click links in text for more info
SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Furan

Furan is a heterocyclic organic compound, consisting of a five-membered aromatic ring with four carbon atoms and one oxygen. Chemical compounds containing such rings are referred to as furans. Furan is a colorless, flammable volatile liquid with a boiling point close to room temperature, it is soluble in common organic solvents, including alcohol and acetone, is soluble in water. Its odor is "ethereal, it may be carcinogenic in humans. Furan is used as a starting point to other speciality chemicals; the name "furan" comes from the Latin furfur. The first furan derivative to be described was 2-furoic acid, by Carl Wilhelm Scheele in 1780. Another important derivative, was reported by Johann Wolfgang Döbereiner in 1831 and characterised nine years by John Stenhouse. Furan itself was first prepared by Heinrich Limpricht in 1870, although he called it "tetraphenol". Industrially, furan is manufactured by the palladium-catalyzed decarbonylation of furfural, or by the copper-catalyzed oxidation of 1,3-butadiene: In the laboratory, furan can be obtained from furfural by oxidation to 2-furoic acid, followed by decarboxylation.

It can be prepared directly by thermal decomposition of pentose-containing materials, cellulosic solids pine wood. The Feist–Benary synthesis is a classic way to synthesize furans, although many syntheses have been developed. One of the simplest synthesis methods for furans is the reaction of 1,4-diketones with phosphorus pentoxide in the Paal–Knorr synthesis; the thiophene formation reaction of 1,4-diketones with Lawesson's reagent forms furans as side products. Many routes exist for the synthesis of substituted furans. Furan is aromatic because one of the lone pairs of electrons on the oxygen atom is delocalized into the ring, creating a 4n + 2 aromatic system similar to benzene; because of the aromaticity, the molecule lacks discrete double bonds. The other lone pair of electrons of the oxygen atom extends in the plane of the flat ring system; the sp2 hybridization is to allow one of the lone pairs of oxygen to reside in a p orbital and thus allow it to interact within the π system. Due to its aromaticity, furan's behavior is quite dissimilar to that of the more typical heterocyclic ethers such as tetrahydrofuran.

It is more reactive than benzene in electrophilic substitution reactions, due to the electron-donating effects of the oxygen heteroatom. Examination of the resonance contributors shows the increased electron density of the ring, leading to increased rates of electrophilic substitution. Furan serves as a diene in Diels–Alder reactions with electron-deficient dienophiles such as ethyl -3-nitroacrylate; the reaction product is a mixture of isomers with preference for the endo isomer: Diels-Alder reaction of furan with arynes provides corresponding derivatives of dihydronaphthalenes, which are useful intermediates in synthesis of other polycyclic aromatic compounds. Hydrogenation of furans sequentially affords tetrahydrofurans. In the Achmatowicz reaction, furans are converted to dihydropyran compounds. Pyrrole can be prepared industrially by reacting furan and ammonia in the presence of solid acid catalysts, such as SiO2 and Al2O3. Furan is found in heat-treated commercial foods and is produced through thermal degradation of natural food constituents.

It can be found in roasted coffee, instant coffee, processed baby foods. Research has indicated that coffee made in espresso makers, above all, coffee made from capsules, contains more furan than that made in traditional drip coffee makers, although the levels are still within safe health limits. Exposure to furan at doses about 2000 times the projected level of human exposure from foods increases the risk of hepatocellular tumors in rats and mice and bile duct tumors in rats. Furan is therefore listed as a possible human carcinogen. BS 4994 – Furan resin as thermoset FRP for chemical process plant equipments Furanocoumarin Furanoflavonoid Furanose Furantetracarboxylic acid Simple aromatic rings Furan fatty acids Tetrahydrofuran Recent synthetic methods

116th Field Artillery Regiment

The 116th Field Artillery is a regiment of the Florida Army National Guard. There are two battalions. "The 116th Field Artillery has had a singular history in the period covered since the date of its organization in Florida. No regiment of the Florida National Guard within the United States has had such dramatic calls upon its services. Woven into the pattern of everyday life, the work of the peacetime soldier calls forth little notice from the general public. However, when disaster threatens the structure of the commonwealth, either man-made, or by the hand of Providence, the National Guard steps promptly into the breach, with a steady hand applied, brings aid and comfort to the stricken and punishment to the law breaker." This regiment was organized during the First World War at Camp Wheeler, Georgia from 1 October 1917 through 1 November 1917, as part of the 31st Division. Although transported overseas it saw no combat action and was mustered from federal service on January 16, 1919. On December 5, 1921 Sumter L. Lowry Jr. of Tampa, upon commission issued by the Adjutant General, State of Florida presented for federal recognition three batteries to constitute units of a regiment to be known as the 116th Field Artillery.

Thus on December 5, 1921, three firing batteries, A, B, C formed the basis of the First Battalion 116th Field Artillery. Major Sumter L. Lowry Jr. commanding. The battalion was inspected and mustered into service by Lieutenant Colonel Vivian Collins present Adjutant General of Florida. Completion of the First Battalion was effected February 15, 1922, with the establishment of Headquarters Battery and Combat Train First Battalion. In 1922 the City of Tampa and Hillsborough County furnished land and funds for the construction of stables and armory buildings. An expansive movement was made for the establishment of a full regiment by the founding of the Second Battalion. Firing batteries D, E, F were located at Lakeland, Plant City, Arcadia with Headquarters Battery and Combat Train Second Battalion in Bartow; the Second Battalion participated in summer encampment in 1923 and was federally recognized as a unit in August 23, 1923, with Major Fred Hampton commanding. The regiment received official recognition at Tampa January 20, 1924.

The subordinate units of the 2nd Battalion, 116th Field Artillery were re-designated and relocated in some cases in different cities: HQ Battery - Lakeland. A Battery - Bartow. B Battery - Dade City. C Battery - Winter Haven. Service Battery - Haines City; the 2nd Battalion, 116th Field Artillery has seen service in Iraq and Afghanistan and served in Homestead, Florida in the aftermath of Hurricane Andrew. Constituted 18 September 1917 in the National Guard as the 116th Field Artillery and assigned to the 31st Division. Organized 1 October–1 November 1917 at Camp Wheeler, with National Guard personnel from Alabama and Georgia. Demobilized 16 January 1919 at Camp Gordon, Georgia. Reconstituted 14 December 1921 in the Florida National Guard as the 116th Field Artillery and assigned to the 31st Division. Organized 1922–1924 in Florida. Inducted into Federal service 25 November 1940 at home stations. Regiment broken up 27 February 1942 and its elements reorganized and redesignated as follows:Headquarters disbanded 1st and 2d Battalions as the 116th and 149th Field Artillery Battalions, elements of the 31st Infantry Division 116th Field Artillery Battalion inactivated 20 December 1945 at Camp Stoneman, California.

Relieved 13 June 1946 from assignment to the 31st Infantry Division. Assigned 5 July 1946 to the 51st Infantry Division. Consolidated 7 November 1946 with Headquarters, 116th Field Artillery, consolidated unit reorganized and Federally recognized as the 116th Field Artillery Battalion with Headquarters at Tampa. 149th Field Artillery Battalion inactivated 21 December 1945 at California. Relieved 13 June 1946 from assignment to the 31st Infantry Division. Assigned 5 July 1946 to the 48th Infantry Division. Reorganized and Federally recognized 8 November 1946 with Headquarters at Lakeland. Reorganized and redesignated 1 November 1955 as the 149th Armored Field Artillery Battalion, an element of the 48th Armored Division. 116th Field Artillery Battalion and 149th Armored Field Artillery Battalion consolidated 15 April 1959 to form the 116th Artillery, a parent regiment under the Combat Arms Regimental System, to consist of the 1st and 3d Howitzer Battalions, elements of the 51st Infantry Division, the 2d Howitzer Battalion, an element of the 48th Armored Division.

Reorganized 15 February 1963 to consist of the 1st and 3d Howitzer Battalions and the 2d Howitzer Battalion, an element of the 53d Separate Infantry Brigade. Reorganized 1 March 1964 to consist of the 1st and 3d Howitzer Battalions and the 2d Battalion, an element of the 53d Armored Brigade. Reorganized 20 January 1968 to consist of the 1st Battalion and the 2d Battalion, an element of the 53d Infantry Brigade. Redesignated 1 May 1972 as the 116th Field Artillery. Reorganized 1 October 1984 to consist of the 1st and 3d Battalions and the 2d Battalion, an element of the 53d Infantry Brigade. Withdrawn 1 June 1989 from the Combat Arms Regimental System and reorganized under the United States Army Regimental System. Reorganized 1 September 1993 to consist of the 2d Battalion, an element of the 53d Infantry Bri

Where in the World Is Osama bin Laden?

Where in the World Is Osama Bin Laden? is a 2008 documentary film, conceived by Adam Dell and co written, directed by and starring Morgan Spurlock, an American independent filmmaker. The title of the film is a play on the title of the television game show and computer game series, Where in the World Is Carmen Sandiego?, other “Where in the World is” themes. After some comical animations involving Al-Qaeda leader Osama bin Laden, the film shows Spurlock visiting various countries associated with or affected by Bin Laden; the film contains short interviews with many people about Bin Laden and Islamic fundamentalism, about the United States and its war on terror. Spurlock searches for Bin Laden, he asks people at random in the street where he is; the film is intercut with images of Spurlock's wife in the late stages of her pregnancy. Much of Spurlock's commentary is based on the concerns of a new father. Spurlock visits Morocco, Saudi Arabia, Israel and Pakistan. In Afghanistan, guarded by about 21 Afghan soldiers, he visits Tora Bora.

A local government official is shown. Spurlock is shown on a US Army patrol as an embedded journalist. Spurlock is shown hesitating to enter the area of Pakistan near the Afghan border where Bin Laden is at the time, closed to foreigners, deciding not to go there, arguing that it is not worth the risk, he concludes that the people in the countries he visited are ordinary people just like himself and the audience. CIA revealed that Osama bin Laden himself had a copy of the film at his hideout in Abottabad, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. List of cultural references of the September 11 attacks Being Osama Where in the World Is Osama Bin Laden? on IMDb Where in the World Is Osama Bin Laden? at Rotten Tomatoes Where in the World Is Osama Bin Laden? at Metacritic Where in the World Is Osama Bin Laden? at Box Office Mojo Where in the World Is Osama Bin Laden? at AllMovie Where in the World is Osama Bin Laden? at sundance.org

South Tampa

South Tampa is a region in the city of Tampa that includes the neighborhoods of Beach Park, Ballast Point, Bayshore Beautiful, Bayshore Gardens, Bayside West, Belmar Shore, Davis Islands, Port Tampa, Fair Oaks-Manhattan Manor, Hyde Park, New Suburb Beautiful, Virginia Park, Palma Ceia, Rattlesnake Gandy-Sun Bay South, South Westshore, parts of Sunset Park and Courier City-Oscawana. MacDill Air Force Base is included; the region represents District 4 of the Tampa City Council. The ZIP Codes serving the area are 33606, 33608, 33609, 33611, 33616, 33621, 33629 South Tampa is a region of several neighborhoods in Tampa, Florida and is located on the Interbay Peninsula, it is surrounded by Hillsborough Bay on the east and West Tampa on the north. Its main roadways include Dale Mabry Highway, U. S. Route 92, West Shore Boulevard, Bayshore Boulevard, Bay to Bay Boulevard, the Lee Roy Selmon Expressway; the region of South Tampa is the area between Kennedy Blvd to the north and MacDill Air Force Base in Tampa, Florida to the south.

South Tampa Chamber City of Tampa

Roger Angell

Roger Sergeant Angell is an American essayist known for his writing on sports baseball. He was its chief fiction editor for many years, he has written numerous works of fiction, non-fiction, criticism, for many years wrote an annual Christmas poem for The New Yorker. He received a number of awards for his writing, including the George Polk Award for Commentary in 1980, the Kenyon Review Award for Literary Achievement in 2005 along with Umberto Eco, the inaugural PEN/ESPN Lifetime Achievement Award for Literary Sports Writing in 2011, he was elected a Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 2007 and is a long-time ex-officio member of the council of the Authors Guild. Angell was inducted into the Baseball Reliquary's Shrine of the Eternals in 2010, he was named the 2014 recipient of the J. G. Taylor Spink Award by the Baseball Writers' Association of America on December 10, 2013. Angell is the son of Katharine Sergeant Angell White, The New Yorker’s first fiction editor, the stepson of renowned essayist E. B.

White, but was raised for the most part by his father, Ernest Angell, an attorney who became head of the American Civil Liberties Union. Angell attended Harvard University, he served in the United States Army Air Forces during World War II. Angell's earliest published works were pieces of personal narratives. Several of these pieces were collected in The Stone Arbor and Other Stories and A Day in the Life of Roger Angell, he first contributed to The New Yorker in March 1944. His contributions have continued into 2018. In 1948, Angell was employed at a travel magazine that featured literary writers, he first wrote professionally about baseball in 1962, when William Shawn, editor of The New Yorker, had him travel to Florida to write about spring training. Angell dislikes the term. In a review of Once More Around the Park for the Journal of Sport History, Richard C. Crepeau wrote that "Gone for Good", Angell's essay on the career of Steve Blass, "may be the best piece that anyone has written on baseball or any other sport".

Angell contributed commentary to the Ken Burns series Baseball, in 1994. One of his most striking of essays was collected in Season Ticket, about a spring training trip to see the Baltimore Orioles, where he interviewed Earl Weaver the Orioles manager, about Cal Ripken, Jr., starting his rookie season. Angell quoted Weaver as saying about Ripken that "his manager can just write his name into the lineup every day for the next fifteen years. Ripken was written into lineups every day for more than fifteen years, setting the consecutive-games-played streak of 2,632 games. Angell fathered three children: Callie and John Henry, he had Alice and Callie with his first wife Evelyn, John Henry with Carol. Callie Angell, an authority on the films of Andy Warhol, committed suicide on May 5, 2010, in Manhattan, where she worked as a curator at the Whitney Museum of American Art. In a 2014 essay, Angell mentioned her death – "the oceanic force and mystery of that event" – and his struggle to comprehend that "a beautiful daughter of mine, my oldest child, had ended her life."

Alice Angell lived in Portland and died from cancer on February 2, 2019, John Henry Angell lives in Portland, Oregon. His second wife, Carol Rogge Angell, to whom he was married for 48 years, died on April 10, 2012, of metastatic breast cancer at the age of 73. In 2014, he married a writer and teacher. In 2019, University of Nebraska Press published No Place I Would Rather Be: Roger Angell and a Life in Baseball Writing, a book about Angell's career written by Joe Bonomo. "Roger Angell as lively as at age 85". Profile. Sports Illustrated. May 17, 2006. "Roger Angell's bio and articles/stories". The New Yorker. Roger Angell at Library of Congress Authorities, with 24 catalog records

Nils Erik Bæhrendtz

Nils Erik Bæhrendtz was a Swedish literary historian, radio and television personality. Bæhrendtz played an important role in creating Sweden's first television news show Aktuellt, in bringing new television show formats to Sweden, he was head of Swedish Television during the 1960s. After his sudden resignation as powerful manager, he was the executive president of the Skansen open-air museum foundation in Stockholm during the 1970s. Nils Erik Bæhrendtz was born in 1916 in Stockholm, he was his wife Ida, born Jacobsson. Bæhrendtz studied Latin in high school, literary history at Stockholm University. Awarded a Ph. D. in 1952 for a thesis on the Norwegian realistic writer Alexander Kielland, Bæhrendtz became an associate professor of literature in Stockholm that year. In 1951 Bæhrendtz joined the Swedish Radio, becoming its program production manager the following year, he moved on to Swedish Television, at the time a department of the Swedish Radio. As the manager of the news desk, he introduced the news show Aktuellt in 1957.

Although the first transmission was deemed a virtual disaster, Aktuellt soon became an important part of news media in Sweden. Bæhrendtz participated in the introduction a number of popular television shows in Sweden, he is best known for presenting the television show Kvitt eller dubbelt – 10.000 kronorsfrågan. Kvitt eller dubbelt was based on the American television show The $64,000 Question and is regarded as the definite breakthrough for a popular television program in Sweden; the first Kvitt eller dubbelt episode was aired on January 12, 1957. In that episode, 14-year-old Ulf Hannerz, presented by his nickname Hajen, competed in the subject "tropical aquarium fish". Hannerz succeeded in winning 10,000 Kronor due to a judgment error in the program; the judge asked him. He answered "hundfisk¨". No, the judge said, it's "slamkrypare". However, Ulf was indeed correct and the name slamkrypare entered the Swedish language as a term for a cocksure, but incorrect, assertion. Bæhrendtz's success in introducing news television and entertainment show formats resulted in him becoming program director and manager of Swedish Television in 1959.

This position made him quite powerful, he did not hesitate to fire one of Sweden's most popular television presenters, Olle Björklund, after his name appeared in a tobacco advertisement in 1961. When Swedish Television introduced íts second national television channel, SVT2, Bæhrendtz was a strong supporter of a system based on one television channel financed by commercials along the original license-paid channel. However, he never gained any support by the Swedish social-democratic government to introduce commercials in Swedish television, this is believed to be the main reason for his unexpected resignation from being television executive in 1968. After his resignation from television, Bæhrendtz became executive president of the Skansen foundation in 1969, a post he served for 13 years, until 1982. In 1969 the Skansen open-air museum was in deep financial difficulties, but Bæhrendtz's close connection to the government made sure that state funds to the museum park increased substantially.

He brought life into founder Arthur Hazelius's original spirit, made sure craftsmanship flourished, re-established the Solliden scene as an important entertainment stage, raised the number of visitors to the museum park by more than 600,000 per year. As the executive president of Skansen, Bæhrendtz remained a public figure in Sweden. On September 22, 1973, he made a brief comeback in television, hosting another season of Kvitt eller dubbelt, one of the most popular television shows in Swedish history. Nils Erik Bæhrendtz was married to Maj-Britt, he died in 2002 in Saltsjö-Boo, east of Stockholm. Kvitt eller dubbelt with Ulf "Hajen" Hannerz, February 9, 1957