendered for and Brunel started the construction of two vessels and Adelaide. However, in March 1852 the Government awarded the contracts to the Peninsular and Oriental Steam Navigation Company though the Eastern Company's tender was lower; this left them in the position of having a company without a purpose. Brunel's large ship promised to be able to compete with the fast clippers that dominated the route, as she would be able to carry sufficient coal for a non-stop passage and the company invited him to present his ideas to the board, he was unable to attend due to illness and Scott Russell took his place. The Company set up a committee to investigate the proposal, they reported in favour and the scheme was adopted at a board meeting held in July 1852.
Brunel was appointed Engineer to the project and he began to gather tenders to build the hull, paddle engines and screw engines. Brunel had a considerable stake in the company and when requested to appoint a resident engineer refused in no uncertain terms: I cannot act under any supervision, or form part of any system which recognises any other advisor than myself... if any doubt arises on these points I must cease to be responsible and cease to act. He was just as firm in the terms for the final contract where he insisted that nothing was to be undertaken without his express consent, that procedures and requirements for the construction were laid down. Although Brunel had estimated the cost of building the ship at £500,000, Scott Russell offered a low tender of £377,200: £275,200 for the hull, £60,000 for the screw engines and boilers, £42,000 for the paddle engines and boilers. Scott Russell offered to reduce the tender to £258,000 if an order for a sister ship was placed at the same time.
Brunel accepted Scott Russell's tender without questioning it. In the spring of 1854 work could at last begin; the first problem to arise was. Scott Russell's contract stipulated that it was to be built in a dock, but Russell quoted a price of £8–10,000 to build the necessary dock and so this part of the scheme was abandoned due to the cost and to the difficulty of finding a suitable site for the dock; the idea of a normal stern first launch was rejected because of the great length of the vessel because to provide the right launch angle the bow of the ship would have to be raised 40 feet in the air. It was decided to build the ship sideways to the river and use a mechanical slip designed by Brunel for the launch; the mechanical design was dropped on the grounds of cost, although the sideways plan remained. Having decided on a sideways launch, a suitable site had to be found, as S
Queen Elizabeth 2
Queen Elizabeth 2 referred to as QE2, is a floating hotel and retired ocean liner built for the Cunard Line, operated by Cunard as both a transatlantic liner and a cruise ship from 1969 to 2008. Since 18 April 2018, she has been operating as a floating hotel in Dubai. QE2 was designed for the transatlantic service from her home port of Southampton, UK to New York, she was named after the earlier Cunard liner RMS Queen Elizabeth, she served as the flagship of the line from 1969 until succeeded by RMS Queen Mary 2 in 2004. QE2 was built in Clydebank, Scotland, she was considered the last of the great transatlantic ocean liners until Queen Mary 2 entered service. QE2 was the last oil-fired passenger steamship to cross the Atlantic in scheduled liner service until she was refitted with a modern diesel powerplant in 1986-87, she undertook regular world cruises during 40 years of service, operated predominantly as a cruise ship, sailing out of Southampton, England. QE2 never ran a year-round weekly transatlantic express service to New York.
She did, continue the Cunard tradition of regular scheduled transatlantic crossings every year of her service life. QE2 was never given a Royal Mail Ship designation, instead carrying the SS and MV or MS prefixes in official documents. QE2 was retired from active Cunard service on 27 November 2008, she had been acquired by the private equity arm of Dubai World, which planned to begin conversion of the vessel to a 500-room floating hotel moored at the Palm Jumeirah, Dubai. The 2008 financial crisis intervened and the ship was laid up at Dubai Drydocks and Port Rashid. Subsequent conversion plans were announced by in 2012 and by the Oceanic Group in 2013 but these both stalled. In November, 2015 Cruise Arabia & Africa quoted DP World chairman Ahmed Sultan Bin Sulayem as saying that QE2 would not be scrapped and a Dubai-based construction company announced in March, 2017 that it had been contracted to refurbish the ship; the restored QE2 opened to visitors on 18 April 2018, with a soft opening. The grand opening was set for October 2018.
By 1957, it was obvious that transatlantic travel was becoming dominated by air travel due to its speed and low cost relative to sea routes, with passenger numbers split 50:50 between sea and air transport. The increase in market share by air showed no signs of slowing down once the Boeing 707 entered service in 1958. Conversely, Queen Mary and Queen Elizabeth were becoming expensive to operate, both internally and externally were relics of the pre-war years and needed to be retired by the mid-1960s. Despite falling passenger revenues, Cunard did not want to give up its traditional role as a provider of a North Atlantic passenger service, so decided to replace the existing ageing Queens with a new ocean liner designated "Q3", as it would be the third Cunard Queen; the Q3 was projected to measure 75,000 gross register tons, have berths for 2,270 passengers, cost an estimated ₤30 million. Work had proceeded as far as the preparation of submissions from six shipyards and applying for government financial assistance with the construction when misgivings among some executives and directors, coupled with a shareholder revolt, led to the benefits of the project being reappraised and cancelled on 19 October 1961.
Cunard decided to continue with a replacement "Queen" but with an altered operating regime and more flexible design. Realising the decline of transatlantic trade, it was visualised that she would be a three-class dual-purpose ship operating for eight months of the year on the transatlantic route, during the winter months would operate as a cruise ship in warmer climates. Compared with the old "Queen", which had two engine rooms and four propellers, the newly designated Q4 would be smaller with one boiler room, one engine room and two propellers, which combined with automation would allow a smaller engineering complement. Despite producing 110,000 shp, she was to have the same service speed of 28.5 knots as previous Queens which needed 160,000shp, while its fuel consumption would be halved to 520 tons, expected to save ₤1 million a year in fuel bills. The Q4 would be able to transit the Panama Canal and Suez Canal and her draught of 32 feet, seven feet less than her predecessors, would allow her to enter ports that the old Queens could not, so compete with the new generation of cruise ships.
The original construction budget was ₤22 million, but costs soon began to increase, which led to the decision to reduce the number of boilers from four to three. The interior and superstructure for the QE2 was designed by James Gardner, his design for the ocean liner was described by The Council of Industrial Design as that of a "very big yacht" and with a "look sleek and purposeful". At the time of retirement, the ship was 963 ft long. QE2 had a top speed of 32.5 knots with her original steam turbines. The steel hull had a bulbous bow and was welded which avoided the weight penalty of over ten million rivets and overlapped plates compared with the previous "Queen". Like both Normandie and France, QE2 had clean forecastle. What was controversial at the time, was that Cunard decided not to paint the funnel with the line's distinctive colour and pattern, something, done on all merchant vessels since the first Cunard ship, the RMS Britannia, sailed in 1840. Instead, the funnel was painted white and black, with the Cunard orange-red appearing only on the inside
Disney Cruise Line
Disney Cruise Line is a cruise line operation, a subsidiary of The Walt Disney Company. The company was incorporated in 1996 as Magical Cruise Company Limited and is domiciled in London, with their operational headquarters located in Celebration, Florida. Disney Cruise Line operates four ships: Disney Magic, Disney Wonder, Disney Dream, Disney Fantasy. Three as-yet-unnamed ships will join the fleet in 2021, 2022, 2023. Disney Cruise Line owns Castaway Cay, a private island in the Bahamas designed as an exclusive port of call for Disney's ships. Disney Cruise Line operates the Disney Cruise Line Terminal in Florida. In 2018, Disney Cruise Lines had 2.3 percent of the worldwide cruise market by passenger and 2.2 percent by revenue. In 2015, Disney Cruise Lines had 2.8 percent of the worldwide cruise market by passenger and 2.4 percent by revenue, while in 2011, the company held a 1.95 percent market share. The line pioneered the rotational dining concept, in which guest would rotate with their wait staff through three different main dining rooms.
In 1985, Premier Cruise Line became the licensed partner cruise line with Disney. This allowed Disney characters on their ships and combined cruise and theme park packages. In 1993, Premier ended the Disney character license for a license for Warner Brothers characters. Premier continued to offer Disney sea packages while adding Universal Studios as an option, thus Disney approached both Carnival and Royal Caribbean cruise lines to replace Premier as an exclusive sea partner. When Disney's negotiations with two major cruise lines and Royal Caribbean, did not produce results, Disney had cruise ship designs drawn up by February 1994. Meanwhile, Walt Disney Travel Company started signing up other cruise lines to offer packages that included Disney hotels and resorts. On May 3, 1994, Disney announced that they intended to start their own cruise line with operations starting in 1998. Arthur Rodney was selected to serve as the first president of the cruise line tentatively called Disney Vacation Cruises.
Disney Cruise Line in 1995 commissioned Disney Disney Wonder from Fincantieri in Italy. The cruise line was incorporated as Devonson Cruise Company, Limited on February 6, 1996, in the United Kingdom, but soon was renamed Magical Cruise Company Limited on October 1, 1996; the cruise line cost as much as a theme park to start up. In 1996, Magical Cruise Company purchased Gorda Cay as the line's private island; the company renamed it Castaway Cay. The Disney Magic's first cruise was postponed twice, scheduled for March 1998 while the Disney Wonder was scheduled for December 1998. On July 30, 1998, with the first voyage of Magic, the Disney Cruise Line was operational. A 10-year contract was signed with Port Canaveral for its home terminal. With the August 31, 1999, resignation of Rodney as cruise line president, senior operating officer Matt Ouimet was named as his replacement in July. By 2002, the line added western Caribbean cruises. In June 2005, Disney Magic moved its port for the summer cruise season to the Port of Los Angeles.
This was temporary for the company's 50th-anniversary celebration of Disneyland and as a test for California expansion. The transfer cruise sold out quicker than expected. Bookings from first time Disney cruisers were up for these cruises by at least 60%. While Disney has wanted additional ships, shipbuilding cost have increased by at least 33% since it built its first two ships. A ship was transferred to the Mediterranean for an extended stay in 2007. In 2007, Disney announced the building of two new cruise ships. Disney Dream set sail in Jan 2011, followed by Disney Fantasy in 2012. Meyer Werft shipyard, based in Papenburg, built the new ships. In February 2009, Tom McAlpin left the Disney Cruise Line presidency and was replaced by Karl Holz as president of Disney Cruise Line and New Vacation Operations. In early 2009, Disney and Canaveral Port Authority extended their agreement to 2022 with expansion to the terminal to handle the new class of ships. A re-posting of the Disney Magic to Europe in 2010 adding DCL's first North European cruises with Mediterranean cruises.
With the arrival of Disney Dream in 2011, Disney Wonder was relocated to Los Angeles. With the arrival of Disney Fantasy in 2012, Disney Magic was relocated to New York City in May 2012 for only the Summer season, before relocating to Galveston, Texas. At the February 2016 Cruise Critic Cruisers' Choice Awards, three of Disney's ships won 11 category awards; the company ordered ship of a new class of ship, Triton, in 2016 and 2017. On March 3, 2016, at the company annual meeting, Walt Disney Company Chairman Bob Iger announced that two new ships were planned to be built larger than the previous two ships; these ships are expected to join the line in 2021 and 2023. On July 15, 2017, Bob Chapek, President of Walt Disney Parks & Resorts, announced at the D23 Expo that a seventh unnamed ship will join the fleet. In April 2017, it was announced that Karl Holz would retire as president of Disney Cruise Line on February 15, 2018 and Anthony Connelly would assumed the role of president on October 1, 2017.
Soon after a March 2018 conglomerate wide reorganization that formed Disney Parks and Products segment division, Disney Cruise Line and New Vacation Operations was renamed Disney Signature Experiences along with a new president, Jeff Vahle. Disney Cruise Line purchase in early March 2019 another Bahamas destination, Lighthouse Point property on the island of Eleuthera from the Bahamas Government; the cruise line was looking for another Bahamas location since the announcement of the third ship expansion in 2016. Disney is expected to spend $250 million and $4
The Italian Line or Italia Line, whose official name was Italia di Navigazione S.p. A. was a passenger shipping line that operated regular transatlantic services between Italy and the United States, Italy and South America. During the late 1960s the company turned to running cruises, from 1981 it became a global freight operator; the company was founded in 1932 through a merger of the Genoa-based Navigazione Generale Italiana, the Turin-based Lloyd Sabaudo, the Trieste-based Cosulich STN lines, encouraged by the Italian government. The new company acquired the Cosulich-owned ships MS Saturnia and MS Vulcania, the Lloyd Sabaudo-owned SS Conte Rosso, SS Conte Biancamano and SS Conte Grande and the NGI-owned SS Giulio Cesare, SS Duilio, SS Roma and MS Augustus; the same year two commissioned ocean liners were delivered to the company: SS Rex, that captured the Blue Riband in 1933, SS Conte di Savoia. During World War II, the company lost many ships, including the Conte di Savoia. Others were converted into troopships.
Commercial service was resumed in 1947 under the company's new name Società di navigazione Italia. In addition to the four vessels returned to the company by the United States, two new vessels, SS Andrea Doria and SS Cristoforo Colombo were commissioned in 1953 and 1954. In 1956, Andrea Doria, the company's three-year-old flagship collided with the Swedish ship Stockholm near Nantucket and sank, with passenger deaths estimated at 46 or 55; the company replaced the Andrea Doria with the SS Leonardo da Vinci, which went into service in 1960. This ship was based on the same design as Andrea Doria, but was larger, featured technical innovations. In the late 1950s, aircraft passenger travel had yet to have a noticeable effect on ocean-going passenger numbers between the United States and the Mediterranean; the Italian Line, ordered two new ships, the SS Michelangelo and SS Raffaello. Construction of the ships took longer than expected, they were not delivered until 1965. Being late into service, they were not able to profitably compete on the North Atlantic route.
Although planned for cruising as an alternative, the ships had several design flaws that made their use as cruise ships problematic. Despite huge financial loss, the Italian Line operated the transatlantic route until 1976, after which the Leonardo da Vinci was withdrawn from service; the Leonardo da Vinci became a cruise ship in 1977–1978, after which it was withdrawn due to high fuel costs. In 1979 and 1980 the company operated two ex-Lloyd Triestino liners, SS Galileo Galilei and SS Guglielmo Marconi, as a cruise ships, but this again proved unprofitable; because of the unprofitability of the cruise business, the Italian Line turned to freight shipping. It operated its principal container services between the Mediterranean, the west coast of North America, Central and South America, carrying about 180,000 twenty-foot equivalent units of freight in 2001. Owned by the Italian government, the company was privatized in 1998 when sold to d'Amico Società di Navigazione. In August 2002, it was acquired by CP Ships, in 2005 the Italian Line name ceased to exist following CP's one-brand strategy.
CP Ships itself was bought-out in late 2005 by TUI AG, merged with Hapag-Lloyd in mid-2006. SCAC Code: ITAU BIC Code: ITAU GRT = Gross Register Tonnage GT = Gross Tonnage Bureau International des Containers CP Ships: Press release – CP Ships Completes Acquisition of Italia Di Navigazione, 6 August 2002 CP Ships: Press release – CP Ships Adopts a Single Brand, 28. April 2005 Italia Line: Official website – page offline – please refer to History of CP Ships William H. Miller. Picture History of the Italian Line, 1932–1977. Dover Publications. ISBN 978-0-486-40489-9; the Ships List Maritime Timetable images The Last Ocean Liners – Italian Line – trade routes and ships of the Italian Line in the 1950s, 60s and 70s