Golden Age of Comic Books
The Golden Age of Comic Books describes an era of American comic books from the late 1930s to circa 1950. During this time, modern comic books were first published and increased in popularity; the superhero archetype was created and many well-known characters were introduced, including Superman, Captain Marvel, Captain America, Wonder Woman. The first recorded use of the term "Golden Age" was by Richard A. Lupoff in an article, "Re-Birth", published in issue one of the fanzine Comic Art in April 1960. An event cited by many as marking the beginning of the Golden Age was the 1938 debut of Superman in Action Comics #1, published by Detective Comics. Superman's popularity helped make comic books a major arm of publishing, which led rival companies to create superheroes of their own to emulate Superman's success. Between 1939 and 1941 Detective Comics and its sister company, All-American Publications, introduced popular superheroes such as Batman and Robin, Wonder Woman, the Flash, Green Lantern, Doctor Fate, the Atom, Green Arrow and Aquaman.
Timely Comics, the 1940s predecessor of Marvel Comics, had million-selling titles featuring the Human Torch, the Sub-Mariner, Captain America. Although DC and Timely characters are well-remembered today, circulation figures suggest that the best-selling superhero title of the era was Fawcett Comics' Captain Marvel with sales of about 1.4 million copies per issue. The comic was published biweekly at one point to capitalize on its popularity. Patriotic heroes donning red and blue were popular during the time of the second World War following The Shield's debut in 1940. Many heroes of this time period battled the Axis powers, with covers such as Captain America Comics #1 showing the title character punching Nazi leader Adolf Hitler; as comic books grew in popularity, publishers began launching titles that expanded into a variety of genres. Dell Comics' non-superhero characters outsold the superhero comics of the day; the publisher featured licensed movie and literary characters such as Mickey Mouse, Donald Duck, Roy Rogers and Tarzan.
It was during this era. Additionally, MLJ's introduction of Archie Andrews in Pep Comics #22 gave rise to teen humor comics, with the Archie Andrews character remaining in print well into the 21st century. At the same time in Canada, American comic books were prohibited importation under the War Exchange Conservation Act which restricted the importation of non-essential goods; as a result, a domestic publishing industry flourished during the duration of the war which were collectively informally called the Canadian Whites. The educational comic book Dagwood Splits. According to historian Michael A. Amundson, appealing comic-book characters helped ease young readers' fear of nuclear war and neutralize anxiety about the questions posed by atomic power, it was during this period that long-running humor comics debuted, including EC's Mad and Carl Barks' Uncle Scrooge in Dell's Four Color Comics. In 1953, the comic book industry hit a setback when the United States Senate Subcommittee on Juvenile Delinquency was created in order to investigate the problem of juvenile delinquency.
After the publication of Fredric Wertham's Seduction of the Innocent the following year that claimed comics sparked illegal behavior among minors, comic book publishers such as EC's William Gaines were subpoenaed to testify in public hearings. As a result, the Comics Code Authority was created by the Association of Comics Magazine Publishers to enact self-censorship by comic book publishers. At this time, EC canceled its crime and horror titles and focused on Mad. During the late 1940s, the popularity of superhero comics waned. To retain reader interest, comic publishers diversified into other genres, such as war, science fiction, romance and horror. Many superhero titles were converted to other genres. In 1946, DC Comics' Superboy and Green Arrow were switched from More Fun Comics into Adventure Comics so More Fun could focus on humor. In 1948 All-American Comics, featuring Green Lantern, Johnny Thunder and Dr. Mid-Nite, was replaced with All-American Western; the following year, Flash Comics and Green Lantern were cancelled.
In 1951 All Star Comics, featuring the Justice Society of America, became All-Star Western. The next year Star Spangled Comics, featuring Robin, was retitled Star Spangled War Stories. Sensation Comics, featuring Wonder Woman, was cancelled in 1953; the only DC superhero comics to continue publishing through the 1950s were Action Comics, Adventure Comics, Detective Comics, Superboy, Wonder Woman and World's Finest Comics. Plastic Man appeared in Quality Comics' Police Comics until 1950, when its focus switched to detective stories but his solo title continued bimonthly until issue 64, cover dated November 1956. Timely Comics' The Human Torch was canceled with issue #35 and Marvel Mystery Comics, featuring the Human Torch, with issue #93 became the horror comic Marvel Tales. Sub-Mariner Comics was cancelled with issue #42 and Captain America Comics, by Captain America's Weird Tales, with #75. Harvey Comics' Black Cat was cancelled in 1951 and rebooted as a horror comic that year—the title would change to Black Cat Mystery, Black Cat Mystic, Black Cat Western for the final two issues, which included Black Cat stories.
Lev Gleason Publications' Daredevil was edged out of his title by the Little Wise Guys in 1950. Fawcett Comics' Whiz Comics, Master Comics and Captain Marvel Adventure
In religion and folklore, Hell is an afterlife location, sometimes a place of torment and punishment. Religions with a linear divine history depict hells as eternal destinations while religions with a cyclic history depict a hell as an intermediary period between incarnations; these traditions locate hell in another dimension or under the Earth's surface and include entrances to Hell from the land of the living. Other afterlife destinations include Heaven, Purgatory and Limbo. Other traditions, which do not conceive of the afterlife as a place of punishment or reward describe Hell as an abode of the dead, the grave, a neutral place located under the surface of Earth; the modern English word hell is derived from Old English hel, helle reaching into the Anglo-Saxon pagan period. The word has cognates in all branches of the Germanic languages, including Old Norse hel, Old Frisian helle, Old Saxon hellia, Old High German hella, Gothic halja. All forms derive from the reconstructed Proto-Germanic feminine noun *xaljō or *haljō.
In turn, the Proto-Germanic form derives from the o-grade form of the Proto-Indo-European root *kel-, *kol-:'to cover, save'. Indo-European cognates including Latin cēlāre and early Irish ceilid. Upon the Christianization of the Germanic peoples, extension of Proto-Germanic *xaljō were reinterpreted to denote the underworld in Christian mythology, for which see Gehenna. Related early Germanic terms and concepts include Proto-Germanic *xalja-rūnō, a feminine compound noun, *xalja-wītjan, a neutral compound noun; this form is reconstructed from the Latinized Gothic plural noun *haliurunnae, Old English helle-rúne, Old High German helli-rūna'magic'. The compound is composed of two elements: *xaljō and *rūnō, the Proto-Germanic precursor to Modern English rune; the second element in the Gothic haliurunnae may however instead be an agent noun from the verb rinnan, which would make its literal meaning "one who travels to the netherworld". Proto-Germanic *xalja-wītjan is reconstructed from Old Norse hel-víti'hell', Old English helle-wíte'hell-torment, hell', Old Saxon helli-wīti'hell', the Middle High German feminine noun helle-wīze.
The compound is a compound of * * wītjan. Hell appears in several religions, it is inhabited by demons and the souls of dead people. A fable about Hell which recurs in folklore across several cultures is the allegory of the long spoons. Hell is depicted in art and literature most famously in Dante's Divine Comedy. Punishment in Hell corresponds to sins committed during life. Sometimes these distinctions are specific, with damned souls suffering for each sin committed, but sometimes they are general, with condemned sinners relegated to one or more chamber of Hell or to a level of suffering. In many religious cultures, including Christianity and Islam, Hell is depicted as fiery and harsh, inflicting suffering on the guilty. Despite these common depictions of Hell as a place of fire, some other traditions portray Hell as cold. Buddhist - and Tibetan Buddhist - descriptions of Hell feature an equal number of hot and cold Hells. Among Christian descriptions Dante's Inferno portrays the innermost circle of Hell as a frozen lake of blood and guilt.
But cold played a part in earlier Christian depictions of Hell, beginning with the Apocalypse of Paul from the early third century. The Sumerian afterlife was a dark, dreary cavern located deep below the ground, where inhabitants were believed to continue "a shadowy version of life on earth"; this bleak domain was known as Kur, was believed to be ruled by the goddess Ereshkigal. All souls went to the same afterlife, a person's actions during life had no effect on how the person would be treated in the world to come; the souls in Kur were believed to eat nothing but dry dust and family members of the deceased would ritually pour libations into the dead person's grave through a clay pipe, thereby allowing the dead to drink. Nonetheless, funerary evidence indicates that some people believed that the goddess Inanna, Ereshkigal's younger sister, had the power to award her devotees with special favors in the afterlife. During the Third Dynasty of Ur, it was believed that a person's treatment in the afterlife depended on how he or she was buried.
The entrance to Kur was believed to be located in the Zagros mountains in the far east. It had seven gates; the god Neti was the gatekeeper. Ereshkigal's sukkal, or messenger, was the god Namtar. Galla were a class of demons, they are fr
Roy William Thomas Jr. is an American comic book writer and editor, Stan Lee's first successor as editor-in-chief of Marvel Comics. He is best known for introducing the pulp magazine hero Conan the Barbarian to American comics, with a series that added to the storyline of Robert E. Howard's character and helped launch a sword and sorcery trend in comics. Thomas is known for his championing of Golden Age comic-book heroes – the 1940s superhero team the Justice Society of America – and for lengthy writing stints on Marvel's X-Men and The Avengers, DC Comics' All-Star Squadron, among other titles. Thomas was inducted into the Will Eisner Comic Book Hall of Fame in 2011. Thomas was born in Jackson, United States; as a child, he was a devoted comic book fan, in grade school he wrote and drew his own comics for distribution to friends and family. The first of these was All-Giant Comics, which he recalls as having featured such characters as Elephant Giant, he graduated from Southeast Missouri State University in 1961 with a BS in Education, having majored in history and social science.
Thomas became an early and active member of Silver Age comic book fandom when it organized in the early 1960s – around Jerry Bails, whose enthusiasm for the rebirth of superhero comics during that period led Bails to found the fanzine Alter Ego, an early focal point of fandom. Thomas a high school English teacher, took over as editor in 1964 when Bails moved on to other pursuits. Letters from him appeared in the letters pages of both DC and Marvel Comics, including The Flash #116, Fantastic Four #5, Fantastic Four #15, Fantastic Four #22. In 1965, Thomas moved to New York City to take a job at DC Comics as assistant to Mort Weisinger the editor of the Superman titles. Thomas said he had just accepted a fellowship to study foreign relations at George Washington University when he received a letter from Weisinger, "with whom I had exchanged one or two letters, tops", asking Thomas to become "his assistant editor on a several-week trial basis." Thomas had written a Jimmy Olsen script "a few months before, while still living and teaching in the St. Louis area," he said in 2005.
"I worked at DC for eight days in late June and early July of 1965" before accepting a job at Marvel Comics. The Marvel "Bullpen Bulletins" in Fantastic Four #61 describes Thomas "admitting that he gave up a scholarship to George Washington University just to write for Marvel!" This came after his chafing under the notoriously difficult Weisinger, to a point, Thomas said in 1981, that he would go "home to my dingy little room at, the George Washington Hotel in Manhattan, during that second week, feeling tears well into my eyes, at the ripe old age of 24." Familiar with editor and chief writer Stan Lee's Marvel work, feeling them "the most vital comics around", Thomas "just sat down one night at the hotel and – I wrote him a letter! Not applying for a job or anything so mundane as that – I just said that I admired his work, would like to buy him a drink some time. I figured he just might remember me from Alter Ego." Lee did, phoned Thomas to offer him a Marvel writing test. The writer's test, Thomas said in 1998, "was four Jack Kirby pages from Fantastic Four Annual #2... had Sol or someone take out the dialogue.
It was just black-and-white. Other people like Denny O'Neil and Gary Friedrich took it, but soon afterwards we stopped using it." The day after taking the test, Thomas was at DC, proofreading a Supergirl story, when Steinberg called asking Thomas to meet with Lee during lunch, where Thomas agreed to work for Marvel. He returned to DC to give "indefinite notice" to Weisinger, but Weisinger ordered him to leave and "I was back at Marvel less than an hour after I first left, had a Modeling with Millie assignment to do over the weekend, it was a Friday." His employment was announced in the "Bullpen Bulletins" section of Fantastic Four #47 under the heading "How About That! Department". Thomas described his early days at Marvel: I was hired after taking'writer's test', my first official job title at Marvel was'staff writer'. I wasn't hired as an assistant editor. I was supposed to come in 40 hours a week and write scripts on staff.... I sat at this corrugated metal desk with a typewriter in a small office with production manager Sol Brodsky and corresponding secretary Flo Steinberg.
Everybody who came up to Marvel wound up there, the phone was ringing, with conversations going on all around me.... At once though Stan proofed all the finished stories, he and Sol started having me check the corrections before they went out, that would break up my concentration still further.... They kept asking me to do this or that, or questions like in which issue something happened, or Stan would come in to check something, because I knew a lot about Marvel continuity up to that time.... It became apparent to them, that the staff writer thing wasn't working, Stan segued me over to being an editorial assistant, which worked out better for all concerned. To that point, editor-in-chief Lee had been the main writer of Marvel publications, with his brother, Larry Lieber picking up the slack scripting Lee-plotted stories. Thomas soon became the first new Marvel writer to sustain a presence, at a time when comics veterans such as Robert Bernstein, Ernie Hart, Leon Lazarus, Don Rico, fellow newcomers Steve Skeates and O'Neil did not.
His Marvel debut was
Crisis on Infinite Earths
Crisis on Infinite Earths is an American comic book published by DC Comics. The story, written by Marv Wolfman and pencilled by George Pérez, was first serialized as a twelve-issue maxiseries from April 1985 to March 1986; as the main piece of a crossover event, some plot elements were featured in tie-in issues of other DC publications. Since its initial publication, the series has been reprinted in various editions; the idea for the series stemmed from Wolfman's desire to abandon the DC Multiverse seen in the company's comics—which he thought was unfriendly to readers—and create a single, unified DC Universe. The foundation of Crisis on Infinite Earths developed through a character introduced in Wolfman's The New Teen Titans in July 1982 before the series itself started. Pérez was not the intended artist for the series, but was excited when he learned of it and called illustrating it some of the most fun he had. At the start of Crisis on Infinite Earths, the Anti-Monitor is unleashed on the DC Multiverse and begins to destroy the various Earths that it comprises.
The Monitor tries to recruit heroes from around the Multiverse but is murdered, while Brainiac collaborates with the villains to conquer the remaining Earths. However, both the heroes and villains are united by the Spectre. Crisis on Infinite Earths is infamous for its high death count; the series was a bestseller for DC and has been reviewed positively by comic book critics, who praised its ambition and dramatic events. The story is credited with popularizing the idea of a large-scale crossover in comics, its events caused the entire DCU to be rebooted. Crisis on Infinite Earths is the first installment in; the story will serve as inspiration for the 2019 Arrowverse crossover. DC Comics is an American comic book publisher best known for its superhero stories featuring characters including Batman and Wonder Woman; the company debuted in February 1935 with New Fun: The Big Comic Magazine. Most of DC's comic books take place within a shared universe called the DC Universe, allowing plot elements and settings to crossover with each other.
The concept of the DCU has provided DC's writers some challenges in maintaining continuity, due to conflicting events within different comics that need to reflect the shared nature of the universe. "The Flash of Two Worlds" from The Flash #123, which featured Barry Allen teaming up with Jay Garrick, was the first DC comic to suggest that the DCU was a part of a multiverse. The DC Multiverse concept was expanded in years with the DCU having infinite Earths. For example, the Golden Age versions of DC heroes resided on Earth-Two, while DC's Silver Age heroes were from Earth-One. Since "Crisis on Earth-One!", DC has used the word "Crisis" to describe important crossovers within the DC Multiverse. Over the years, various writers took liberties creating additional parallel Earths as plot devices and to house characters DC had acquired from other companies, making the DC Multiverse a "convoluted mess". DC's comic book sales were far below those of their competitor Marvel Comics. According to ComicsAlliance journalist Chris Sims, "the multiverse... felt old-fashioned, conjuring up images of'imaginary stories' and characters that DC acquired when they bought out Golden Age competitors and shuttled off to their own universes.
Marvel, on the other hand, felt contemporary... and when you stack them up against each other, there's one difference that sticks out above anything else: Marvel feels unified". During the Bronze Age of Comic Books, writer Marv Wolfman became popular among DC's readers for his work on Weird War Tales and The New Teen Titans. George Pérez, who illustrated The New Teen Titans began to rise to prominence in this era. In 1984, Pérez entered into an exclusive contract with DC, extended one year. Although The New Teen Titans was a major success for DC, the company's comic book sales were still below Marvel's. Wolfman began to attribute this to the DC Multiverse, feeling "The Flash of Two Worlds" had created a "nightmare": it was not reader-friendly for new readers to be able to keep track of and writers struggled with the continuity errors it caused. In The New Teen Titans #21, Wolfman introduced a new character: the shadowy villainous Monitor. In 1981, Wolfman was editing Green Lantern, he got a letter from a fan asking why a character did not recognize Green Lantern in a recent issue despite the two having had worked together in an issue three years earlier.
Soon afterward, Wolfman pitched Crisis on Infinite Earths as The History of the DC Universe, seeing it as a way to simplify the DCU and attract new readers. The History of the DC Universe's title was changed to Crisis of Infinite Earths because its premise, involving the destruction of entire worlds, sounded more like a crisis. Wolfman said when he pitched the series to DC, he realized it was going to be a new beginning for the DCU. "I knew up front, they did too, how big this was going to be," he said. "But, no-one knew whether it would sell at all. It was a risk DC was willing to take, because my thoughts were th
Hector Hall is a fictional character, a superhero appearing in DC Comics's Infinity, Inc. Sandman and JSA, he has gone by Sandman and, before his death, Doctor Fate. Hector Hall first appeared in All-Star Squadron #25 and was created by writer Roy Thomas and artist Jerry Ordway. Hector Hall is the son of Carter and Shiera Hall, the Golden Age heroes known as Hawkman and Hawkgirl. Carter and Shiera were reincarnations of an ancient Egyptian pharaoh and his wife, both of whom had been killed and cursed by their rival Hath-Set. Unbeknownst to either of them, Hath-Set's curse concerned any children that might be conceived by the pair; the curse of Seketh, the Ancient Egyptian God of Death, prophesied the combination of the Silver Scarab and the Eye of Ra, which would mean the end of the world. As such, when Hector was born during an archaeological dig near Cairo, he was born without a soul, destined to be a vessel for the Silver Scarab, an agent of vengeance called forth by Hath-Set. To further anger Hector, his parents would visit the city of Feithera and spend time with their godson Norda Cantrell.
Although the two children would be playmates as well, Hector carried a grudge against Norda for his wings and the attention he got from Hector's parents. It turned out that, as Hector had been prophesied to become an agent of Hath-Set, Norda's destiny would be to stop him. Young Hector Hall would sometimes play with the other children of the Justice Society, such as Al Rothstein, Lyta Trevor and Rick Tyler. During one of these meetings, the kids ended up flying a jet, crashed into the White House, where they were of course stopped and reprimanded by their parents. Feeling neglected by his crime-fighting parents, in college Hector constructed a suit out of the Nth Metal that granted his parents the power of flight, while adding some solar improvements. Hector met his childhood friend, Lyta Trevor; the two fell in love and began to date. Lyta wished to follow in her mother's footsteps and become the next Fury, Hector shared the secret of his Silver Scarab suit with her; as such, the two decided to apply for membership in the Justice Society of America, the group their parents had helped form.
Inviting Al Rothstein to apply with them as well as Norda Cantrell, who would codename himself Northwind, all four were turned down due to their age and inexperience. Before the four could further plead their case, Jenny Hayden and Todd Rice, both Alan Scott's children, showed up and applied; the six of them left, but shortly after, Henry King Jr. came to apply, using the illusion of his father, Brainwave. He told them that he was the son of the original Brainwave and didn't want a fight, but the JSA attacked him regardless. Feeling pity on the youngsters, Star-Spangled Kid decided to leave the JSA with Brainwave, Jr. in order to create a new group. They were joined by Power Girl and the Huntress, called themselves Infinity, Inc. After battling their parents and mentors the team publicly divulged their secret identities, Hector announced his engagement to Lyta; the Ultra-Humanite had revealed Hawkman and Hawkgirl's secret identities, Hector chose to confirm the rumor. They had little time to enjoy their happiness as the entity, within Hector since his birth came forth, thanks to the manipulation of Hath-Set.
The reincarnated Silver Scarab summoned the Eye of Ra. The heroes at the cost of Hector's life; as he died, he learned that Lyta was carrying his child, the one thing, his undoing, for the child carried with him the purity and goodness of Hector Hall, resulting in the Silver Scarab being unable to control the Eye. Hector Hall cheated death like his parents before, his consciousness had been cast into the Dreaming, where it was discovered by Brute and Glob, former servants of Morpheus, Dream of the Endless. Left at a loose end following the imprisonment of Morpheus in the early 20th century and Glob had taken to recruiting mortals as surrogate "dream kings," which they hoped to use as a means to seize control of the entire Dreaming. Hector was one such pawn, he adopted the costumed identity of the Sandman. In his new persona, Hector could only leave his "dream dimension" for one hour a day, he made use of this time to visit Lyta in her dreams, where he discovered that she had become pregnant with his child.
This pattern continued for a long time before Hector was "caught" by his friend Al Rothstein, who had come to visit Lyta and propose to her. He asked her to marry him, she agreed, the two of them departed for the dream dimension. The "Dream Dimension" was nothing more than a part of the Dreaming inside the mind of a young boy named Jed Walker which Brute and Glob had severed. Inside, Lyta started to drift off, becoming less and less in touch with reality, her pregnancy had halted for nearly two years. Hector became more and more obsessed with his role as the Sandman, devolved from a serious superhero to one who fought nonsensical battles against weak villains, it was only a short time that Morpheus escaped his captivity and set about putting the Dreaming back into order. His attention fell on Brute and Glob. Ending their schemes, Morpheus returned Hector to the realm of the dead, laid claim to his yet-to-be-born son, Da
Myth is a folklore genre consisting of narratives or stories that play a fundamental role in a society, such as foundational tales or origin myths. The main characters in myths are gods, demigods or supernatural humans. Stories of everyday human beings, although of leaders of some type, are contained in legends, as opposed to myths. Myths are endorsed by rulers and priests or priestesses, are linked to religion or spirituality. In fact, many societies group their myths and history together, considering myths and legends to be true accounts of their remote past. In particular, creation myths take place in a primordial age when the world had not achieved its form. Other myths explain how a society's customs and taboos were established and sanctified. There is a complex relationship between recital of myths and enactment of rituals; the study of myth began in ancient history. Rival classes of the Greek myths by Euhemerus and Sallustius were developed by the Neoplatonists and revived by Renaissance mythographers.
Today, the study of myth continues in a wide variety of academic fields, including folklore studies and psychology. The term mythology may either refer to the study of myths in general, or a body of myths regarding a particular subject; the academic comparisons of bodies of myth is known as comparative mythology. Since the term myth is used to imply that a story is not objectively true, the identification of a narrative as a myth can be political: many adherents of religions view their religion's stories as true and therefore object to the stories being characterised as myths. Scholars now speak of Christian mythology, Jewish mythology, Islamic mythology, Hindu mythology, so forth. Traditionally, Western scholarship, with its Judaeo-Christian heritage, has viewed narratives in the Abrahamic religions as being the province of theology rather than mythology. Labelling all religious narratives as myths can be thought of as treating different traditions with parity. Definitions of myth to some extent vary by scholar.
Finnish folklorist Lauri Honko offers a cited definition: Myth, a story of the gods, a religious account of the beginning of the world, the creation, fundamental events, the exemplary deeds of the gods as a result of which the world and culture were created together with all parts thereof and given their order, which still obtains. A myth expresses and confirms society's religious values and norms, it provides a pattern of behavior to be imitated, testifies to the efficacy of ritual with its practical ends and establishes the sanctity of cult. Scholars in other fields use the term myth in varied ways. In a broad sense, the word can refer to any traditional story, popular misconception or imaginary entity. However, while myth and other folklore genres may overlap, myth is thought to differ from genres such as legend and folktale in that neither are considered to be sacred narratives; some kinds of folktales, such as fairy stories, are not considered true by anyone, may be seen as distinct from myths for this reason.
Main characters in myths are gods, demigods or supernatural humans, while legends feature humans as their main characters. However, many exceptions or combinations exist, as in the Iliad and Aeneid. Moreover, as stories spread between cultures or as faiths change, myths can come to be considered folktales, their divine characters recast as either as humans or demihumans such as giants and faeries. Conversely and literary material may acquire mythological qualities over time. For example, the Matter of Britain and the Matter of France, seem distantly to originate in historical events of the fifth and eighth-centuries and became mythologised over the following centuries. In colloquial use, the word myth can be used of a collectively held belief that has no basis in fact, or any false story; this usage, pejorative, arose from labeling the religious myths and beliefs of other cultures as incorrect, but it has spread to cover non-religious beliefs as well. However, as used by folklorists and academics in other relevant fields, such as anthropology, the term myth has no implication whether the narrative may be understood as true or otherwise.
In present use, mythology refers to the collected myths of a group of people, but may mean the study of such myths. For example, Greek mythology, Roman mythology and Hittite mythology all describe the body of myths retold among those cultures. Folklorist Alan Dundes defines myth as a sacred narrative that explains how the world and humanity evolved into their present form. Dundes classified a sacred narrative as "a story that serves to define the fundamental worldview of a culture by explaining aspects of the natural world and delineating the psychological and social practices and ideals of a society". Anthropologist Bruce Lincoln defines myth as "ideology in narrative form." The compilation or description of myths is sometimes known as mythography, a term which can be used of a scholarly anthology of myths. Key mythographers in the Classical tradition include Ovid, whose tellings of myths have been profoundingly influential.
The All-Star Squadron is a DC Comics superhero team that debuted in Justice League of America #193 and was created by Roy Thomas, Rich Buckler and Jerry Ordway. The All-Star Squadron debuted in a special insert in Justice League of America #193; the new team was launched in its own series the following month and was created by Roy Thomas, Rich Buckler and Jerry Ordway. The eponymous comic book series was published for 67 issues from September 1981 to March 1987 and three annuals were published as well; when Rich Buckler left the series after the fifth issue, editor Len Wein hired Adrian Gonzales as a replacement and notified Roy Thomas with a note stating "You're going to like Adrian Gonzales". He drew the series for 13 issues which included a crossover with the Justice League of America Jerry Ordway, who had inked the series since its start, became the penciler as of issue #19, he and Thomas co-created the Infinity, Inc. team in issue #25. All-Star Squadron #32 and #33 detailed how the Freedom Fighters traveled from Earth-Two to Earth-X.
Several issues of the series detailed origins of various characters including Amazing-Man, Doctor Fate, Liberty Belle, the Shining Knight, Johnny Quick, the Tarantula. All-Star Squadron #1 contains "An Open Letter to the Readers" written by Roy Thomas. In it he describes the impetus for the series, namely, DC wanted a comic book telling tales of the Justice Society of America; the last series to do so was All Star Comics, which lasted only seventeen issues, ending in 1979. As Roy Thomas put it, DC management gave him "a chance to write a return of the JSA." Instead of writing stories in the modern era, Roy Thomas decided to place the tales during World War II. The setting would be DC's fictional world of Earth-Two, a parallel universe to the mainstream DC continuity established during the 1960s, to explain how DC characters who were well established having adventures in the 1940s could still be in their 30s in contemporary comics; the cast of characters would include a large ensemble of heroes from both the DC stable and the Quality Comics Group.
With so many characters to choose from, the creative team decided to concentrate on "quite promising characters who have been ignored or underplayed for years," instead of those Earth-Two characters who had counterparts on Earth-One. Roy Thomas writes, ``, we gained the Earth-Two Robotman. We tossed in an Earth-Two version of the venerable Plastic Man, whose series in Adventure was just folding…" The All-Star Squadron was an example of "retroactive continuity" or "retcon", as it rewrote the already-established history of DC superheroes, published during the 1940s; the first known use of the term "retcon" was by Roy Thomas in the letter column of All-Star Squadron #20. Several story lines ironed out continuity errors, fleshed out characters' origins and rewrote earlier stories to explain inconsistencies in character development, resolve lingering questions or fill in missing details; the Trylon and Perisphere, actual structures constructed in Flushing Meadows, New York for the 1939 New York World's Fair, housed the Squadron's headquarters.
The Perisphere contained the Squadron meeting hall, while the Trylon was retrofitted as an aircraft hangar/vertical launch platform. The All-Star Squadron had a robotic butler named Gernsback, based on the Elektro robots from the fair and was named after science fiction publisher Hugo Gernsback. After the 1985 DC Comics event Crisis on Infinite Earths merged the various parallel worlds DC had established over the decades into a single universe, the older, "Golden Age" versions of DC's mainstream heroes were eliminated from continuity; the All-Star Squadron was left only with the characters unique to that time period. Superman, Robin, Wonder Woman, Green Arrow, Plastic Man and several other heroes were no longer extant at that point in history, had thus never been Squadron members. In part to clear the slate after the events of Crisis on Infinite Earths and to re-launch the franchise, All Star Squadron was canceled with issue #67 and replaced with a successor series, Young All-Stars; the principal characters featured in Young All-Stars were considered spiritual and contextual analogs for the missing characters: Iron Munro for Superman, Fury for Wonder Woman, Flying Fox for Batman, Dan the Dyna-Mite for Robin, Neptune Perkins for Aquaman.
Evil analogs were created for the missing characters at the same time: Übermensch, Der Grosshorn Eule, Fledermaus and Sea Wolf. Young All-Stars was published for one annual. In a nod to the original JSA adventures in All Star Comics, writer Roy Thomas tried to include at least a cameo appearance by the Golden Age Hawkman in every issue, since Hawkman was the one hero to appear in every Golden Age issue of All Star Comics, including the two pre-JSA issues; the artwork for issue #49 was printed without Hawkman's cameo included, so it became the only issue to break the streak. The string of appearances had been broken several issues into a mid-1970s revival of All Star Comics; when writer Gerry Conway revived the Justice Society in their own regular series in 1976, he intended to have the younger members of the group, including Power Girl and the Star-Spangled Kid, spun off into their own team and potential series of their own, to be called the All-Star Squadron. The group's name was subsequently changed to the Super Squad, after management at DC worried that the team's original name would be