Shrapnel shells were anti-personnel artillery munitions which carried a large number of individual bullets close to the target and ejected them to allow them to continue along the shell's trajectory and strike the target individually. They relied entirely on the shell's velocity for their lethality; the munition has been obsolete since the end of World War I for anti-personnel use, when it was superseded by high-explosive shells for that role. The functioning and principles behind Shrapnel shells are fundamentally different from high-explosive shell fragmentation. Shrapnel is named after Major-General Henry Shrapnel, a British artillery officer, whose experiments conducted on his own time and at his own expense, culminated in the design and development of a new type of artillery shell; the term "shrapnel" nowadays is used to refer to lethal fragments of the casing of shells and bombs, though this usage strays from the original meaning of the word. In 1784, Lieutenant Shrapnel of the Royal Artillery began developing an anti-personnel weapon.
At the time artillery could use "canister shot" to defend themselves from infantry or cavalry attack, which involved loading a tin or canvas container filled with small iron or lead balls instead of the usual cannonball. When fired, the container burst open during passage through the bore or at the muzzle, giving the effect of an oversized shotgun shell. At ranges of up to 300 m canister shot was still lethal, though at this range the shots’ density was much lower, making a hit on a human body less likely. At longer ranges, solid shot or the common shell — a hollow cast-iron sphere filled with black powder — was used, although with more of a concussive than a fragmentation effect, as the pieces of the shell were large and sparse in number. Shrapnel's innovation was to combine the multi-projectile shotgun effect of canister shot, with a time fuze to open the canister and disperse the bullets it contained at some distance along the canister's trajectory from the gun, his shell was a hollow cast-iron sphere filled with a mixture of balls and powder, with a crude time fuze.
If the fuze was set then the shell would break open, either in front or above the intended human objective, releasing its contents. The shrapnel balls would carry on with the "remaining velocity" of the shell. In addition to a denser pattern of musket balls, the retained velocity could be higher as well, since the shrapnel shell as a whole would have a higher ballistic coefficient than the individual musket balls; the explosive charge in the shell was to be just enough to break the casing rather than scatter the shot in all directions. As such his invention increased the effective range of canister shot from 300 metres to about 1,100 metres, he called his device ` spherical case shot'. Initial designs suffered from the catastrophic problem that friction between the shot and black powder during the high acceleration down the gun bore could sometimes cause premature ignition of the powder. Various solutions were tried, with limited if any success. However, in 1852 Colonel Boxer proposed using a diaphragm to separate the bullets from the bursting charge.
As a buffer to prevent lead shot deforming, a resin was used as a packing material between the shot. A useful side effect of using the resin was that the combustion gave a visual reference upon the shell bursting, as the resin shattered into a cloud of dust, it took until 1803 for the British artillery to adopt the shrapnel shell. Henry Shrapnel was promoted to major in the same year; the first recorded use of shrapnel by the British was in 1804 against the Dutch at Fort Nieuw-Amsterdam in Suriname. The Duke of Wellington's armies used it from 1808 in the Peninsular War and at the Battle of Waterloo, he wrote admiringly of its effectiveness; the design was improved by Captain E. M. Boxer of the Royal Arsenal around 1852 and crossed over when cylindrical shells for rifled guns were introduced. Lieutenant-Colonel Boxer adapted his design in 1864 to produce shrapnel shells for the new rifled muzzle-loader guns: the walls were of thick cast iron, but the gunpowder charge was now in the shell base with a tube running through the centre of the shell to convey the ignition flash from the time fuze in the nose to the gunpowder charge in the base.
The powder charge both liberated the bullets. The broken shell wall continued forward but had little destructive effect; the system had major limitations: the thickness of the iron shell walls limited the available carrying capacity for bullets but provided little destructive capability, the tube through the centre reduced available space for bullets. In the 1870s William Armstrong provided a design with the bursting charge in the head and the shell wall made of steel and hence much thinner than previous cast-iron shrapnel shell walls. While the thinner shell wall and absence of a central tube allowed the shell to carry far more bullets, it had the disadvantage that the bursting charge separated the bullets from the shell casing by firing the case forward and at the same time slowing the bullets down as they were ejected through the base of the shell casing, rather than increasing their velocity. Britain adopted this solution for several smaller calibres but by World War I few if any such shells remained.
The final shrapnel shell design, adopted in the 1880s, bore little similarity to Henry Shrapnel's original design other than its spherical bullets and time
Barrow-in-Furness railway station
Barrow-in-Furness railway station is the largest railway station serving Barrow-in-Furness in Cumbria, England. It is the western terminus of the Furness Line to Lancaster and the southern terminus of the Cumbrian Coast Line to Carlisle, both of which connect to the West Coast Mainline, it is operated by Northern. The present station was known as Barrow Central and at one time it was a terminus for British Rail long-distance or InterCity services. From October 1947 until May 1983 these included sleeper services to and from London Euston. A sleeper service in the London direction only was reintroduced between May 1987 and May 1990; the original Barrow station of 1846 had been a wooden building at Rabbit Hill, near the site of the present St. George's Square, it was replaced in 1863 by a new brick building close by, designed by the Lancaster architect Edward Paley, which latterly came to be known as Cambridge Hall. On 1 June 1882, the town's principal station was transferred to its present site below Abbey Road, following the construction of a new loop line.
It had to be entirely rebuilt in the late 1950s, after World War II, having been destroyed by enemy bombing on 7 May 1941. From 1907–1941, the Furness Railway steam locomotive "Coppernob" was preserved in a special glass case outside the station, it was subsequently transferred away for additional security and is now in the National Railway Museum at York. In the Railway Series books by the Rev. W Awdry, Barrow Central is the mainland terminus for the Fat Controller's or North Western Railway and is connected to the fictional Island of Sodor by a bridge to Vickerstown or as it is known in the books Vicarstown. To the north, services are provided Monday-Saturday by Northern, with services hourly during the day to Whitehaven and Carlisle. One train per day operates to Sellafield for transportation of workers at Sellafield nuclear plant. Evening trains run only as far Millom. There are 19 services northbound per weekday with fifteen going to Carlisle, three going to Millom and one to Sellafield.
Barrow receives 20 services from the Northern part of the line, with fifteen trains from Carlisle, three trains from Millom, one train from Maryport and one train from Sellafield. Some of these services continue along the Furness Line to Preston. To the south, there are stopping services to Lancaster and a few semi-fast services to Manchester Airport; these operate with a few peak extras throughout the week. An improved Northern service was introduced at the May 2018 timetable change, including evening & Sunday services over the line to Whitehaven & Carlisle. More trains to/from Preston & Manchester Airport are due to follow when rolling stock becomes available. Platform 1, which contains the entrance to the station, is used for Northern Rail through trains heading north, or services heading to/arriving from Preston & Manchester Airport; the platform contains a waiting area, the ticket office and information office and toilets, along with the cafe, all of which have been renovated. In early 2012, the platform was presented by pieces of artwork of the local area by the Mayor of Barrow and the Barrow and Furness MP.
Platform 2 is used for Northern services heading south to Lancaster or Preston, or local trains arriving from Millom/Sellafield. Platform 3 is a bay platform that can only be used for north-bound trains to Carlisle, it is used several times each day. In between Platforms 2 and 3 is an indoor waiting area, with live departures, a vending machine and speakers. Further up and down the platform are written timetables the rest of the buildings contain offices for staff and British Transport Police. There is a Northern train crew depot at the station and there are a number of sidings to the north used for servicing & stabling empty DMUs and the aforementioned loco-hauled coaching sets operated by D. R. S; the station has been renovated, with replacement of most of the old seating and waiting areas, replacement of the ageing automatic doors within the station. Electronic information signs have been installed, along with improved CCTV after several incidents on the station. Ramps have been provided for access, this is continuing with provision of better access to Platforms 2 and 3, which would have been accessible only via the end of the platform.
The station restaurant is being upgraded. Train times and station information for Barrow-in-Furness railway station from National Rail
James Ramsden (industrialist)
Sir James Ramsden was a British civil engineer and civic leader, who played a dominant role in the development of the new town of Barrow-in-Furness in the historic county of Lancashire in Cumbria. He served five successive terms as mayor on its first achieving municipal borough status, from 1867 onwards. James Ramsden was most born at Bolton, Lancashire. James Ramsden was one of several children of an engineer, he served an apprenticeship with the Liverpool firm of Bury and Kennedy before becoming locomotive superintendent for the new Furness Railway Company in January 1846. He soon rose to become company secretary, served as managing director between 1866 and 1895. In 1866, Ramsden was appointed managing director of the Barrow Hematite Steel Company and from 1875 to 1888 took the same role at The Barrow Shipbuilding Company. Ramsden's home was Abbots Wood, a large new mansion on the outskirts of the town, rented from the railway company. From here, he took an active interest in all local developments, including the early Barrow Shipbulding Company.
He was a notable benefactor, contributing towards many new social and civic facilities within the town. Ramsden was knighted in 1872, a statue by Matthew Noble was unveiled that same year in what was to become Ramsden Square, Barrow-in-Furness. A portrait of Ramsden hangs in the borough's town hall. However, he remained a local figure, declining calls to stand for Parliament in 1885 when the borough was seeking its first Member of Parliament. Ramsden was married in 1853 to Hannah Mary Edwards from Cheshire, their only child Frederic James Ramsden served as superintendent of the Furness Railway. Sir James Ramsden was buried at Barrow Cemetery. Notes References
The cylinder is the power-producing element of the steam engine powering a steam locomotive. The cylinder is made pressure-tight with a piston. Cylinders were cast in cast iron and in steel; the cylinder casting includes other features such as mounting feet. The last big American locomotives incorporated the cylinders as part of huge one-piece steel castings that were the main frame of the locomotive. Renewable wearing surfaces were provided by cast-iron bushings; the way the valve controlled the steam entering and leaving the cylinder was known as steam distribution and shown by the shape of the indicator diagram. What happened to the steam inside the cylinder was assessed separately from what happened in the boiler and how much friction the moving machinery had to cope with; this assessment was known as "engine performance" or "cylinder performance". The cylinder performance, together with the boiler and machinery performance, established the efficiency of the complete locomotive; the pressure of the steam in the cylinder was measured as the piston moved and the power moving the piston was calculated and known as cylinder power.
The forces produced in the cylinder moved the train but were damaging to the structure which held the cylinders in place. Bolted joints came loose, cylinder castings and frames cracked and reduced the availability of the locomotive. Cylinders may be arranged in several different ways. On early locomotives, such as Puffing Billy, the cylinders were set vertically and the motion was transmitted through beams, as in a beam engine; the next stage, for example Stephenson's Rocket, was to drive the wheels directly from steeply inclined cylinders placed at the back of the locomotive. Direct drive became the standard arrangement, but the cylinders were moved to the front and placed either horizontal or nearly horizontal; the front-mounted cylinders could be placed either outside. Examples: Inside cylinders, Planet locomotive Outside cylinders, GNR Stirling 4-2-2In the 19th and early 20th centuries, inside cylinders were used in the UK, but outside cylinders were more common in Continental Europe and the United States.
The reason for this difference is unclear. From about 1920, outside cylinders became more common in the UK but many inside-cylinder engines continued to be built. Inside cylinders give a more stable ride with less yaw or "nosing" but access for maintenance is more difficult; some designers used inside cylinders for aesthetic reasons. The demand for more power led to the development of engines with four cylinders. Examples: Three cylinders, SR Class V, LNER Class A4, Merchant Navy class Four Cylinders, LMS Princess Royal Class, LMS Coronation Class, GWR Castle Class On a two-cylinder engine the cranks, whether inside or outside, are set at 90 degrees; as the cylinders are double-acting this gives four impulses per revolution and ensures that there are no dead centres. On a three-cylinder engine, two arrangements are possible: cranks set to give six spaced impulses per revolution – the usual arrangement. If the three cylinder axes are parallel, the cranks will be 120 degrees apart, but if the centre cylinder does not drive the leading driving axle, it will be inclined, the inside crank will be correspondingly shifted from 120 degrees.
For a given tractive effort and adhesion factor, a three-cylinder locomotive of this design will be less prone to wheelslip when starting than a 2-cylinder locomotive. Outside cranks set at 90 degrees, inside crank set at 135 degrees, giving six unequally spaced impulses per revolution; this arrangement was sometimes used on three-cylinder compound locomotives which used the outside cylinders for starting. This will give evenly spaced exhausts. Two arrangements are possible on a four-cylinder engine: all four cranks set at 90 degrees. With this arrangement the cylinders act in pairs, so there are four impulses per revolution, as with a two-cylinder engine. Most four-cylinder engines are of this type, it is cheaper and simpler to use only one set of valve gear on each side of the locomotive and to operate the second cylinder on that side by means of a rocking shaft from the first cylinder's valve spindle since the required valve events at the second cylinder are a mirror image of the first cylinder.
Pairs of cranks set at 90 degrees with the inside pair set at 45 degrees to the outside pair. This gives eight impulses per revolution, it increases weight and complexity, by requiring four sets of valve gear, but gives smoother torque and reduces the risk of slipping. This was unusual in British practice but was used on the SR Lord Nelson class; such locomotives are distinguished by their exhaust beats, which occur at twice the frequency of a normal 2- or 4-cylinder engine. The valve chests or steam chests which contain the slide valves or piston valves may be located in various positions. If the cylinders are small, the valve chests may be located between the cylinders. For larger cylinders the valve chests are on top of the cylinders but, in early locomotives, they were sometimes underneath the cylinders; the valve chests are on top of the cylinders but, in older locomotives, the valve chests were sometimes located alongside the cylinders and inserted through slots in the frames. This meant that, while the cylinders were outside, the valves were inside a
Dresden Transport Museum
The Dresden Transport Museum displays vehicles of all modes of transport, such as railway, shipping and air traffic, under one roof. The museum is housed in the Johanneum at the Neumarkt in Dresden; the Johanneum was built between 1586 and 1590. The history of the Dresden Transport Museum begins on 1 May 1952. On that day, negotiations started between the Hochschule für Verkehrswesen and the Ministry of Transport for the construction of a transport museum in the German Democratic Republic; the museum was intended to house the exhibits of the Saxon Railway Museum, evacuated during the Second World War. After Dresden was confirmed as the location, the first vehicles were stabled in a locomotive shed at Dresden's Neustadt station. Six employees began the development of the museum, by 1953, two small exhibitions were on display; the actual opening in the still badly damaged Johanneum took place in 1956. The first exhibition showed on the ground floor "120 years of Saxon Transport history." The first director was Elfriede Rehbein.
On 24 November 1958, the museum was transferred into the ownership of the Ministry of Transport. Renovation of the interior was completed in 1966, the façade followed in 1968; the roof was not covered in copper, but in Duraluminium in keeping with aircraft construction techniques. Since the inauguration of the aviation exhibition in the 1970s, all means of transport, including railway and bicycles, air traffic, have been on display in the museum; because of the limited space in the Johanneum, not all the exhibits are based here. Numerous locomotives are stationed in the former Deutsche Reichsbahn locomotive depot at Dresden-Altstadt. Furthermore, several vehicles have been loaned to other museums; the lack of space in the Johanneum prompted several discussions during the 1990s about moving the museum. However, the plan was not realized for financial reasons; the museum is divided into the following exhibition areas: Railway Cars Trams - no longer displayed in the museum, transferred to Tram Museum Dresden e.
V. Trachenberger Str. 38, 01129 Dresden Bicycles and motorbikes Air travel Sea travelThe German tourism website www.germany-tourism.de describes a visit to the museum as "like stepping into another world. Its unparalleled collection includes historical examples from pre-industrial eras, post-1850 vehicles, unique exhibits with special historical significance - from delicate miniatures to colossal originals, such as the legendary Saxon "Muldenthal" locomotive. A sedan chair dating from 1705, the museum's oldest exhibit, a horse-drawn bus are milestones in the history of public transportation in Dresden; the museum chronicles the history of aviation from the hot air balloon to the supersonic airliner."The Dresden Transport Museum owns 116 different railway vehicles, of which only eight are on display in the Johanneum. A large number are entrusted to other societies on loan. Examples include locomotive numbers 17 1055,19 017, 58 261, 24 004, V 15 1001, V 240 001, 120 338 and 130 002 as well as a catenary inspection railbus.
The road traffic exhibition displays Germany's pioneer automobiles, including a replica of Carl Benz's legendary tricycle of 1886, the predecessor of modern cars. The motorcycle exhibition shows, among others, a petroleum-powered Reitwagen motorcycle built by Gottlieb Daimler in 1885, the first internal combustion motorcycle; the air traffic area provides visitors with a general overview of the development of civil aviation, with one focus being the Saxon contribution to it during the period from 1955 to 1961. The inauguration of our new permanent aviation exhibition is scheduled for 5 May 2012, the 60th anniversary of the Dresden Transport Museum; the sea travel exhibition focuses on inland navigation on the Elbe river and maritime navigation on high seas. It gives an overview of the past and present of sea travel. List of museums in Saxony Media related to Dresden Transport Museum at Wikimedia Commons Website of the Dresden Transport Museum