Lewis F. Powell Jr.
Lewis Franklin Powell Jr. was an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States. Powell compiled a record on the Court and cultivated a reputation as a swing vote with a penchant for compromise. He retired from the Supreme Court after 15 years of service, Powell was born in Suffolk, the son of Mary Lewis and Louis Franklin Powell, Sr. He attended Washington and Lee University, earning both an undergraduate and a law degree and he received a Master of Laws degree from Harvard Law School in 1932. He was elected president of student body as an undergraduate with the help of Mosby Perrow Jr. Powell was a member of Phi Kappa Sigma fraternity and the Sigma Society. At a leadership conference, he met Edward R. Murrow, in 1936, he married Josephine Pierce Rucker with whom he had three daughters and one son. During World War II, he first tried to join the US Navy, after he was rejected because of poor eyesight, he joined the US Army Air Forces as an Intelligence officer. After receiving his commission as a First Lieutenant in 1942, he completed training at bases near Miami and Harrisburg and he was assigned to the 319th Bombardment Group, which moved to England that year.
He served in North Africa during Operation Torch and was assigned to the Headquarters of the Northwest African Air Forces. There, Powell served in Sicily during the Allied invasion of Sicily, in August 1943, he was assigned to the Intelligence staff of the Army Air Forces in Washington, D. C. Slated for assignment as an instructor at the facility near Harrisburg and he was assigned to the Intelligence staff of the Department of War and the Intelligence staff of United States Strategic Air Forces in Europe. Powell was assigned to the Ultra project, as one of the designated to monitor the use of intercepted Axis communications. He advanced through the ranks to Colonel, and received the Legion of Merit, Bronze Star Medal and he was discharged in October 1945. In 1941, Powell served as Chairman of the American Bar Associations Young Lawyers Division, Powell was a partner for over a quarter of a century at Hunton, Gay and Gibson, a large Virginia law firm, with its primary office in Richmond. Powell practiced primarily in the areas of law and in railway litigation law.
He had been a member of Philip Morris from 1964 until his court appointment in 1971 and had acted as a contact point for the tobacco industry with the Virginia Commonwealth University. Through his law firm, Powell represented the Tobacco Institute and various companies in numerous law cases. Powell served as Chair of the American Bar Associations Standing Committee on the Economics of Law Practice from 1961 to 1962, during his tenure as Chair of the Committee, The Lawyers Handbook was first published and distributed to all attorneys who joined the ABA that year
Supreme Court of the United States
The Supreme Court of the United States is the highest federal court of the United States. In the legal system of the United States, the Supreme Court is the interpreter of federal constitutional law. The Court normally consists of the Chief Justice of the United States and eight justices who are nominated by the President. Once appointed, justices have life tenure unless they resign, retire, in modern discourse, the justices are often categorized as having conservative, moderate, or liberal philosophies of law and of judicial interpretation. Each justice has one vote, and while many cases are decided unanimously, the Court meets in the United States Supreme Court Building in Washington, D. C. The Supreme Court is sometimes referred to as SCOTUS, in analogy to other acronyms such as POTUS. The ratification of the United States Constitution established the Supreme Court in 1789 and its powers are detailed in Article Three of the Constitution. The Supreme Court is the court specifically established by the Constitution.
The Court first convened on February 2,1790, by which five of its six initial positions had been filled. According to historian Fergus Bordewich, in its first session, he Supreme Court convened for the first time at the Royal Exchange Building on Broad Street and they had no cases to consider. After a week of inactivity, they adjourned until September, the sixth member was not confirmed until May 12,1790. Because the full Court had only six members, every decision that it made by a majority was made by two-thirds. However, Congress has always allowed less than the Courts full membership to make decisions, under Chief Justices Jay and Ellsworth, the Court heard few cases, its first decision was West v. Barnes, a case involving a procedural issue. The Courts power and prestige grew substantially during the Marshall Court, the Marshall Court ended the practice of each justice issuing his opinion seriatim, a remnant of British tradition, and instead issuing a single majority opinion. Also during Marshalls tenure, although beyond the Courts control, the impeachment, the Taney Court made several important rulings, such as Sheldon v.
Nevertheless, it is primarily remembered for its ruling in Dred Scott v. Sandford, which helped precipitate the Civil War. In the Reconstruction era, the Chase and Fuller Courts interpreted the new Civil War amendments to the Constitution, during World War II, the Court continued to favor government power, upholding the internment of Japanese citizens and the mandatory pledge of allegiance. Nevertheless, Gobitis was soon repudiated, and the Steel Seizure Case restricted the pro-government trend, the Warren Court dramatically expanded the force of Constitutional civil liberties. It held that segregation in public schools violates equal protection and that traditional legislative district boundaries violated the right to vote
Byron Raymond Whizzer White won fame both as an American football halfback and as an associate justice of the Supreme Court of the United States. Born and raised in Colorado, White played in the National Football League for three seasons and practiced law for 15 years before his Supreme Court appointment, White was the Colorado state chair of John F. Kennedys 1960 presidential campaign. White was appointed to the Supreme Court by Kennedy in 1962 and he viewed his own court decisions as based on the facts of each case rather than as representative of a specific legal philosophy. He retired in 1993 and is the twelfth longest-serving justice in Supreme Court history and he was the first Supreme Court Justice from the state of Colorado. Born in Fort Collins, White was the son of Maude Elizabeth and Alpha Albert White. He was raised in the town of Wellington, where he obtained his high school diploma in 1934. He joined the Phi Gamma Delta fraternity and served as student body president his senior year.
Graduating Phi Beta Kappa in 1938, he won a Rhodes Scholarship to the University of Oxford in England, after deferring it for a year to play pro football, he attended Hertford College, Oxford. During this time in England, he acquainted with Joe and John Kennedy. As a senior, White led Colorado to an undefeated 8–0 regular season in 1937 and he was the runner-up for the Heisman Trophy, behind Yale quarterback Clint Frank, and played basketball and baseball at CU. The basketball team advanced to the finals of the inaugural National Invitation Tournament at Madison Square Garden in March 1938, White had originally planned to attend Oxford in 1938 and not play pro football. He was selected fourth overall in the 1938 NFL draft, held in December 1937, by the NFLs Pittsburgh Pirates, Oxford allowed White to delay his start to early 1939, so he accepted the Pittsburgh offer in August and played the 1938 season in the NFL. He led the league in rushing as a 21-year-old rookie and was its highest-paid player and he sailed to England in early 1939, with the intent of staying for three years.
With the outbreak of World War II in late summer, White returned to the United States and he was admitted to Yale Law School in early October 1939, a week after classes began, and played for the Detroit Lions in 1940 and 1941. In three NFL seasons, he played in 33 games and he led the league in rushing yards in 1938 and 1940, and he was one of the first big money NFL players, making US$15,000 per year. His NFL career was cut short when he entered the U. S. Navy in 1942, after the war and he was elected to the College Football Hall of Fame in 1954. During the war, White served as an officer in the U. S. Navy. He had originally wanted to join the Marines, but was out due to being colorblind
Warren E. Burger
Warren Earl Burger was the 15th Chief Justice of the United States from 1969 to 1986. Although Burger was a conservative, and the U. S. Warren Earl Burger was born in Saint Paul, Minnesota, in 1907 and his parents and Charles Joseph Burger, a traveling salesman and railroad cargo inspector, were of Austrian German descent. His grandfather, Joseph Burger, had emigrated from Tyrol, Joseph Burger fought and was wounded in the Civil War, resulting in the loss of his right arm and was awarded the Medal of Honor at the age of 14. Joseph Burger by age 16 became the youngest Captain in the Union Army, Burger grew up on the family farm near the edge of Saint Paul. He attended John A. Johnson High School, where he was president of the student council and he competed in hockey, football and swimming. While in high school, he wrote articles on school sports for local newspapers. That same year, Burger worked with the building the Robert Street Bridge. Concerned about the number of deaths on the project, he asked that a net be installed to catch anyone who fell, in years, Burger made a point of visiting the bridge whenever he came back to town.
Burger attended night school at the University of Minnesota while selling insurance for Mutual Life Insurance, afterward, he enrolled at Mitchell Hamline School of Law, receiving his degree magna cum laude in 1931. He took a job at the firm of Boyensen and Faricy, now known as Moore, in 1937, Burger served as the eighth president of the Saint Paul Jaycees. He taught for years at William Mitchell. His political career began uneventfully, but he rose to national prominence. He supported Minnesota Governor Harold E. Stassens unsuccessful pursuit of the Republican nomination for President in 1948, in 1952, at the Republican convention, he played a key role in Dwight D. Eisenhowers nomination by delivering the Minnesota delegation. After he was elected, President Eisenhower appointed Burger as the Assistant Attorney General in charge of the Civil Division of the Justice Department, in this role, he first argued in front of the Supreme Court. The case involved John P. Peters, a Yale University professor who worked as a consultant to the government and he had been discharged from his position on loyalty grounds.
Supreme Court cases are argued by the Solicitor General, but he disagreed with the governments position. In 1956, Eisenhower appointed him to the U. S. Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit and he remained on the Court of Appeals for thirteen years. In 1968, Chief Justice Earl Warren announced his retirement after 15 years on the Court, President Lyndon Johnson nominated sitting Associate Justice Abe Fortas to the position, but a Senate filibuster blocked his confirmation
Richard Milhous Nixon was an American politician who served as the 37th President of the United States from 1969 until 1974, when he became the only U. S. president to resign from office. He had previously served as a U. S, Representative and Senator from California and as the 36th Vice President of the United States from 1953 to 1961 under the presidency of Dwight D. Eisenhower. Nixon was born in Yorba Linda, after completing his undergraduate studies at Whittier College, he graduated from Duke University School of Law in 1937 and returned to California to practice law. He and his wife Pat moved to Washington in 1942 to work for the federal government and he subsequently served on active duty in the U. S. Navy Reserve during World War II. Nixon was elected to the House of Representatives in 1946 and to the Senate in 1950 and his pursuit of the Hiss Case established his reputation as a leading anti-communist, and elevated him to national prominence. He was the mate of Dwight D. Eisenhower, the Republican Party presidential nominee in the 1952 election.
Nixon served for eight years as vice president and he waged an unsuccessful presidential campaign in 1960, narrowly losing to John F. Kennedy, and lost a race for Governor of California to Pat Brown in 1962. In 1968, he ran for the presidency again and was elected by defeating incumbent Vice President Hubert Humphrey, Nixon ended American involvement in the war in Vietnam in 1973 and brought the American POWs home, and ended the military draft. His administration generally transferred power from Washington D. C. to the states and he imposed wage and price controls for a period of ninety days, enforced desegregation of Southern schools and established the Environmental Protection Agency. Nixon presided over the Apollo 11 moon landing, which signaled the end of the moon race and he was reelected in one of the largest electoral landslides in U. S. history in 1972, when he defeated George McGovern. The year 1973 saw an Arab oil embargo, gasoline rationing, the scandal escalated, costing Nixon much of his political support, and on August 9,1974, he resigned in the face of almost certain impeachment and removal from office.
After his resignation, he was issued a pardon by his successor, in retirement, Nixons work writing several books and undertaking of many foreign trips helped to rehabilitate his image. He suffered a stroke on April 18,1994. Richard Milhous Nixon was born on January 9,1913 in Yorba Linda and his parents were Hannah Nixon and Francis A. Nixon. His mother was a Quaker and his father converted from Methodism to the Quaker faith, Nixons upbringing was marked by evangelical Quaker observances of the time, such as refraining from alcohol and swearing. Nixon had four brothers, Donald, four of the five Nixon boys were named after kings who had ruled in historical or legendary England, for example, was named after Richard the Lionheart. Nixons early life was marked by hardship, and he quoted a saying of Eisenhower to describe his boyhood, We were poor. The Nixon family ranch failed in 1922, and the moved to Whittier
Harry Andrew Blackmun was an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States from 1970 until 1994. Appointed by Republican President Richard Nixon, Blackmun ultimately became one of the most liberal justices on the Court and he is best known as the author of the Courts opinion in Roe v. Wade. Harry Blackmun was born in Nashville, the son of Theo Huegely and he grew up in Daytons Bluff, a working-class neighborhood in Saint Paul, Minnesota. He attended the grade school as future Chief Justice Warren E. Burger. He attended Harvard College on scholarship, earning an A. B. summa cum laude in mathematics, while at Harvard, Blackmun joined Lambda Chi Alpha Fraternity and sang with the Harvard Glee Club. He attended Harvard Law School, graduating in 1932 and he served in a variety of positions including private counsel, law clerk, and adjunct faculty at the University of Minnesota Law School and William Mitchell College of Law. Blackmuns practice as an attorney at the law now known as Dorsey & Whitney focused in its early years on taxation and estates.
He married Dorothy Clark in 1941 and had three daughters with her, Nancy and Susan, between 1950 and 1959, Blackmun served as resident counsel for the Mayo Clinic in Rochester, Minnesota. He would describe his time at Mayo as his happiest time, in the late 1950s, Blackmuns close friend Warren E. Burger, an appellate judge on the D. C. Circuit, repeatedly encouraged Blackmun to seek a judgeship, Sanborn, Jr. of the Eighth Circuit, whom Blackmun had clerked for after graduating from Harvard, told Blackmun of his plans to assume senior status. He said that he would suggest Blackmuns name to the Eisenhower administration if Blackmun wished to succeed him, after much urging by Sanborn and Burger, Blackmun agreed to accept the nomination, duly offered by Eisenhower and members of the Justice Department. Over the next decade, Blackmun would author 217 opinions for the Eighth Circuit, Blackmun was nominated to the Supreme Court by President Richard M. Nixon on April 14,1970, and was confirmed by the Senate on May 12,1970, by a 94–0 vote.
He received his commission on May 14,1970, Blackmun was Nixons third choice to fill the vacancy created by the resignation of Abe Fortas on May 14,1969. His confirmation followed contentious battles over two previous, failed nominations forwarded by Nixon in 1969–1970, those of Clement Haynsworth and G. Harrold Carswell, Nixons original choice, Lewis F. Powell, Jr. turned him down but joined the Court in 1972. Blackmun, a lifelong Republican, was expected to adhere to an interpretation of the Constitution. The Courts Chief Justice at the time, Warren Burger, a friend of Blackmuns. The two were referred to as the Minnesota Twins because of their common history in Minnesota. Indeed, Blackmun voted with Burger in 87.5 percent of the divided cases during his first five terms, and with William J. Brennan
Potter Stewart was an Associate Justice of the United States Supreme Court. During his tenure, he made, among other areas, major contributions to criminal justice reform, civil rights, access to the courts, Stewart was born in Jackson, while his family was on vacation. He was the son of Harriett L. and James Garfield Stewart and his father, a prominent Republican from Cincinnati, served as mayor of Cincinnati for nine years and was a justice on the Ohio Supreme Court. Potter Stewart attended the Hotchkiss School, graduating in 1933, then, he went on to Yale University, where he was a member of Delta Kappa Epsilon and Skull and Bones graduating class of 1937. He was awarded Phi Beta Kappa and served as chairman of the Yale Daily News and he graduated from Yale Law School in 1941, where he was an editor of the Yale Law Journal and a member of Phi Delta Phi. Other members of that era included Gerald R. Ford, Peter H. Dominick, Walter Lord, William Scranton, R. Sargent Shriver, Cyrus R. Vance, the last would become his colleague on the United States Supreme Court.
Stewart served in World War II as a member of the U. S. Naval Reserve aboard oil tankers, in 1943 he married Mary Ann Bertles in a ceremony at Bruton Episcopal Church in Williamsburg, Virginia. They eventually had a daughter and two sons, Potter, Jr. and David and he was in private practice with Dinsmore & Shohl in Cincinnati. During the early 1950s, he was elected to the Cincinnati City Council, at the age of 39, in 1954, he was appointed to the United States Court of Appeals for the Sixth Circuit. In 1958, President Dwight D. Eisenhower nominated Stewart to the Supreme Court to replace Justice Harold Hitz Burton and he was a recess appointment in 1958 before being confirmed 70–17 by the United States Senate on May 5,1959. All 17 nay votes came from Southern Democrats, Stewart came to a Supreme Court controlled by two warring ideological camps and sat firmly in its center. A case early in his Supreme Court career showing his role as the vote during that time is Irvin v. Dowd. Stewart was temperamentally inclined to moderate, pragmatic positions, but was often in a dissenting posture during his time on the Warren Court.
Before the appointment of Warren Burger as Chief Justice, many speculated that President Richard Nixon would elevate Stewart to the post, though flattered by the suggestion, did not want again to appear before—and expose his family to—the Senate confirmation process. Nor did he relish the prospect of taking on the administrative responsibilities delegated to the Chief Justice, accordingly, he met privately with the president to ask that his name be removed from consideration. Stewart opposed the Vietnam War and on a number of occasions urged the Supreme Court to grant certiorari on cases challenging the constitutionality of the war, Stewart consistently voted against claims of criminal defendants in the area of federal habeas corpus and collateral review. He was concerned about broad interpretations of the due process and equal protection clauses and he was the lone dissenter in the landmark juvenile law case In re Gault. That case extended to minors the right to be informed of rights and the right to an attorney, Justice Stewart went on to defend the movie in question against further censorship
United States Reports
The United States Reports are the official record of the rulings, case tables, and other proceedings of the Supreme Court of the United States. Opinions of the court in each case, prepended with a prepared by the Reporter of Decisions. For lawyers, citations to United States Reports are the reference for Supreme Court decisions. Following Bluebook, a commonly accepted citation protocol, the case Brown, et al. v. Board of Education of Topeka, for example, would be cited as, Brown v. Bd. of Educ. The early volumes of the United States Reports were originally published privately by the individual Supreme Court Reporters, as was the practice in England, the reports were designated by the names of the reporters who compiled them, Dallass Reports, Cranchs Reports, etc. The decisions appearing in the entire first volume and most of the volume of United States Reports are not decisions of the United States Supreme Court. Instead, they are decisions from various Pennsylvania courts, dating from the colonial period, alexander Dallas, a lawyer and journalist, of Philadelphia, had been in the business of reporting these cases for newspapers and periodicals.
He subsequently began compiling his case reports in a bound volume and this would come to be known as the first volume of Dallas Reports. Dallas continued to collect and publish Pennsylvania decisions in a volume of his Reports. When the Supreme Court began hearing cases, he added those cases to his reports, starting towards the end of the volume,2 Dallas Reports. Dallas went on to publish a total of four volumes of decisions during his tenure as Reporter, when the Supreme Court moved to Washington, D. C. in 1800, Dallas remained in Philadelphia, and William Cranch took over as unofficial reporter of decisions. In 1817, Congress made the Reporter of Decisions an official, salaried position, in 1874, the U. S. government began to fund the reports publication, creating the United States Reports. The earlier, private reports were retroactively numbered volumes 1–90 of the United States Reports, decisions appearing in these early reports have dual citation forms, one for the volume number of the United States Reports, and one for the set of nominate reports.
For example, the citation to McCulloch v. Maryland is 17 U. S.316
Burglary is an unlawful entry into a building or other location for the purposes of committing an offence. Usually that offence is theft, but most jurisdictions include others within the ambit of burglary, to engage in the act of burglary is to burgle or to burglarize. Breaking can be actual, such as by forcing open a door, or constructive. Breaking does not require that anything be broken in terms of damage occurring. Entering can involve either physical entry by a person, or the insertion of an instrument to remove property, insertion of a tool to gain entry may not constitute entering by itself. Note that there must be a breaking and an entering for common law burglary, breaking without entry or entry without breaking is not sufficient for common law burglary. Although rarely listed as an element, the law required that entry occur as a consequence of the breaking. For example, if a wrongdoer partially opens a window with a pry bar—but notices an open door, the use of the pry bar would not constitute an entry even if a portion of the prybar entered the residence.
Under the instrumentality rule the use of an instrument to effect a breaking would not constitute an entry, however, if any part of the perpetrators body entered the residence in an attempt to gain entry, the instrumentality rule did not apply. The use of the word “therein” adds nothing and certainly does not limit the scope of burglary to those wrongdoers who break, the situs of the felony does not matter, and burglary occurs if the wrongdoer intended to commit a felony at the time he broke and entered. The common law elements of burglary often vary between jurisdictions, the etymology originates from Anglo-Saxon or Old English, one of the Germanic languages. According to one textbook, The word burglar comes from the two German words burg, meaning house, and laron, meaning thief, the British verb burgle is a late back-formation. In Canada and entering is prohibited by section 348 of the Criminal Code and is a hybrid offence and entering is defined as trespassing with intent to commit an indictable offence.
The crime is commonly referred to in Canada as break and enter, there is no crime of burglary as such in Finland. However, if theft is committed during unlawful entering, a person is guilty of theft or aggravated depending on the circumstances of the felony. In Sweden, burglary does not exist as an offence in itself, instead, if a person simply breaks into any premise, they are technically guilty of either unlawful intrusion or breach of domiciliary peace, depending on the premise in question. Breach of domiciliary peace is only when a person unlawfully intrudes or remains where another has his living quarters. The only punishments available for any of these offences are fines, in such cases, the maximum punishment is two years imprisonment
Georgia (U.S. state)
Georgia is a state in the southeastern United States. It was established in 1733, the last of the original Thirteen Colonies, named after King George II of Great Britain, Georgia was the fourth state to ratify the United States Constitution, on January 2,1788. It declared its secession from the Union on January 19,1861 and it was the last state to be restored to the Union, on July 15,1870. Georgia is the 24th largest and the 8th most populous of the 50 United States, from 2007 to 2008,14 of Georgias counties ranked among the nations 100 fastest-growing, second only to Texas. Georgia is known as the Peach State and the Empire State of the South, Atlanta is the states capital, its most populous city and has been named a global city. Georgia is bordered to the south by Florida, to the east by the Atlantic Ocean and South Carolina, to the west by Alabama, the states northern part is in the Blue Ridge Mountains, part of the Appalachian Mountains system. Georgias highest point is Brasstown Bald at 4,784 feet above sea level, Georgia is the largest state entirely east of the Mississippi River in land area.
Before settlement by Europeans, Georgia was inhabited by the mound building cultures, the British colony of Georgia was founded by James Oglethorpe on February 12,1733. The colony was administered by the Trustees for the Establishment of the Colony of Georgia in America under a charter issued by King George II. The Trustees implemented a plan for the colonys settlement, known as the Oglethorpe Plan. In 1742 the colony was invaded by the Spanish during the War of Jenkins Ear, in 1752, after the government failed to renew subsidies that had helped support the colony, the Trustees turned over control to the crown. Georgia became a colony, with a governor appointed by the king. The Province of Georgia was one of the Thirteen Colonies that revolted against British rule in the American Revolution by signing the 1776 Declaration of Independence, the State of Georgias first constitution was ratified in February 1777. Georgia was the 10th state to ratify the Articles of Confederation on July 24,1778, in 1829, gold was discovered in the North Georgia mountains, which led to the Georgia Gold Rush and an established federal mint in Dahlonega, which continued its operation until 1861.
The subsequent influx of white settlers put pressure on the government to land from the Cherokee Nation. In 1830, President Andrew Jackson signed the Indian Removal Act into law, sending many eastern Native American nations to reservations in present-day Oklahoma, including all of Georgias tribes. Despite the Supreme Courts ruling in Worcester v. Georgia that ruled U. S. states were not permitted to redraw the Indian boundaries, President Jackson and the state of Georgia ignored the ruling. In 1838, his successor, Martin Van Buren, dispatched troops to gather the Cherokee
LexisNexis Group is a corporation providing computer-assisted legal research as well as business research and risk management services. During the 1970s, LexisNexis pioneered the electronic accessibility of legal, as of 2006, the company has the worlds largest electronic database for legal and public-records related information. Currently a division of RELX Group, LexisNexis was first a product of the Mead Data Central company, the Anglo-Dutch publishing company Reed Elsevier has owned LexisNexis and its predecessor company since 1994. At its inception in 1970, the database was named LEXIS by Mead Data Central and it was a continuation of an experiment organized by the Ohio State Bar in 1967. On April 2,1973, LEXIS launched publicly, offering full-text search in all Ohio, in 1980, LEXIS completed its hand-keyed electronic archive of all U. S. federal and state cases. The NEXIS service, added that year, gave journalists a searchable database of news articles. LexisNexis world headquarters is located in Dayton, United States, in 1989, MDC acquired the Michie Company, a legal publisher, from Macmillan.
When Toyota launched the Lexus line of vehicles in 1987. A market research survey asked consumers to identify the spoken word Lexis, survey results showed that a nominal number of people thought of the computerized legal search system, a similarly small number thought of Toyotas luxury car division. A judge ruled against Toyota, and the company appealed the decision, Mead lost on appeal in 1989 when the Court of Appeals for the 2nd Circuit held that there was little chance of consumer confusion. Today, the two companies have a business relationship, and in 2002 implemented a joint promotion called Win a Lexus on Lexis. In December 1994, Mead sold the LexisNexis system to Reed Elsevier for $1.5 billion, on April 15,2008, the U. S. The Court reversed and remanded so that the courts could apply the correct test and determine whether Mead. In 2000, LexisNexis purchased RiskWise, a St. Cloud, in 2002 it acquired a Canadian research database company, Quicklaw. In 2004, Reed Elsevier Group, parent company of LexisNexis, purchased Seisint, from founder Michael Brauser of Boca Raton, Seisint housed and operated the Multistate Anti-Terrorism Information Exchange.
On March 9,2005, LexisNexis announced the possible theft of information of some Seisint users. It was originally estimated that 32,000 users were affected, affected persons were provided with free fraud insurance and credit bureau reports for a year. However, no reports of identity theft or fraud were discovered to have stemmed from the security breach, in February 2008, Reed Elsevier purchased data aggregator ChoicePoint in a cash deal for US$3.6 billion