New International Encyclopedia
The New International Encyclopedia was an American encyclopedia first published in 1902 by Dodd and Company. It descended from the International Cyclopaedia and was updated in 1906, 1914 and 1926; the New International Encyclopedia was the successor of the International Cyclopaedia. The International Cyclopaedia was a reprint of Alden's Library of Universal Knowledge, a reprint of the British Chambers's Encyclopaedia; the title was changed to The New International Encyclopedia in 1902, with editors Harry Thurston Peck, Daniel Coit Gilman, Frank Moore Colby. The encyclopedia was popular and reprints were made in 1904, 1905, 1907, 1909 and 1911; the 2nd edition appeared from 1914 to 1917 in 24 volumes. With Peck and Gilman deceased, Colby was joined by Talcott Williams; this edition was set up from new type and revised. It was strong in biography. A third edition was published in 1923, however this was a reprint with the addition of a history of the First World War in volume 24, a reading and study guide.
A two-volume supplement was published in 1925 and was incorporated into the 1927 reprint, which had 25 volumes. A further two volumes supplement in 1930 along with another reprint; the final edition was published in 1935, now under the Wagnalls label. This edition included another updating supplement, authored by Herbert Treadwell Wade; some material from the The New International would be incorporated into future books published by Funk and Wagnall's books such as Funk & Wagnalls Standard Encyclopaedia. The 1926 material was printed in Massachusetts, by Yale University Press. Boston Bookbinding Company of Cambridge produced the covers. Thirteen books enclosing 23 volumes comprise the encyclopedia, which includes a supplement after Volume 23; each book contains about 1600 pages. Like other encyclopedias of the time, The New International had a yearly supplement, The New International Yearbook, beginning in 1908. Like the encyclopedia itself, this publication was sold to Funk and Wagnalls in 1931.
It was edited by Frank Moore Colby until his death in 1925, by Wade. In 1937 Frank Horace Vizetelly became editor; the yearbook outlasted the parent encyclopedia, running to 1966. More than 500 men and women submitted and composed the information contained in the The New International Encyclopedia. Walsh, S. P.. Anglo-American general encyclopedias: a historical bibliography, 1703–1967. New York: Bowker. OCLC 577541. Works related to The New International Encyclopedia at Wikisource
United Technologies Corporation is an American multinational conglomerate headquartered in Farmington, Connecticut. It researches and manufactures products in numerous areas, including aircraft engines, aerospace systems, HVAC, elevators and escalators and security, building systems, industrial products, among others. UTC is a large military contractor, getting about 10% of its revenue from the U. S. government. Gregory J. Hayes is the chairman. In 1974, Harry Gray left Litton Industries to become the CEO of United Aircraft, he pursued a strategy of growth and diversification, changing the parent corporation's name to United Technologies Corporation in 1975 to reflect the intent to diversify into numerous high tech fields beyond aerospace. The diversification was to balance civilian business against any overreliance on military business. UTC became a mergers and acquisitions –focused organization, with various forced takeovers of unwilling smaller corporations; the next year, UTC forcibly acquired Otis Elevator.
In 1979, Carrier Refrigeration and Mostek were acquired. At one point the military portion of UTC's business, whose sensitivity to "excess profits" and boom/bust demand drove UTC to diversify away from it carried the weight of losses incurred by the commercial M&A side of the business. Although M&A activity was not new to United Aircraft, the M&A activity of the 1970s and 1980s was higher-stakes and arguably unfocused. Rather than aviation being the central theme of UTC businesses, high tech was the new theme; some Wall Street watchers questioned the true value of M&A at any price for its own sake. Mostek was sold in 1985 to the French electronics company Thomson. UTC acquired Sundstrand Corporation in 1999, merged it into UTC's Hamilton Standard unit to form Hamilton Sundstrand. In 2003, UTC entered the security business by purchasing Chubb Security. In 2004, UTC acquired the Schweizer Aircraft Corporation which planned to operate as a wholly owned subsidiary under their Sikorsky Aircraft division.
In 2005, UTC further pursued its stake in the security business by purchasing Kidde. In 2005, UTC acquired Boeing's Rocketdyne division, merged into the Pratt & Whitney business unit. In 2007, UTC opened the Hawk Works, a Rapid Prototyping and Military Derivatives Completion Center located west of the Elmira-Corning Regional Airport in Big Flats, New York. In March 2008, UTC made a $2.63 billion bid to acquire Diebold, a Canton, Ohio based manufacturer of banking and voting machines. Diebold rejected the buyout bid as inadequate. In November 2008, UTC's Carrier Corporation acquired an energy service company. In December 2009, it was announced that UTC would acquire a 49.5% stake in Clipper Windpower for $206 million. In April 2010, UTC announced that it was investing €15 million to set up the United Technologies Research Centre Ireland in University College Cork which will carry out research on energy and security systems. In October 2010, UTC agreed with Clipper to acquire the rest of the company.
In September 2011, UTC acquired a $18.4 billion deal for aircraft components maker Goodrich Corporation. In June 2012, it was discovered. For pleading guilty to violating the Arms Export Control Act and making false statements, United Technologies and its subsidiaries were fined $75 million. In July 2012, United Technologies merged it with Hamilton Sundstrand. In February 2013, UTC Power was sold to ClearEdge Power. In October 2014, Toshiba and United Technologies made a deal to expand their joint venture outside Japan. In January 2015, UTC Building & Industrial Systems completed the acquisition of CIAT Group, a leading HVAC manufacturing company in France. In November, Lockheed Martin completed its $9.0 billion acquisition of Sikorsky Aircraft. In February 2016, UTC subsidiary Carrier Air Conditioner announced to employees at its Indianapolis plant that Carrier is moving manufacturing to Mexico: “The best way to stay competitive and protect the business for long-term is to move production from our facility in Indianapolis to Monterrey, Mexico.”
In December, Carrier agreed keeping 1,100 jobs in Indianapolis. On September 4, 2017, UTC proposed to acquire Rockwell Collins in cash and stock for $23 billion, $30 billion including Rockwell Collins' net debt, for $500+ million of synergies expected by year four. On November 26, 2018, the company announced the Rockwell Collins deal had closed, that it will split into three independent companies. Pratt and Whitney and the newly-formed Collins Aerospace will remain under United Technologies, while Otis Elevator and UTC Climate, Controls & Security will be spun off as two independent companies. For the fiscal year 2017, United Technologies reported earnings of US$4.552 billion, with an annual revenue of US$59.837 billion, an increase of 4.5% over the previous fiscal cycle. United Technologies shares traded at over $114 per share, its market capitalization was valued at US$98.6 billion in October 2018. UTC ranked No. 51 in the 2018 Fortune 500 list of the largest United States corporations by total revenue.
Otis Elevator Company: Manufacturer and servicer of elevators and moving walkways. Pratt & Whitney: Designs and builds aircraft engines and gas turbines. Pratt & Whitney Canada Collins Aerospace: Designs and manufactures aerospace systems for commercial, regio
Gannett Co. Inc. is a publicly traded American mass media holding company headquartered in McLean, Virginia in Greater Washington DC. It is the largest U. S. newspaper publisher as measured by total daily circulation. Its assets include the national newspaper USA Today and the erstwhile weekly pullout magazine USA Weekend, found in local newspapers, its largest non-national newspaper is the Detroit Free Press in Detroit, Michigan. Other significant newspapers include The Indianapolis Star, The Cincinnati Enquirer, The Tennessean in Nashville, The Courier-Journal in Louisville, the Democrat and Chronicle in Rochester, New York, The Des Moines Register, The Arizona Republic in Phoenix, The News-Press in Fort Myers, the Milwaukee Journal Sentinel, the Great Falls Tribune. In 2015, Gannett Co. Inc. spun off its publishing business into a separate publicly traded entity, while retaining the internet media divisions. Following the spin off, the former parent Company renamed itself Tegna and owns 50 TV stations.
The spun-off publishing business renamed itself "Gannett". Gannett Company, Inc. was formed in 1923 by Frank Gannett in Rochester, New York, as an outgrowth of the Elmira Gazette, a newspaper business he had begun in Elmira, New York, in 1906. Gannett, known as a conservative, gained fame and fortune by purchasing small independent newspapers and developing them into a large chain, a 20th-century trend that helped the newspaper industry remain financially viable. By 1979, the chain had grown to 79 newspapers. In 1979, Gannett acquired Combined Communications Corp. operator of 2 major daily newspapers, the Oakland Tribune & The Cincinnati Enquirer, seven television stations, 13 radio stations, as well as an outdoor advertising division, for $370 million. The outdoor advertising became known as Gannett Outdoor, before being acquired by Outdoor Systems, before the company was sold to Infinity Broadcasting, which became part of Viacom, was part of CBS Corporation, until 2014 when CBS Outdoor went independent and became Outfront Media.
The company was headquartered in Rochester until 1986, when it moved to Arlington County, Virginia. Its former headquarters building, the Gannett Building, was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1985. Gannett's oldest newspaper still in circulation is the Leaf-Chronicle located in Clarksville, Tennessee. In 2001, the company moved to its current headquarters in Tysons Corner, a suburb of Washington, D. C. Beginning in 2005 at the Fort Myers News-Press, Gannett pioneered the mojo concept of mobile multimedia journalists, reporters who were untethered from conventional newsrooms and drove around their communities filing hyperlocal news via Wi-Fi in various formats including text for print publication, still photos for print and online publication, audio and video for the News-Press website; the practice has spread throughout the chain. On March 7, 2011, Gannett replaced the stylized "G" logo in use since the 1970s, adopted a new company tagline: "It's all within reach."In 2010, Gannett increased executive salaries and bonuses.
S. newspapers division president, was paid $3.4 million in 2010, up from $1.9 million the previous year. The next year, the company laid off 700 U. S. employees to cut costs. In the memo announcing the layoffs, Dickey wrote, "While we have sought many ways to reduce costs, I regret to tell you that we will not be able to avoid layoffs." In February 2012, Gannett announced that it would implement a paywall system across all of its daily newspaper websites, with non-subscriber access will be limited to between five and fifteen articles per month, varying by newspaper. The USA Today website became the only one to allow unrestricted access. On March 24, 2012, the company announced that it would discipline 25 employees in Wisconsin who had signed the petition to recall Governor Scott Walker, stating that this open public participation in a political process was a violation of the company's code of journalistic ethics and that their primary responsibility as journalists was to maintain credibility and public trust in themselves and the organization.
On August 21, 2012, Gannett acquired Blinq Media. Around the first week of October 2012, Gannett entered a dispute against Dish Network regarding compensation fees and Dish's AutoHop commercial-skip feature on its Hopper digital video recorders. Gannett ordered that Dish discontinue AutoHop on the account that it is affecting advertising revenues for Gannett's television station. Gannett threatened to pull all of its stations should the skirmish continue beyond October 7, Dish and Gannett fail to reach an agreement; the two parties reached an agreement after extending the deadline for a few hours. Gannett announced it would not be delaying print deadlines for the 2018 midterm elections in the United States, meaning that next-day newspapers would no longer contain the election's results, instead directing readers to the Internet. On June 13, 2013, Gannett announced plans to buy Dallas-based Belo Corporation for $1.5 billion and the assumption of debt. The purchase would add 20 additional stations to Gannett's portfolio and make the company the fourth largest television broadcaster in the U.
S. with 43 stations. Because of ownership conflicts that exist in markets where both Belo and Gannett own television stations and newspapers, the use of a third-party company as a licensee to buy stations to be operated by the owner of a same-market competitor and concerns about any possible future consolidation o
Budget Control Act of 2011
The Budget Control Act of 2011 is a federal statute enacted by the 112th United States Congress and signed into law by US President Barack Obama on August 2, 2011. The Act brought conclusion to the 2011 US debt-ceiling crisis; the law involves the introduction of several complex mechanisms, such as creation of the Congressional Joint Select Committee on Deficit Reduction, options for a balanced budget amendment, automatic budget sequestration. Debt ceiling: The debt ceiling was increased by $400 billion immediately; the President could request a further increase of $500 billion, subject to a congressional motion of disapproval which the President may veto, in which case a two-thirds majority in Congress would be needed to override the veto. This has been called the'McConnell mechanism' after the Senate Minority Leader Mitch McConnell, who first suggested it as part of another scheme; the President could request a final increase of $1.2–1.5 trillion, subject to the same disapproval procedure.
The exact amount depends on the amount of cuts in the "super committee" plan if it passes Congress, whether a Balanced budget amendment has been sent to the states. Deficit reduction: Spending was reduced more than the increase in the debt limit. No tax increases or other forms of increases in revenue above current law were included in the bill; the bill directly specified $917 billion of cuts over 10 years in exchange for the initial debt limit increase of $900 billion. This is the first installment of cuts. $21 billion of this will be applied in the FY2012 budget. Additionally, the agreement established the Joint Select Committee on Deficit Reduction, sometimes called the "super committee", to produce deficit reduction legislation by November 23, 2011, that would be immune from amendments or filibuster; the goal of the legislation was to cut at least $1.5 trillion over the coming 10 years and be passed by December 23, 2011. Projected revenue from the committee's legislation could not exceed the revenue budgeting baseline produced by current law.
The committee would have 6 from each party. The agreement specified an incentive for Congress to act. If Congress failed to produce a deficit reduction bill with at least $1.2 trillion in cuts Congress could grant a $1.2 trillion increase in the debt ceiling but this would trigger across-the-board cuts, as of January 2, 2013. These cuts would apply to mandatory and discretionary spending in the years 2013 to 2021 and be in an amount equal to the difference between $1.2 trillion and the amount of deficit reduction enacted from the joint committee. There would be some exemptions: reductions would apply to Medicare providers, but not to Social Security, Medicaid and military employee pay, or veterans. Medicare benefits would be limited to a 2% reduction; as envisioned, these caps would affect security and non-security programs. Security programs would include the U. S. Department of Defense, U. S. Department of Homeland Security, U. S. Department of Veterans Affairs, the National Nuclear Security Administration, some management functions of the intelligence community and international affairs from the U.
S. State Department. However, because the Joint Select Committee did not report any legislation to Congress, the act reset these caps to defense and non-defense categories; this became one of the important elements of the fiscal cliff. Balanced Budget Amendment: Congress was required to vote on a balanced budget amendment between October 1, 2011, the end of 2011, but is not required to pass it and send it to the states in order for the debt limit increases to occur.. Other provisions: Pell Grant funding was increased, but other financial aid was cut. Graduate and professional students were no longer eligible for interest subsidized loans. Repayment incentives will be done away with after July 1, 2012. Section 106 of the Budget Control Act amends the Congressional Budget Act of 1974 to provide a two-year Senate budget, adopting in law what would be a Concurrent Resolution. Senate Budget Committee Chairman explains in this video; the bill was the final chance in a series of proposals to resolve the 2011 United States debt-ceiling crisis, which featured bitter divisions between the parties and pronounced splits within them.
Earlier ideas included the Obama-Boehner $4 trillion "Grand Bargain", the House Republican Cut and Balance Act, the McConnell-Reid "Plan B" fallback. All failed to gain enough general political or specific Congressional support to move into law, as the midnight August 2, 2011, deadline for an unprecedented U. S. sovereign default drew nearer. The solution came from White House National Economic Council Director Gene Sperling, who, on July 12, 2011, proposed a compulsory trigger that would go into effect if another agreement was not made on tax increases and/or budget cuts equal to or greater than the debt ceiling increase by a future date; the intent of the sequester was to secure the commitment of both sides to future negotiation by means of an enforcement mechanism that would be unpalatable to Republicans and Democrats alike. President Obama agreed to the plan. House Speaker John Boehner expressed reservations, but agreed. On July 26, 2011, White House Budget Director Jack Lew and White House Legislative Affairs Director Rob Nabors met with Senate Majority Leader Harry Reid to discuss the plan
A skilled worker is any worker who has special skill, training and ability in their work. A skilled worker may have attended a university or technical school. Or, a skilled worker may have learned their skills on the job. Examples of skilled labor include engineers, software development, police officers, physicians, crane operators, truck drivers, drafters, craftsmen and accountants; these workers can be either blue-collar or white-collar workers, with varied levels of training or education. In the northern region of the United States, craft unions may have served as the catalyst to develop a strong solidarity in favor of skilled labor in the period of the Gilded Age. In the early 1880s, the craft unions of skilled workers walked hand in hand with the Knights of Labor but the harmony did not last long and by 1885, the Knights' leadership became hostile to trade unions; the Knights argued that the specialization of industrialization had undermined the bargaining power of skilled labor. This was true in the 1880s but it had not yet made obsolete the existence of craft unionism....
The impact of scientific management upon skilled workers should not be overstressed in the period before World War I. The period between 1901 and 1925 signals the rise and fall of the Socialist Party of America which depended on skilled workers. In 1906, with the publication of The Jungle, the most popular voice of socialism in the early 20th century, Upton Sinclair gave them ignorant "... Negroes and the lowest foreigners —Greeks, Roumanians and Slovaks" hell. There was a divergence in status within the working class between skilled and unskilled labor due to the fall in prices of some products and the skilled workers' rising standard of living after the depression of 1929. Skilled workers were the heart of the labor movement before World War I but during the 1920s, they lost much of their enthusiasm and the movement suffered thereby. In the 20th century, in Nazi Germany, the lower class was subdivided into: agricultural workers and semi-skilled workers, skilled craft workers, other skilled workers and domestic workers.
After the end of World War II, West Germany surpassed France in the employment of skilled labor needed at a time when industrialization was sweeping Europe at a fast pace. West Germany's preponderance in the training of skilled workers in technical schools, was the main factor to outweigh the balance between the two countries. In the period between 1950 and 1970, the number of technicians and engineers in West Germany rose from 160,000 to 570,000 by promoting skilled workers through the ranks so that those who were performing skilled labor in 1950 had become technicians and engineers by 1970. In the first decade of the 21st century, the average wage of a skilled machinist in the United States of America is $3,000 to $4,000 per month. In China, the average wage for a factory worker is $150 a month. In addition to the general use of the term, various agencies or governments, both federal and local, may require skilled workers to meet additional specifications; such definitions can affect matters such as immigration and eligibility for travel or residency.
For example, according to US Citizenship and Immigration Services, skilled worker positions are not seasonal or temporary and require at least two years of experience or training. Skilled work varies in education requirements and availability. Euch differences are reflected in titling, opportunity and salary. Both skilled and non-skilled workers are vital and indispensable for the smooth-running of a free-market and/or capitalist society. According to Alan Greenspan, former Chairman of the Federal Reserve Bank, "Enhancing elementary and secondary school sensitivity to market forces should help restore the balance between the demand for and the supply of skilled workers in the United States."Generally, individual skilled workers are more valued to a given company than individual non-skilled workers, as skilled workers tend to be more difficult to replace. As a result, skilled workers tend to demand more in the way of financial compensation because of their efforts. According to Greenspan, corporate managers are willing to bid up pay packages to acquire skilled workers as they identify the lack of skilled labor as one of today's greatest problems.
Education can be received in a variety of manners, is acknowledged through various means. Below is a sampling of educational conventions. On-the-job training - Apprenticeship - Vocational certification - Associate Degree - Higher Apprenticeship - Undergraduate Degree - Professional Degree - Graduate Degree - In American industry, there has been a change in the concentration of skilled workers from the areas of past economic might e. g. steel, automobile and chemicals to the more recent industry developments e. g. computers, telecommunications and information technology, stated to represent a plus rather than a minus for the American standard o
Furlough is a 2018 American comedy-drama film starring Tessa Thompson and Melissa Leo. The film was written by Barry Strugatz and produced by Leo. A young woman works part time at a prison while caring for her mother; the rookie guard gets a chance to prove her mettle when she's tasked with accompanying a hellraising inmate on an emergency furlough to visit her dying mother. But things soon spiral out of control, sending the pair on a touching road trip. Tessa Thompson as Nicole Stevens Melissa Leo as Joan Anderson Whoopi Goldberg as Mrs. Stevens Anna Paquin as Lily Benson Édgar Ramírez as Kevin Rivera La La Anthony as Brandy Erik Griffin as Warden Borden Drena De Niro as Linda The film has a 20% rating on Rotten Tomatoes. Furlough on IMDb Furlough at Rotten Tomatoes Furlough at Box Office Mojo
In military forces, leave is a permission to be away from one's unit, either for a specified or unspecified period of time. The term AWOL, standing for absent without leave, is a term for desertion used in armed forces of many English-speaking countries. Various militaries have specific rules. British troops in World War I received leave for "Blighty" every 15 months."Block leave" is the time allotted to be spent with families independently of their units and where they must not report to their units while on rotation from their tours. A furlough is an extended period of leave from front line service. For example, during World War II New Zealand soldiers who had served overseas for long periods were granted a "furlough" for a visit home; these soldiers on leave were called "furlough men" Leave