Kingdom of Valencia
The Kingdom of Valencia, located in the eastern shore of the Iberian Peninsula, was one of the component realms of the Crown of Aragon. When the Crown of Aragon merged by dynastic union with the Crown of Castile to form the Kingdom of Spain, the Kingdom of Valencia became a component realm of the Spanish monarchy; the Kingdom of Valencia was formally created in 1238 when the Moorish taifa of Valencia was taken in the course of the Reconquista. It was dissolved by Philip V of Spain in 1707, by means of the Nueva Planta decrees, as a result of the Spanish War of Succession. During its existence, the Kingdom of Valencia was ruled by the laws and institutions stated in the Furs of Valencia which granted it wide self-government under the Crown of Aragon and on, under the Spanish Kingdom; the boundaries and identity of the present Spanish Autonomous Community of Valencia are those of the former Kingdom of Valencia. The conquest of what would become the Kingdom of Valencia started in 1232 when the king of the Crown of Aragon, James I, called Jaume I el Conqueridor, took Morella with Aragonese troops.
Shortly after, in 1233, Borriana and Peniscola were taken from the بلنسية Balansiyya taifa. A second and more relevant wave of expansion took place in 1238, when James I defeated the Moors from the Balansiya taifa, he entered the city of Valencia on 9 October 1238, regarded as the dawn of the Kingdom of Valencia. A third phase started in 1243 and ended in 1245, when it met the limits agreed between James I and the heir to the throne of Castile, Alfonso the Wise, who would succeed to the throne as Alfonso X in 1252; these limits were traced in the Treaty of Almizra between the Crown of Castile and the Crown of Aragon, which coordinated their Reconquista efforts to drive the Moors southward by establishing their desired areas of influence. The Treaty of Almizra established the south line of Aragonese expansion in the line formed by the villes of Biar and Busot, today in the north of the Alicante province. Everything south of that line, including what would be the Kingdom of Murcia, was reserved by means of this treaty for Castile.
The matter of the large majority of Mudéjar population, left behind from the progressively more southern combat front, lingered from the beginning until they were expelled en masse in 1609. Up to that moment, they represented a complicated issue for the newly established Kingdom, as they were essential to keep the economy working due to their numbers, which inspired frequent pacts with local Muslim populations, such as Mohammad Abu Abdallah Ben Hudzail al Sahuir, allowing their culture various degrees of tolerance but, on the other side, they were deemed as a menace to the Kingdom due to their lack of allegiance and their real or perceived conspiracies to bring the Ottoman Empire to their rescue. There were indeed frequent rebellions from the Moor population against Christian rule, the most threatening being those headed by the Moor chieftain Mohammad Abu Abdallah Ben Hudzail al Sahuir known as Al-Azraq, he led important rebellions in 1244, 1248 and 1276. During the first of these, he regained Muslim independence for the lands South of the Júcar, but he had to surrender soon after.
During the second revolt, king James I was killed in battle, but Al-Azraq was subjugated, his life spared only because of a longtime relationship with the Christian monarch. During the third rebellion, Al-Azraq himself was killed but his son would continue to promote Muslim unrest and local rebellions remained always at sight. James II called Jaume II el Just or the Just, a grandson of James I, initiated in 1296 a final push of his army further southwards than the Biar-Busot pacts, his campaign aimed at the fertile countryside around Murcia and the Vega Baja del Segura whose local Muslim rulers were bound by pacts with Castile and governing by proxy on behalf of this kingdom. The campaign under James II was successful to the point of extending the limits of the Kingdom of Valencia well south of the agreed border with Castile, his troops took Murcia. What was to become the definite dividing line between Castile and the Crown of Aragon was agreed by virtue of the Sentencia Arbitral de Torrellas, amended by the Treaty of Elche, which assigned Orihuela to the Kingdom of Valencia, while Murcia went to the Crown of Castile, so drawing the final Southern border of the Kingdom of Valencia.
At the end of the process, four taifas had been wiped out: Balansiya, Alpuente and Murcia. Taking into account the standards of the day, it can be considered as a rather rapid conquest, since most of the territory was gained in less than fifty years and the maximum expansion was completed in less than one century; the toll in terms of social and politic unrest, to be paid for this fast process was the existence of a large Muslim population within the Kingdom which neither desired to become a part of it nor, as long as they remained Muslim, was given the chance to. Modern historiography sees the conquest of Valencia in the light of similar Reconquista efforts by the Crown of Castile, i.e. as a fight led by the king in order to gain new territories as free as possible of a serfdom subject to the nobility. The new territories would be accountable only to the king, thus enlarging and consolidating his power versus that of the nobility; this development was part
Nueva Planta decrees
The Nueva Planta decrees were a number of decrees signed between 1707 and 1716 by Philip V—the first Bourbon King of Spain—during and shortly after the end of the War of the Spanish Succession by the Treaty of Utrecht. Angered by what he saw as sedition by the Aragonese and taking his native France as a model of a centralised state, King Philip V suppressed the institutions and the ancient charters of all the areas that were part of the Crown of Aragon; the decrees ruled that all the territories in the Crown of Aragon except the Aran Valley were to be ruled by the laws of Castile, embedding these regions in a new, nearly uniformly administered, centralised Spain. The other historic territories—Navarre and the other Basque territories—supported Philip V whom they saw as belonging to the lineage of Henry III of Navarre, but after Philip V's military campaign to crush the Basque uprising, he backed down on his intent to suppress home rule; the acts abolishing the charters were promulgated in 1707 in Valencia and Aragon, in 1715 in Majorca and the other Balearic Islands, in Catalonia on 16 January 1716.
The decrees created a Spanish citizenship or nationality, that judicially did not distinguish between Castilian and Aragonese anymore, both with respect to rights and law. They abolished internal borders and customs except for the Basque territory, giving grant to all Spaniards to trade with American colonies. Philip of Anjou won the War of the Spanish Succession and imposed unification policies over the Crown of Aragon, which had supported the claim of Karl of Austria; these acts constituted the first successful realisation of Spain as a centralised state and were meant both as a modernising element, in line with other European countries where their monarchs were increasing their powers, as a punishment on these territories which had fought against Philip V in the War of Succession. Henceforth, top civil servants were appointed directly from Madrid, the King's court city, most institutions in these territories were abolished. Court cases could only be presented and argued in Castilian, which became the sole language of government, displacing Latin and other Spanish languages.
Bourbon Reforms of Philip V and his successors Catalan Constitutions Furs of Valencia This article draws on material from the corresponding article in the Spanish Wikipedia, accessed January 2006. Documents about the case of the catalans dated on 1714, at the House of Lords, UK. Journal of the House of Lords: volume 19, 2 August 1715, Further Articles of Impeachment against E. Oxford brought from H. C. Article VI. Extract from the Decree of abolition of the fueros of Aragon and Valencia from Wikisource Decree of 16 January 1716
Fuero, Foro or Foru is a Spanish legal term and concept. The word comes from Latin forum, an open space used as market and meeting place; the same Latin root is the origin of the French terms for and foire, the Portuguese terms foro and foral. The Spanish term fuero has a wide range of meanings, depending upon its context, it has meant a compilation of laws a local or regional one. In many of these senses, its equivalent in the medieval England would be the custumal. In the 20th century, Francisco Franco's regime used the term fueros for several of the fundamental laws; the term implied these were not constitutions subject to debate and change by a sovereign people, but orders from the only legitimate source of authority, as in feudal times. Fuero dates back to the feudal era: the lord could concede or acknowledge a fuero to certain groups or communities, most notably the Roman Catholic Church, the military, certain regions that fell under the same monarchy as Castile or Spain, but were not integrated into those countries.
The relations among fueros, other bodies of law, sovereignty is a contentious one that influences government and law in the present day. The king of León, Alfonso V, decreed the Fuero de León, considered the earliest laws governing territorial and local life, as it applied to the entire kingdom, with certain provisions for the city of León; the various Basque provinces generally regarded their fueros known as jauntxos as tantamount to a municipal constitution. This view was accepted including President of the United States John Adams, he cited the Biscayan fueros as a precedent for the United States Constitution. This view regards fueros as acknowledging rights. In the contrasting view, fueros were privileges granted by a monarch. In the letter Adams commented on the substantial independence of the hereditary Basque Jauntxo families as the origin for their privileges. In practice, distinct fueros for specific classes, towns, or regions arose out of feudal power politics; some historians believe monarchs were forced to concede some traditions in exchange for the general acknowledgment of his or her authority, that monarchs granted fueros to reward loyal subjection, or the monarch acknowledged distinct legal traditions.
In medieval Castilian law, the king could assign privileges to certain groups. The classic example of such a privileged group was the Roman Catholic Church: the clergy did not pay taxes to the state, enjoyed the income via tithes of local landholding, were not subject to the civil courts. Church-operated ecclesiastical courts tried churchmen for criminal offenses. Another example was the powerful Mesta organization, composed of wealthy sheepherders, who were granted vast grazing rights in Andalusia after that land was "reconquered" by Spanish Christians from the Muslims. Lyle N. McAlister writes in Spain and Portugal in the New World that the Mesta's fuero helped impede the economic development of southern Spain; this resulted in a lack of opportunity, Spaniards emigrated to the New World to escape these constraints. During the Reconquista, the feudal lords granted fueros to some villas and cities, to encourage the colonization of the frontier and of commercial routes; these laws regulated the governance and the penal and civil aspects of the places.
The fueros codified for one place were granted to another, with small changes, instead of crafting a new redaction from scratch. In contemporary Spanish usage, the word fueros most refers to the historic and contemporary fueros or charters of certain regions of the Basque regions; the equivalent for French usage is fors. The whole central and western Pyrenean region was inhabited by the Basques in the early Middle Ages within the Duchy of Vasconia; the Basques and the Pyrenean peoples—as Romance language replaced Basque in many areas by the turn of the first millennium—governed themselves by a native a set of rules, different from Roman and Gothic law but with an ever-increasing imprint of them. Their laws, arising from regional traditions and practices, were kept and transmitted orally; because of this oral tradition, the Basque-language regions preserved their specific laws longer than did those Pyrenean regions that adopted Romance languages. For example, Navarrese law developed along less feudal lines than those of surrounding realms.
The Fors de Bearn are another example of Pyrenean law. Two sayings address this legal idiosyncrasy: "en Navarra hubo antes leyes que reyes," and "en Aragón antes que rey hubo ley," both meaning that law developed and existed before the kings; the force of these principles required monarchs to accommodate to the laws. This situation sometimes strained relations between the monarch and the kingdom if the monarchs were alien to native laws. In 1234 when the first foreign king, the French Theobald I of Champagne arrived in the area, he did not know Navarrese common law, he appointed a commission to write the laws. The accession of French lineages to the throne of Navarre brought a relationship between the king and the kingdom, alien to the Basques; the resulting disagreements were a major factor in the 13th-century uprisings and clashes between diff
Early modern Europe
Early modern Europe is the period of European history between the end of the Middle Ages and the beginning of the Industrial Revolution the late 15th century to the late 18th century. Historians variously mark the beginning of the early modern period with the invention of moveable type printing in the 1450s, the Fall of Constantinople in 1453, the end of the Wars of the Roses in 1487, the beginning of the High Renaissance in Italy in the 1490s, the end of the Reconquista and subsequent voyages of Christopher Columbus to the Americas in 1492, or the start of the Protestant Reformation in 1517; the precise dates of its end point vary and are linked with either the start of the French Revolution in 1789 or with the more vaguely defined beginning of the Industrial Revolution in late 18th century England. Some of the more notable trends and events of the early modern period included the Reformation and the religious conflicts it provoked, the rise of capitalism and modern nation states, widespread witch hunts and European colonization of the Americas.
The early modern period was characterized by profound changes in many realms of human endeavor. Among the most important include the development of science as a formalized practice rapid technological progress, the establishment of secularized civic politics, law courts and the nation state. Capitalist economies began to develop in a nascent form, first in the northern Italian republics such as Genoa and Venice and in the cities of the Low Countries in France and England; the early modern period saw the rise and dominance of the economic theory of mercantilism. As such, the early modern period is associated with the decline and eventual disappearance of feudalism and serfdom; the Protestant Reformation altered the religious balance of Christendom, creating a formidable new opposition to the dominance of the Catholic Church in Northern Europe. The early modern period witnessed the circumnavigation of the Earth and the establishment of regular European contact with the Americas and South and East Asia.
The ensuing rise of global systems of international economic and intellectual exchange played an important role in the development of capitalism and represents the earliest phase of globalization. Regardless of the precise dates used to define its beginning and end points, the early modern period is agreed to have comprised the Renaissance, the Reformation, the Scientific Revolution, the Enlightenment; as such, historians have attributed a number of fundamental changes to the period, notably the rapid progress of science and technology, the secularization of politics, the diminution of the absolute authority of the Roman Catholic Church as well as the lessening of the influence of all faiths upon national governments. Many historians have identified the early modern period as the epoch in which individuals began to think of themselves as belonging to a national polity—a notable break from medieval modes of self-identification, based upon religion, language, or feudal allegiance; the beginning of the early modern period is not clear-cut, but is accepted to be in the late 15th century or early 16th century.
Significant dates in this transitional phase from medieval to early modern Europe can be noted: 1450The invention of the first European movable type printing process by Johannes Gutenberg, a device that fundamentally changed the circulation of information. Movable type, which allowed individual characters to be arranged to form words and, an invention separate from the printing press, had been invented earlier in China.1453The conquest of Constantinople by the Ottomans signalled the end of the Byzantine empire. The end date of the early modern period is variously associated with the Industrial Revolution, which began in Britain in about 1750, or the beginning of the French Revolution in 1789, which drastically transformed the state of European politics and ushered in the Napoleonic Era and modern Europe; the role of nobles in the Feudal System had yielded to the notion of the Divine Right of Kings during the Middle Ages. Among the most notable political changes included the abolition of serfdom and the crystallization of kingdoms into nation-states.
More with the advent of the Reformation, the notion of Christendom as a unified political entity was destroyed. Many kings and rulers used this radi
The Valencian Community is an autonomous community of Spain. It is the fourth most populous autonomous community after Andalusia and Madrid with more than 4.9 million inhabitants. Its homonymous capital Valencia is metropolitan area in Spain, it is located along the Mediterranean coast on the east side of the Iberian peninsula. It borders with Catalonia to the north and Castilla–La Mancha to the west, Murcia to the south; the Valencian Community consists of three provinces which are Valencia and Alicante. According to its Statute of Autonomy, the Valencian people are a nationality, their origins date back to the Aragonese reconquest of the Moorish Taifa of Valencia, taken by James I of Aragon in 1238 during the Reconquista. The newly founded Kingdom of Valencia was granted wide self-government under the Crown of Aragon. Valencia experienced its golden age in the 15th century. Self-government continued after the unification of the Spanish Kingdom, but was suspended in 1707 by Phillip V of Spain as a result of the Spanish War of Succession.
Valencian nationalism resurged towards the end of the 19th century, which led to the modern conception of the Valencian Country. Self-government under the Generalitat Valenciana was reestablished in 1982 after Spanish transition to democracy. Many Valencian people speak Valencian, the region's own co-official language, a southwestern dialect of Catalan standardised by the Acadèmia Valenciana de la Llengua. Valencian is a diglossic language, repressed during Franco's dictatorship in favour of Spanish. Since it regained official status in 1982 in the Valencian Estatut d'Autonomia. Valencian has been implemented in public administration and the education system leading to an exponential increase in knowledge of its formal standard. Valencian is understood by more than half of the population living within the Valencian Community. Valencia was founded by the Romans under the name of "Valentia Edetanorum", which translates to'Valiance of the Land of the Lamb'. With the establishment of the Taifa of Valencia, the name developed to بلنسية, which became Valencia after the expulsion of the Moors.
"Valencian Community" is the standard translation of the official name in Valencian recognized by the Statute of Autonomy of 1982. This is the name most used in public administration, the media and Spanish written language. However, the variant of "Valencian Country" that emphasizes the nationality status of the Valencian people is still the preferred one by left-wing parties, civil associations, Catalan written language and major academic institutions like the University of Valencia. "Valencian Community" is a neologism, adopted after democratic transition in order to solve the conflict between two competing names: "Valencian Country" and "Former Kingdom of Valencia". On one hand, "Valencian Country" represented the modern conception of nationality that resurged in the 19th century, it became well-established during the Second Spanish Republic and on with the works of Joan Fuster in the 1960s, implying the existence of the "Catalan Countries". This nationalist subtext was opposed by anti-Catalan blaverists, who proposed "Former Kingdom of Valencia" instead in order to emphasize Valencian independence from Catalonia.
Blaverists have accepted the official denomination. The autonomous community can be homonymously identified with its capital "Valencia". However, this could be disregarding of the provinces of Castellón. Other more anecdotal translations have included "Land of Valencia", "Region of Valencia" and "Valencian Region"; the term "Region", carries negative connotations among many Valencians because it could deny their nationality status. The Pre-Roman autochthonous people of the Valencian Community were the Iberians, who were divided in several groups; the Greeks established colonies in the coastal towns of Saguntum and Dénia beginning in the 5th century BC, where they traded and mixed with the local Iberian populations. After the end of the First Punic War between Carthage and Rome in 241 BC, which established their limits of influence in the Ebro river, the Carthaginians occupied the whole region; the dispute over the hegemony of Saguntum, a Hellenized Iberian coastal city with diplomatic contacts with Rome, destroyed by Hannibal in 219 BC, ignited the Second Punic War, which ended with the incorporation of the region to the Roman Empire.
The Romans founded the city of Valentia in 138 BC, over the centuries overtook Saguntum in importance. After the Fall of the Western Roman Empire, during the Barbarian Invasions in the 5th century AD, the region was first invaded by the Alans and ruled by the Visigoths, until the arrival of the Arabs in 711, which left a broad impact in the region, still visible in today's Valencian landscape and culture. After the fall of the Caliphate of Cordoba, two main independent taifas were established at the region, Balansiya and Dénia, along with the small and short living taifas of Orihuela, Alpuente, Jérica and Sagunt and the short Christian conquest of Valencia by El Cid. However, the origins of present-day Valencia date back to the Kingdom of Valencia, which came into existence in the 13th century. James I of Aragon led the Christian conquest and colonization of the existing Islamic taifas with Aragonese and Catalan colonizers in 1208; the kingdom developed intensively in the 14th and 15th centuries, which are con
Philip V of Spain
Philip V was King of Spain from 1 November 1700 to his abdication in favour of his son Louis on 14 January 1724, from his reaccession of the throne upon his son's death on 6 September 1724 to his own death on 9 July 1746. Before his reign, Philip occupied an exalted place in the royal family of France as a grandson of King Louis XIV, his father, Grand Dauphin, had the strongest genealogical claim to the throne of Spain when it became vacant in 1700. However, since neither the Grand Dauphin nor Philip's older brother, Duke of Burgundy, could be displaced from their place in the succession to the French throne, the Grand Dauphin's maternal uncle King Charles II of Spain named Philip as his heir in his will, it was well known that the union of France and Spain under one monarch would upset the balance of power in Europe, such that other European powers would take steps to prevent it. Indeed, Philip's accession in Spain provoked the 13-year War of the Spanish Succession, which continued until the Treaty of Utrecht forbade any future possibility of unifying the French and Spanish thrones.
Philip was the first member of the French House of Bourbon to rule as king of Spain. The sum of his two reigns, 45 years and 21 days, is the longest in modern Spanish history. Philip was born at the Palace of Versailles in France the second son of Louis, Grand Dauphin, the heir apparent to the throne of France, his wife Maria Anna Victoria of Bavaria, Dauphine Victoire, he was Duke of Burgundy, the father of Louis XV of France. At birth, Philip was created Duke of Anjou, a traditional title for younger sons in the French royal family, he would be known by this name. Since Philip's older brother, the Duke of Burgundy, was second in line to the French throne after his father, there was little expectation that either he or his younger brother Charles, Duke of Berry, would rule over France. Philip lived his first years under the supervision of the royal governess Louise de Prie, was after, tutored with his brothers by François Fénelon, Archbishop of Cambrai; the three were educated by Paul de Beauvilliers.
In 1700 King Charles II of Spain died childless. His will named as successor the 17-year-old Philip, grandson of Charles' half-sister Maria Theresa, the first wife of Louis XIV. Upon any possible refusal, the crown of Spain would be offered next to Philip's younger brother, the Duke of Berry to the Archduke Charles of Austria Holy Roman Emperor Charles VI. Philip had the better genealogical claim to the Spanish throne, because his Spanish grandmother and great-grandmother were older than the ancestors of the Archduke Charles of Austria. However, the Austrians maintained that Philip's grandmother had renounced the Spanish throne for herself and her descendants as part of her marriage contract; the French claimed. After a long Royal Council meeting in France at which the Dauphin spoke up in favour of his son's rights, it was agreed that Philip would ascend the throne, but he would forever renounce his claim to the throne of France for himself and his descendants; the Royal Council decided to accept the provisions of the will of Charles II naming Philip king of Spain, the Spanish ambassador was called in and introduced to his new king.
The ambassador, along with his son, knelt before Philip and made a long speech in Spanish, which Philip did not understand. On 2 November 1701 the 18-year-old Philip married the 13-year-old Maria Luisa of Savoy, as chosen by his grandfather King Louis XIV, by an old man of 63, she was the daughter of Victor Amadeus II, Duke of Savoy, Philip's second cousin Anne Marie d'Orléans the parents of the Duchess of Burgundy, Philip's sister-in-law. There was a proxy ceremony at Turin, the capital of the Duchy of Savoy, another one at Versailles on 11 September. Maria Luisa proved popular as Queen of Spain, she served as regent for her husband on several occasions. Her most successful term was when Philip was away touring his Italian domains for nine months in 1702, when she was just 14 years old. On entering Naples that year he was presented with Bernini's Boy with a Dragon by Carlo Barberini. In 1714, Maria Luisa died at the age of 26 from tuberculosis, a devastating emotional blow to her husband; the actions of Louis XIV heightened the fears of the English, the Dutch and the Austrians, among others.
In February 1701, Louis XIV caused the Parlement of Paris to register a decree that if Philip's elder brother, the Petit Dauphin Louis, died without an heir Philip would surrender the throne of Spain for the succession to the throne of France, ensuring dynastic continuity in Europe's greatest land power. However, a second act of the French king "justified a hostile interpretation": pursuant to a treaty with Spain, Louis occupied several towns in the Spanish Netherlands; this was the spark that ignited the powder keg created by the unresolved issues of the War of the League of Augsburg and the acceptance of the Spanish inheritance by Louis XIV for his grandson. The War of the Spanish Succession began. Concern among other European powers that Spain and France united under a single Bourbon monarch would upset the balance of power pitted powerful France and weak Spain against the Grand Alliance of England, the Netherlands and Austria. Inside Spain, the Crown of Castile supported Philip of France.
On the other hand, the majority of the nobility of the Crown of Aragon supported Charles of
The Corts Valencianes known as Les Corts, are the main legislative body of the Generalitat Valenciana and therefore of the Valencian Country. The main location of the Corts is in the Palace of the Borgias in Valencia; the Corts has its origins in bodies established in the thirteenth century by King James I of Aragon. The modern institution was established in 1982 under the Valencian statute of autonomy of 1982; the current Corts were elected in 2015. Following the conquest and reign of James I of Aragon, the economic and military needs of the Crown of Aragon justified some meetings of the king with representatives of the three social classes, to obtain military or financial services; the economic needs justified those meetings, at the beginning of the sixteenth century, a stable institution called the Corts Valencianes had been established. Among the meetings which were held during the reign of James I, the most important was that of 7 April 1261 in Valencia, during which the king promulgated the Furs of Valencia, a series of charters equivalent to a modern constitution.
Proof of the economic importance of the corts for the crown is that the king promulgated the Furs in exchange for the sum of 48,000, which were paid to him by the city of Valencia, by the cities of the Horta de València which belonged to the clergy and to the nobility, by the towns of Castelló, Vilafamés, Onda, Llíria, Corbera and Gandia. At the time of those corts, King James established a rule for his successors obliging them to organise a general cort in Valencia at the beginning of each reign, in the first month after their entry into the city; this obligation was renewed during the corts of 1271, the corts were summoned by James I and by his son Peter III of Aragon. Those Corts were the only obligatory meetings, but the king summoned the corts on other occasions when required. In 1302, James II decided. During the corts of 1336, Peter IV confirmed this triennial meeting, by specifying that the corts were to meet every three years on All Saints' Day. During the thirteenth century and at the beginning of the fourteenth, the representations of the other cities in the Kingdom of Valencia were added, until the corts of 1239, during which the representations of various territories met constituting the corts of all the Kingdom.
From that moment, the most important cities always met, while others attended depending on the relevance to them of the subjects being discussed. However, the representation was important. For example, in the Corts of Valencia of 1510, the following towns were represented: Ademús, Alcoi, Alzira, Bocairent, Cabdet, Castelló, Cullera, Llíria, Ontinyent, Penàguila, Peníscola, València, Vila Joiosa, Vila-real, Xàtiva, Xèrica and Xixona. Half of the assemblies took place in Valencia cathedral; the Valencian Corts of 1418, fixed the duration of the corts at three years. In the middle of the fifteenth century, the Valencian institutions were definitively established. With the unification of the crowns of Castille and Aragon, the Valencian corts declined in importance and were less convened during the sixteenth century, a trend that continued in the seventeenth century; the last corts met in Valencia in 1645. After the War of the Spanish Succession and the new decree of 1707, the Kingdom of Valencia and its local rights were abolished.
The Corts Valencianes were not convened again until their reestablishment under the Statute of Autonomy of 1982. As of the coming into effect of the Statute of Autonomy, the Corts have operated like a modern representative legislature. Although meeting in the provincial capital of Valencia city, they have met in various towns around the Valencian community in recent years, an initiative, developed by the most recent legislatures; the first legislature in modern times was elected in May 1983. The Spanish Socialist Workers' Party won an absolute majority of votes and seats, with 51 of the 89 seats; however they lost their majority in 1987 and were forced to govern in coalition with the smaller United Left party. They won the 1991 elections with a majority of one seat. However, in the 1995 elections there was a swing to the right with the People's Party becoming the largest party with 42 seats and governing in coalition with the smaller Unió Valenciana; this lasted until the elections of 1999. Although they lost a seat in 2003, they strengthened their position in the elections of 2007 and 2011, winning a record 55 seats.
In the 2015 elections PP lost the majority, PSPV and Compromís are governing in coalition. Following the passing of the statute of autonomy of the Valencian Community, which established local government for the region, the Corts became the regional assembly, elected every four years by universal adult suffrage; the name originated in the historic Valencian Corts, however previous bodies of that name had different functions representing three institutions: the clergy, the military/nobility and the royal family. The Statute of Autonomy defines the Corts Valencianes in chapter II, title II, although there are references in other articles; the Statute indicates the composition of Corts, its functions, the basic principles of the electoral system, traces the general framework of the Statute of the Deputies. Laws which develop the Statute, the rules of the Corts Valencianes regulate t