Apple Inc. is an American multinational technology company headquartered in Cupertino, that designs and sells consumer electronics, computer software, online services. It is considered one of the Big Four of technology along with Amazon and Facebook; the company's hardware products include the iPhone smartphone, the iPad tablet computer, the Mac personal computer, the iPod portable media player, the Apple Watch smartwatch, the Apple TV digital media player, the HomePod smart speaker. Apple's software includes the macOS and iOS operating systems, the iTunes media player, the Safari web browser, the iLife and iWork creativity and productivity suites, as well as professional applications like Final Cut Pro, Logic Pro, Xcode, its online services include the iTunes Store, the iOS App Store, Mac App Store, Apple Music, Apple TV+, iMessage, iCloud. Other services include Apple Store, Genius Bar, AppleCare, Apple Pay, Apple Pay Cash, Apple Card. Apple was founded by Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Ronald Wayne in April 1976 to develop and sell Wozniak's Apple I personal computer, though Wayne sold his share back within 12 days.
It was incorporated as Apple Computer, Inc. in January 1977, sales of its computers, including the Apple II, grew quickly. Within a few years and Wozniak had hired a staff of computer designers and had a production line. Apple went public in 1980 to instant financial success. Over the next few years, Apple shipped new computers featuring innovative graphical user interfaces, such as the original Macintosh in 1984, Apple's marketing advertisements for its products received widespread critical acclaim. However, the high price of its products and limited application library caused problems, as did power struggles between executives. In 1985, Wozniak departed Apple amicably and remained an honorary employee, while Jobs and others resigned to found NeXT; as the market for personal computers expanded and evolved through the 1990s, Apple lost market share to the lower-priced duopoly of Microsoft Windows on Intel PC clones. The board recruited CEO Gil Amelio to what would be a 500-day charge for him to rehabilitate the financially troubled company—reshaping it with layoffs, executive restructuring, product focus.
In 1997, he led Apple to buy NeXT, solving the failed operating system strategy and bringing Jobs back. Jobs pensively regained leadership status, becoming CEO in 2000. Apple swiftly returned to profitability under the revitalizing Think different campaign, as he rebuilt Apple's status by launching the iMac in 1998, opening the retail chain of Apple Stores in 2001, acquiring numerous companies to broaden the software portfolio. In January 2007, Jobs renamed the company Apple Inc. reflecting its shifted focus toward consumer electronics, launched the iPhone to great critical acclaim and financial success. In August 2011, Jobs resigned as CEO due to health complications, Tim Cook became the new CEO. Two months Jobs died, marking the end of an era for the company. Apple is well known for its size and revenues, its worldwide annual revenue totaled $265 billion for the 2018 fiscal year. Apple is the world's largest information technology company by revenue and the world's third-largest mobile phone manufacturer after Samsung and Huawei.
In August 2018, Apple became the first public U. S. company to be valued at over $1 trillion. The company employs 123,000 full-time employees and maintains 504 retail stores in 24 countries as of 2018, it operates the iTunes Store, the world's largest music retailer. As of January 2018, more than 1.3 billion Apple products are in use worldwide. The company has a high level of brand loyalty and is ranked as the world's most valuable brand. However, Apple receives significant criticism regarding the labor practices of its contractors, its environmental practices and unethical business practices, including anti-competitive behavior, as well as the origins of source materials. Apple Computer Company was founded on April 1, 1976, by Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Ronald Wayne; the company's first product is the Apple I, a computer designed and hand-built by Wozniak, first shown to the public at the Homebrew Computer Club. Apple I was sold as a motherboard —a base kit concept which would now not be marketed as a complete personal computer.
The Apple I went on sale in July 1976 and was market-priced at $666.66. Apple Computer, Inc. was incorporated on January 3, 1977, without Wayne, who had left and sold his share of the company back to Jobs and Wozniak for $800 only twelve days after having co-founded Apple. Multimillionaire Mike Markkula provided essential business expertise and funding of $250,000 during the incorporation of Apple. During the first five years of operations revenues grew exponentially, doubling about every four months. Between September 1977 and September 1980, yearly sales grew from $775,000 to $118 million, an average annual growth rate of 533%; the Apple II invented by Wozniak, was introduced on April 16, 1977, at the first West Coast Computer Faire. It differs from its major rivals, the TRS-80 and Commodore PET, because of its character cell-based color graphics and open architecture. While early Apple II models use ordinary cassette tapes as storage devices, they were superseded by the introduction of a 5 1⁄4-inch floppy disk drive and interface called the Disk II.
The Apple II was chosen to be the desktop platform for the first "killer app" of the business world: VisiCalc, a spreadsheet program. VisiCalc created a business market for the Apple II and gave home users an additional reason to buy an Apple II: compatibility with the office. Before VisiCalc, Apple had been a distant third place c
A solid-state drive is a solid-state storage device that uses integrated circuit assemblies as memory to store data persistently. It is sometimes called a solid-state device or a solid-state disk, although SSDs do not have physical disks. SSDs can use traditional hard disk drive interfaces and form factors, or newer form factors and interfaces that have been developed to address specific advantages of the flash memory technology used in SSDs. Traditional interfaces, standard HDD form factors allow such SSDs to be used as drop-in replacements for HDDs in computers and other devices. Newer form factors such as mSATA, M.2, U.2, Ruler SSD and higher speed interfaces such as NVMe over PCI Express can increase performance over HDD performance. SSDs have no moving mechanical components; this distinguishes them from conventional electromechanical drives such as hard disk drives or floppy disks, which contain spinning disks and movable read/write heads. Compared with electromechanical drives, SSDs are more resistant to physical shock, run silently, have quicker access time and lower latency.
While the price of SSDs has continued to decline over time, SSDs are still more expensive per unit of storage than HDDs and are expected to remain so into the next decade. As of 2017, most SSDs use 3D TLC NAND-based flash memory. NAND is non-volatile memory, which retains data when power is removed. For applications requiring fast access but not data persistence after power loss, SSDs may be constructed from random-access memory; such devices may employ batteries as integrated power sources to retain data for a certain amount of time after external power is lost. Since 2018, some SSDs have 3D QLC NAND, which increases capacity and lowers costs, but at the expense of a lower endurance rating. For example, a 1 TB QLC NAND SSD has about the same endurance rating as a 500 GB TLC NAND SSD. High-performance SSDs may use SLC or MLC NAND, which can be much faster than TLC or QLC NAND, but have lower capacity and are more expensive, making them better suited for caches or other applications that require high performance.
However, all SSDs still store data in electrical charges, which leak over time if left without power. This causes worn out drives to start losing data after one to two years in storage. Therefore, SSDs are not suitable for archival storage; the only exception to this rule are SSDs based on 3D XPoint memory, which stores data not by storing electrical charges in cells, but by changing the electrical resistance of the cells. 3D XPoint, however, is a new technology with unknown data-retention characteristics and may not be suitable for archival purposes. Hybrid drives or solid-state hybrid drives, such as Apple's Fusion Drive, combine features of SSDs and HDDs in the same unit, containing a large hard disk drive and an SSD cache to improve performance of frequently-accessed data. An early if not first semiconductor storage device compatible with a hard drive interface was the 1978 StorageTek STC 4305; the STC 4305, a plug-compatible replacement for the IBM 2305 fixed head disk drive used charged coupled devices for storage and was reported to be seven times faster than the IBM product at about half the price.
It switched to DRAM. Prior to the StorageTek SSD there were many DRAM and core products sold as alternatives to HDDs but these products had memory interfaces and were not SSDs as defined. In the late 1980s Zitel, Inc. offered a family DRAM based SSD products, under the trade name "RAMDisk," for use on systems by UNIVAC and Perkin-Elmer, among others. In 1991, SanDisk Corporation shipped the Flash based first SSD, it was used by IBM in a ThinkPad laptop. In 1998 SanDisk introduced SSDs in 2 3 1/2 form factors with PATA interfaces. In 1995, STEC, Inc. entered the flash memory business for consumer electronic devices. In 1995, M-Systems introduced flash-based solid-state drives as HDD replacements for the military and aerospace industries, as well as for other mission-critical applications; these applications require the SSD's ability to withstand extreme shock and temperature ranges. In 1999, BiTMICRO made a number of introductions and announcements about flash-based SSDs, including an 18 GB 3.5-inch SSD.
In 2007, Fusion-io announced a PCIe-based Solid state drive with 100,000 input/output operations per second of performance in a single card, with capacities up to 320 gigabytes. At Cebit 2009, OCZ Technology demonstrated, it achieved a maximum write speed of 654 megabytes per maximum read speed of 712 MB/s. In December 2009, Micron Technology announced an SSD using a 6 gigabits per second SATA interface. In 2016, Seagate demonstrates 10GB/S transfer speeds from a 16 lane PCIe SSD and demonstrates a 60TB SSD in a 3.5 inch form factor. Samsung launches to market a 15.36TB SSD with a price tag of US$10,000 using a SAS interface, using a 2.5 inch form factor but with the thickness of 3.5 inch drives. This was the first time a commercially available SSD had more capacity than the largest available HDD. In 2017, the first products with 3D Xpoint memory are released. 3D Xpoint is different from NAND Flash and stores data using different principles. In 2018, both Samsung and Toshiba introduce to market 30.72
The Mac mini is a desktop computer made by Apple Inc. One of four desktop computers in the current Macintosh lineup, along with the iMac, Mac Pro, iMac Pro, it uses many components featured in laptops to achieve its small size; the current Mac mini, introduced in October 2018, is the fourth generation of the product. First released in 2005, the Mac mini is Apple's only consumer desktop computer since 1998 to ship without a display, keyboard, or mouse. Apple marketed it as BYODKM, pitching it to users switching from a traditional Windows PC. In 2010, a third-generation Mac mini became Apple's first computer with an HDMI video port to connect to a television or other display, more positioning the unit as a home theater device alternative to the Apple TV. A server version of the Mac mini, bundled with the Server edition of the OS X operating system, was offered from 2009 to 2014. A small form factor computer had been speculated and requested long before the release of the Mac mini. Rumors predicted that the "headless iMac" would be small, include no display, would be positioned as Apple's entry-level desktop computer.
On January 10, 2005, the Mac mini was announced alongside the iPod shuffle at the Macworld Conference & Expo and was described by Apple CEO Steve Jobs at the time as "the cheapest, most affordable Mac ever". Its case measured 2.0 × 6.5 × 6.5 inches. The Mac mini is an entry-level computer intended for budget-minded customers; until the 2011 release, the Mac mini had much less processing power than the other computers of the Macintosh lineup. Unlike regular desktop computers, which use standard-sized components such as 3.5-inch hard drives and full-size DIMM's, Apple uses lower-power laptop components in the Mac mini to fit all the necessary components into the small case and to prevent overheating. With the choice of components on the older models, the machine was considered somewhat slower than standard desktop computers, it had less storage and memory than comparable desktops. However, the 2011 upgrade addressed many of these previous complaints. In general, the Mac mini has been praised as a affordable computer with a solid range of features.
However, many agree that it is costly for a computer aimed at the lower segment of the market. It is possible to buy small computers at the same price with faster processors, better graphics card, more memory, more storage; the small size has made the Mac mini popular as a home theater solution. In addition, its size and reliability has helped keep resale values high. On October 22, 2009, Apple introduced a new server version of the Mac mini along with revisions of the computer; this model had a second hard drive instead of an optical drive, was marketed as an affordable server for small businesses and schools. On June 15, 2010, Apple introduced the third-generation Mac mini; the new model was thinner, with a unibody aluminum case designed to be opened for RAM access, incorporated upgraded hardware, such as an HDMI port and Nvidia GeForce 320M graphics. It included an internal power supply. An update announced July 20, 2011, dropped the internal CD/DVD optical drive from all versions and introduced a Thunderbolt port, Intel Core i5 processor, either Intel HD Graphics 3000 integrated graphics or AMD Radeon HD 6630M dedicated graphics.
The Server model was upgraded to a quad-core Intel Core i7 processor. Quad-core i7 CPUs were used in the late-2012 desktop Mac mini computers. In October 2014, Apple refreshed the line, adding Haswell CPUs, improving the graphics, lowering the base-model price by $100; the only change to the body was the removal of the two holes used to open the case, as the RAM was no longer upgradable because it was soldered to the logic board. On October 30, 2018, after four years, the Mac mini got a refresh. With this came major specification upgrades, new colors, a switch to all-flash storage; the RAM was increased to a baseline of 8 GB, a maximum of 64 GB of SO-DIMM DDR4. This shows Apple's trend back toward user-upgrade-ability in their desktop models; the storage was changed to a baseline 128 GB of flash storage, with a max of 2 TB. It has optional 10 Gb Ethernet, HDMI 2.0, a headphone jack, 2 USB 3.1, 4 USB-C Thunderbolt 3 ports. The Bluetooth was upgraded to the 5.0 standard, the Mac itself was made available in space gray.
The baseline retail price is $799 USD. Missing for the 2018 model is the SD card reader, SATA drive bay, IR receiver, optical S/PDIF audio out, audio in; the most notable feature of the Mac mini is its size. The original design measured only 2.0 × 6.5 × 6.5 inches. The exterior of the original Mac mini was made of aluminum capped with polycarbonate plastic on the top and bottom; the original design was not meant to be upgraded by the user. The back of the machine contains the I/O vents for the cooling system, it had an external power supply rated at 85W or 110W. The Mac mini, updated on June 15, 2010, was redesigned, being slimmer than the prior models at only 1.4 inches tall, but wider at 7.7 inches a side. The weight rose from 2.9 to 3.0 pounds. The power supply is now internal as opposed to external; the chassis no longer has the polycarbonate plastic on the bottom. The newer model, introduced July 20, 2011 has the same physical dimensions
Flash memory is an electronic non-volatile computer storage medium that can be electrically erased and reprogrammed. Toshiba developed flash memory from EEPROM in the early 1980s and introduced it to the market in 1984; the two main types of flash memory are named after the NOR logic gates. The individual flash memory cells exhibit internal characteristics similar to those of the corresponding gates. While EPROMs had to be erased before being rewritten, NAND-type flash memory may be written and read in blocks which are much smaller than the entire device. NOR-type flash allows a single machine word to be written – to an erased location – or read independently; the NAND type is found in memory cards, USB flash drives, solid-state drives, similar products, for general storage and transfer of data. NAND or NOR flash memory is often used to store configuration data in numerous digital products, a task made possible by EEPROM or battery-powered static RAM. One key disadvantage of flash memory is that it can only endure a small number of write cycles in a specific block.
Example applications of both types of flash memory include personal computers, PDAs, digital audio players, digital cameras, mobile phones, video games, scientific instrumentation, industrial robotics, medical electronics. In addition to being non-volatile, flash memory offers fast read access times, although not as fast as static RAM or ROM, its mechanical shock resistance helps explain its popularity over hard disks in portable devices, as does its high durability, ability to withstand high pressure and immersion in water, etc. Although flash memory is technically a type of EEPROM, the term "EEPROM" is used to refer to non-flash EEPROM, erasable in small blocks bytes; because erase cycles are slow, the large block sizes used in flash memory erasing give it a significant speed advantage over non-flash EEPROM when writing large amounts of data. As of 2013, flash memory costs much less than byte-programmable EEPROM and had become the dominant memory type wherever a system required a significant amount of non-volatile solid-state storage.
Flash memory was invented by Fujio Masuoka while working for Toshiba circa 1980. According to Toshiba, the name "flash" was suggested by Masuoka's colleague, Shōji Ariizumi, because the erasure process of the memory contents reminded him of the flash of a camera. Masuoka and colleagues presented the invention at the IEEE 1987 International Electron Devices Meeting held in San Francisco. Intel Corporation introduced the first commercial NOR type flash chip in 1988. NOR-based flash has long erase and write times, but provides full address and data buses, allowing random access to any memory location; this makes it a suitable replacement for older read-only memory chips, which are used to store program code that needs to be updated, such as a computer's BIOS or the firmware of set-top boxes. Its endurance may be from as little as 100 erase cycles for an on-chip flash memory, to a more typical 10,000 or 100,000 erase cycles, up to 1,000,000 erase cycles. NOR-based flash was the basis of early flash-based removable media.
NAND flash has reduced erase and write times, requires less chip area per cell, thus allowing greater storage density and lower cost per bit than NOR flash. However, the I/O interface of NAND flash does not provide a random-access external address bus. Rather, data must be read on a block-wise basis, with typical block sizes of hundreds to thousands of bits; this makes NAND flash unsuitable as a drop-in replacement for program ROM, since most microprocessors and microcontrollers require byte-level random access. In this regard, NAND flash is similar to other secondary data storage devices, such as hard disks and optical media, is thus suitable for use in mass-storage devices, such as memory cards; the first NAND-based removable media format was SmartMedia in 1995, many others have followed, including: MultiMediaCard Secure Digital Memory Stick, xD-Picture Card. A new generation of memory card formats, including RS-MMC, miniSD and microSD, feature small form factors. For example, the microSD card has an area of just over 1.5 cm2, with a thickness of less than 1 mm.
As of August 2017 microSD cards with capacity up to 400 GB are available. Flash memory stores information in an array of memory cells made from floating-gate transistors. In single-level cell devices, each cell stores only one bit of information. Multi-level cell devices, including triple-level cell devices, can store more than one bit per cell; the floating gate may be non-conductive. In flash memory, each memory cell resembles a standard metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor except that the transistor has two gates instead of one; the cells can be seen as an electrical switch in which current flows between two terminals and is controlled by a floating gate and a control gate. The CG is similar to the gate in other MOS transistors, but below this, there is the FG insulated all around by an oxide layer; the FG is interposed between the MOSFET channel. Because the FG is electrically isolated by its insulating layer, electrons placed on it are trapped; when the FG is charged with electrons, this charge screens the electric field from the CG, inc
Hard disk drive
A hard disk drive, hard disk, hard drive, or fixed disk, is an electromechanical data storage device that uses magnetic storage to store and retrieve digital information using one or more rigid rotating disks coated with magnetic material. The platters are paired with magnetic heads arranged on a moving actuator arm, which read and write data to the platter surfaces. Data is accessed in a random-access manner, meaning that individual blocks of data can be stored or retrieved in any order and not only sequentially. HDDs are a type of non-volatile storage, retaining stored data when powered off. Introduced by IBM in 1956, HDDs became the dominant secondary storage device for general-purpose computers by the early 1960s. Continuously improved, HDDs have maintained this position into the modern era of servers and personal computers. More than 200 companies have produced HDDs though after extensive industry consolidation most units are manufactured by Seagate and Western Digital. HDDs dominate the volume of storage produced for servers.
Though production is growing sales revenues and unit shipments are declining because solid-state drives have higher data-transfer rates, higher areal storage density, better reliability, much lower latency and access times. The revenues for SSDs, most of which use NAND exceed those for HDDs. Though SSDs have nearly 10 times higher cost per bit, they are replacing HDDs in applications where speed, power consumption, small size, durability are important; the primary characteristics of an HDD are its performance. Capacity is specified in unit prefixes corresponding to powers of 1000: a 1-terabyte drive has a capacity of 1,000 gigabytes; some of an HDD's capacity is unavailable to the user because it is used by the file system and the computer operating system, inbuilt redundancy for error correction and recovery. There is confusion regarding storage capacity, since capacities are stated in decimal Gigabytes by HDD manufacturers, whereas some operating systems report capacities in binary Gibibytes, which results in a smaller number than advertised.
Performance is specified by the time required to move the heads to a track or cylinder adding the time it takes for the desired sector to move under the head, the speed at which the data is transmitted. The two most common form factors for modern HDDs are 3.5-inch, for desktop computers, 2.5-inch for laptops. HDDs are connected to systems by standard interface cables such as SATA, USB or SAS cables; the first production IBM hard disk drive, the 350 disk storage, shipped in 1957 as a component of the IBM 305 RAMAC system. It was the size of two medium-sized refrigerators and stored five million six-bit characters on a stack of 50 disks. In 1962, the IBM 350 was superseded by the IBM 1301 disk storage unit, which consisted of 50 platters, each about 1/8-inch thick and 24 inches in diameter. While the IBM 350 used only two read/write heads, the 1301 used an array of heads, one per platter, moving as a single unit. Cylinder-mode read/write operations were supported, the heads flew about 250 micro-inches above the platter surface.
Motion of the head array depended upon a binary adder system of hydraulic actuators which assured repeatable positioning. The 1301 cabinet was about the size of three home refrigerators placed side by side, storing the equivalent of about 21 million eight-bit bytes. Access time was about a quarter of a second. In 1962, IBM introduced the model 1311 disk drive, about the size of a washing machine and stored two million characters on a removable disk pack. Users could interchange them as needed, much like reels of magnetic tape. Models of removable pack drives, from IBM and others, became the norm in most computer installations and reached capacities of 300 megabytes by the early 1980s. Non-removable HDDs were called "fixed disk" drives; some high-performance HDDs were manufactured with one head per track so that no time was lost physically moving the heads to a track. Known as fixed-head or head-per-track disk drives they were expensive and are no longer in production. In 1973, IBM introduced a new type of HDD code-named "Winchester".
Its primary distinguishing feature was that the disk heads were not withdrawn from the stack of disk platters when the drive was powered down. Instead, the heads were allowed to "land" on a special area of the disk surface upon spin-down, "taking off" again when the disk was powered on; this reduced the cost of the head actuator mechanism, but precluded removing just the disks from the drive as was done with the disk packs of the day. Instead, the first models of "Winchester technology" drives featured a removable disk module, which included both the disk pack and the head assembly, leaving the actuator motor in the drive upon removal. "Winchester" drives abandoned the removable media concept and returned to non-removable platters. Like the first removable pack drive, the first "Winchester" drives used platters 14 inches in diameter. A few years designers were exploring the possibility that physically smaller platters might offer advantages. Drives with non-removable eight-inch platters appeared, drives that used a 5 1⁄4 in form factor.
The latter were intended for the then-fl
The MacBook Pro is a line of Macintosh portable computers introduced in January 2006 by Apple Inc. It is the high-end model of the MacBook family and is available in 13- and 15-inch screen sizes. A 17-inch version was available between April 2006 and June 2012; the first generation MacBook Pro is externally similar to the PowerBook G4 it replaces, but uses Intel Core processors instead of PowerPC G4 chips. The 15-inch model was introduced first, in January 2006. Both received several updates and Core 2 Duo processors in 2006; the product's second iteration, known as the "unibody" model, has a casing made from a single piece of aluminum. It debuted in October 2008 in 13- and 15-inch screen sizes. In January 2009, the 17-inch model was updated with the same unibody design. Subsequent updates brought upgraded Intel Core i5 and i7 processors and introduced Intel's Thunderbolt technology. Apple released the third generation of MacBook Pro with a 15-inch screen during WWDC 2012 and discontinued the 17-inch variant.
The previous generation 13- and 15-inch unibody models continued to sell with updated processors. The third generation model is thinner than its predecessor and is the first to include a high-resolution Retina Display. A 13-inch variant was released in October 2012; the fourth generation MacBook Pro was announced on October 27, 2016. This generation replaced all data ports with USB-C, with the exception of the baseline model, replaced the function keys with an interactive touchscreen strip called the "Touch Bar" with a Touch ID sensor integrated into the Power button; the original 15-inch MacBook Pro was announced on January 10, 2006 by Steve Jobs at the Macworld Conference & Expo. The 17-inch model was unveiled on April 24, 2006; the first design was a carryover from the PowerBook G4, but uses Intel Core CPUs instead of PowerPC G4 chips. The 15-inch MacBook Pro weighs the same as the 15-inch aluminum PowerBook G4, but is 0.1 inches deeper, 0.4 inches wider, 0.1 inches thinner. Other changes from the PowerBook include a built-in iSight webcam and the inclusion of MagSafe, a magnetic power connector designed to detach when yanked.
These features were brought over to the MacBook. The optical drive was reduced in size in order to fit into the slimmer MacBook Pro, hence it runs slower than the optical drive in the PowerBook G4 and cannot write to dual layer DVDs. Both the original 15- and 17-inch model MacBook Pros come with ExpressCard/34 slots, which replace the PC Card slots found in the PowerBook G4. All first generation 15-inch models have two USB 2.0 ports and one FireWire 400 port, while the 17-inch models have three USB 2.0 ports as well as one FireWire 400 port. When first introduced, the MacBook Pro did not come with FireWire 800 or S-Video ports, although FireWire 800 was added in the next 15-inch model revision and is present in every version of the 17-inch design. S-Video capability can be attained through the use of a DVI to S-Video adapter. External displays with up to a 2,560 × 1,600 pixel resolution are supported through a dual-link DVI port. All models include a built-in Gigabit Ethernet port, Bluetooth 2.0, 802.11a/b/g.
Models include support for the draft 2.0 specification of 802.11n and Bluetooth 2.1. Apple refreshed the entire MacBook Pro line on October 24, 2006 to include Intel Core 2 Duo processors. Memory capacity was doubled for each model, to 1 GB on the low-end 15-inch and 2 GB for the high-end 15- and 17-inch models. FireWire 800 was added to the 15-inch models. Hard drive capacity was increased; the MacBook Pro line received a second update on June 5, 2007 with new Nvidia Geforce 8600M GT video cards and faster processor options. LED backlighting was added to the 15-inch model's screen, its weight was reduced from 5.6 pounds to 5.4 pounds. Furthermore, the speed of the front-side bus was increased from 667 MHz to 800 MHz. On November 1, 2007, Apple added the option of a 2.6 GHz Santa Rosa platform Core 2 Duo CPU as well as reconfigured hard drive options. On February 26, 2008, the MacBook Pro line was again updated. LED backlighting was added as an option for the 17-inch model. Processors were updated to "Penryn" cores, which are built on the 45 nanometer process, hard drive and memory capacities were increased.
Multi-touch capabilities, first introduced with the MacBook Air earlier that year, were brought over to the MacBook Pro's trackpad. When the 15-inch unibody MacBook Pro was introduced on October 14, 2008, the pre-unibody model with the same screen size was discontinued, while the 17-inch pre-unibody model continued to be sold; the original case design was discontinued on January 6, 2009, when the 17-inch MacBook Pro was updated with unibody construction. Some reviewers applauded the MacBook Pro for its doubling or tripling the speed of the PowerBook G4 in some areas. For example, the 3D rendering program Cinema 4D XL was 3.3 times as fast, its boot-up time was more than twice as quick. The MacBook Pro outperformed the PowerBook G4 in performance analyzer utility tests XBench and Cinebench. Reviewers lauded the screen's maximum brightness, 67 percent higher than the PowerBook G4. Although the screen offered fewer vertical pixels, one reviewer called the screen "nothing less than stellar". Reviewers praised the new MagSafe power adapter, although one reviewer said it disconnected too in some instances.
They praised the backlit keyboard, large trackpad, the vir
Intel Corporation is an American multinational corporation and technology company headquartered in Santa Clara, California, in the Silicon Valley. It is the world's second largest and second highest valued semiconductor chip manufacturer based on revenue after being overtaken by Samsung, is the inventor of the x86 series of microprocessors, the processors found in most personal computers. Intel ranked No. 46 in the 2018 Fortune 500 list of the largest United States corporations by total revenue. Intel supplies processors for computer system manufacturers such as Apple, Lenovo, HP, Dell. Intel manufactures motherboard chipsets, network interface controllers and integrated circuits, flash memory, graphics chips, embedded processors and other devices related to communications and computing. Intel Corporation was founded on July 18, 1968, by semiconductor pioneers Robert Noyce and Gordon Moore, associated with the executive leadership and vision of Andrew Grove; the company's name was conceived as portmanteau of the words integrated and electronics, with co-founder Noyce having been a key inventor of the integrated circuit.
The fact that "intel" is the term for intelligence information made the name appropriate. Intel was an early developer of SRAM and DRAM memory chips, which represented the majority of its business until 1981. Although Intel created the world's first commercial microprocessor chip in 1971, it was not until the success of the personal computer that this became its primary business. During the 1990s, Intel invested in new microprocessor designs fostering the rapid growth of the computer industry. During this period Intel became the dominant supplier of microprocessors for PCs and was known for aggressive and anti-competitive tactics in defense of its market position against Advanced Micro Devices, as well as a struggle with Microsoft for control over the direction of the PC industry; the Open Source Technology Center at Intel hosts PowerTOP and LatencyTOP, supports other open-source projects such as Wayland, Mesa3D, Intel Array Building Blocks, Threading Building Blocks, Xen. Client Computing Group – 55% of 2016 revenues – produces hardware components used in desktop and notebook computers.
Data Center Group – 29% of 2016 revenues – produces hardware components used in server and storage platforms. Internet of Things Group – 5% of 2016 revenues – offers platforms designed for retail, industrial and home use. Non-Volatile Memory Solutions Group – 4% of 2016 revenues – manufactures NAND flash memory and 3D XPoint, branded as Optane, products used in solid-state drives. Intel Security Group – 4% of 2016 revenues – produces software security, antivirus software. Programmable Solutions Group – 3% of 2016 revenues – manufactures programmable semiconductors. In 2017, Dell accounted for about 16% of Intel's total revenues, Lenovo accounted for 13% of total revenues, HP Inc. accounted for 11% of total revenues. According to IDC, while Intel enjoyed the biggest market share in both the overall worldwide PC microprocessor market and the mobile PC microprocessor in the second quarter of 2011, the numbers decreased by 1.5% and 1.9% compared to the first quarter of 2011. In the 1980s, Intel was among the top ten sellers of semiconductors in the world.
In 1992, Intel became the biggest chip maker by revenue and has held the position since. Other top semiconductor companies include TSMC, Advanced Micro Devices, Texas Instruments, Toshiba and STMicroelectronics. Competitors in PC chipsets include Advanced Micro Devices, VIA Technologies, Silicon Integrated Systems, Nvidia. Intel's competitors in networking include NXP Semiconductors, Broadcom Limited, Marvell Technology Group and Applied Micro Circuits Corporation, competitors in flash memory include Spansion, Qimonda, Toshiba, STMicroelectronics, SK Hynix; the only major competitor in the x86 processor market is Advanced Micro Devices, with which Intel has had full cross-licensing agreements since 1976: each partner can use the other's patented technological innovations without charge after a certain time. However, the cross-licensing agreement is canceled in the event of takeover; some smaller competitors such as VIA Technologies produce low-power x86 processors for small factor computers and portable equipment.
However, the advent of such mobile computing devices, in particular, has in recent years led to a decline in PC sales. Since over 95% of the world's smartphones use processors designed by ARM Holdings, ARM has become a major competitor for Intel's processor market. ARM is planning to make inroads into the PC and server market. Intel has been involved in several disputes regarding violation of antitrust laws, which are noted below. Intel was founded in Mountain View, California, in 1968 by Gordon E. Moore, a chemist, Robert Noyce, a physicist and co-inventor of the integrated circuit. Arthur Rock helped. Moore and Noyce had left Fairchild Semiconductor to found Intel. Rock was not an employee; the total initial investment in Intel was $10,000 from Rock. Just 2 years Intel became a public company via an initial public offering, raising $6.8 million. Intel's third employee was Andy Grove, a chemical engineer, who ran the company through much of the 1980s and the high-growth 1990s. In dec