A lateen or latin-rig is a triangular sail set on a long yard mounted at an angle on the mast, running in a fore-and-aft direction. Dating back to Roman navigation, the lateen became the favorite sail of the Age of Discovery because it allows a boat to tack "against the wind." It is common in the Mediterranean, the upper Nile River, the northwestern parts of the Indian Ocean, where it is the standard rig for feluccas and dhows. The lateen is used today in a different form on small recreational boats like the Sailfish and Sunfish, but is still used as a working rig by coastal fishermen in the Mediterranean; the lateen evolved out of the dominant square rig by setting the sails more fore-and-aft – along the line of the keel – rather than athwartship, while tailoring the luff and leech. One theory is that the lateen sail originated during the early Roman empire in the Mediterranean Sea; the theory of Roman origin for lateen was first proposed by Lynn White and was elaborated upon by Lionel Casson.
Some scholars have proposed alternative explanations for the origins of the lateen. The political scientist John M. Hobson argues that some early passages interpreted by White as references to the lateen were only alluding to triangular topsails, expresses skepticism over early Byzantine depictions of lateen sails, he states that the long-distance seafaring of the Persians in the third and fourth centuries would have been impossible with square sails, so the lateen sail originated in Persia or Arabia and was introduced to the western Mediterranean region. However, such long distance sailing across the Indian Ocean was well established in the 1st century on the Hellenistic ships of Greco-Egyptian and Roman traders, as detailed in the Periplus of the Erythraean Sea. Historian George Hourani as well as specialists in the study of Austronesian cultures have instead suggested a Southeast Asian origin; the triangular shape of the lateen sail is characteristic of the far more ancient crab claw sails of the Austronesian sailors in the Indo-Pacific.
Some believe that early contact of Arab trade ships in the Indian Ocean with Austronesian sailors resulted in the development of the Arabic lateen sail. Arab ships are believed to have influenced the development of the Austronesian rectangular tanja sail, prevalent in western Southeast Asia. Austronesian sails, differ from western Eurasian sails in that they have spars along both the upper and lower edges. According to Lionel Casson, both types of lateen were known from an early date on: a 2nd-century AD gravestone depicts a quadrilateral lateen sail, while a 4th-century mosaic shows a triangular one, to become the standard rig throughout the Middle Ages. Casson argues that the earliest fore-and-aft rig was the spritsail, appearing in the 2nd century BC in the Aegean Sea on small Greek craft. According to the Belgian maritime historian Basch, the earliest lateen rig appears as early as the 1st century BC, in a wall painting found in a Hypogeum in Alexandria, Hellenistic Egypt. However, such an interpretation has been disputed.
The earliest archaeologically excavated lateen-rigged ship, the Yassi Ada II, dates to ca. 400 AD, with a further four being attested prior to the Arab advance to the Mediterranean. The Kelenderis ship mosaic and the Kellia ship graffito from the early 7th century complement the picture. By the 6th century, the lateen sail had replaced the square sail throughout the Mediterranean, the latter disappearing from Mediterranean iconography until the mid-13th century, it became the standard rig of the Byzantine dromon war galley and was also employed by Belisarius' flagship in the 532 AD invasion of the Vandal kingdom. After the Muslim conquests in Syria and North Africa, they adopted the lateen sail by way of the Coptic populace, which shared the existing Mediterranean maritime tradition and continued to provide the bulk of galley crews for centuries to come; this is indicated by the terminology of the lateen among Mediterranean Arabs, derived from Greco-Roman nomenclature. One theory suggests that the lateen sail was brought to the Indian Ocean by the Alexandrian merchants from Hellenistic Egypt and Roman Egypt who sailed the Red Sea in Roman and Byzantine and Arab times.
The emergence of evidence for the development and spread of the lateen sail in the ancient Mediterranean in recent decades has led to a reevaluation of the role of Roman and Arab seafaring in the Indian Ocean in that process, with some arguing that neither the attribution of the lateen to the Arabs nor its origin in the Indian Ocean can any longer be upheld: The origin of the lateen sail has been attributed by scholars to the Indian Ocean and its introduction into the Mediterranean traditionally ascribed to the Arab expansion of the early-7th century. This was due to the earliest iconographic depictions of lateen rigged ships from the Mediterranean post-dating the Islamic expansion into the Mediterranean basin... It was assumed that the Arab people who invaded the Mediterranean basin in the 7th century carried with them the sailing rig familiar to them; such theories have been superseded by unequivocal depictions of lateen-rigged Mediterranean sailing vessels which pre-date the Arab invasion.
Further inquiries into the appearance of the lateen rig in the Indian Ocean and its gulfs suggested a reversal of earlier scholarly opinion on the direction of diffusion, with Lynn White in 1978 arguing an introduction by Portuguese sailors in th
Gaff rig is a sailing rig in which the sail is four-cornered, fore-and-aft rigged, controlled at its peak and its entire head by a spar called the gaff. Because of the size and shape of the sail, a gaff rig will have running backstays rather than permanent backstays; the gaff enables aft sail to be four sided, rather than triangular. A gaff rig carries 25 percent more sail than an equivalent bermudian rig for a given hull design. A sail hoisted from a gaff is called a gaff-rigged sail. Gaff rig remains the most popular fore-aft rig for schooner and barquentine mainsails and other course sails, spanker sails on a square rigged vessel are always gaff rigged. On other rigs the sloop and yawl, gaff rigged sails were once common but have now been replaced by the Bermuda rig sail, which, in addition to being simpler than the gaff rig allows vessels to sail closer to the direction from which the wind is blowing; the gaff is hoisted by two halyards: The throat halyard hoists the throat of the sail at the forward end of the gaff and bears the main weight of the sail and the tension of the luff.
The peak halyard bears the leech tension. Small craft attach the peak halyard to the gaff with a wire span with eyes at both ends looped around the gaff and held in place with small wooden chocks, larger craft have more than one span. Peak halyards pull upwards. Additionally, a gaff vang may be fitted, it is a line attached to the end of the gaff. Gaff vangs are difficult to rig on the aft-most sail, so are only found on schooners or ketches, only on the foresail or mainsail. A triangular fore-and-aft sail called a jib-headed topsail may be carried between the gaff and the mast. Gunter-rigged boats are similar, smaller vessels on which a spar is raised until it is nearly vertical, parallel to the mast and close adjacent to it. Topsails are never carried on gunter rigs; the Spritsail is another rig with a four-sided fore-aft sail. Unlike the gaff rig where the head hangs from a spar along its edge, this rig supports the leech of the sail by means of a spar named a sprit; the forward end of the sprit is attached to the mast but bisects the face of the sail, with the after end of the sprit attaching to the peak and/or the clew of the sail.
For a given sail area a gaff rig has a shorter mast than a bermudian rig. In short-ended craft with full body, heavy displacement and moderate ballast ratio, it is difficult to set enough sail area in the bermudian rig without a mast of excessive height and a center of effort too high for the limited stability of the hull; because of its low aspect ratio, the gaff rig is less prone to stalling if oversheeted than something taller and narrower. Whilst reaching, the CE being set further back, will encourage a small craft to bear up into the wind, i.e. strong weather helm. The boat builder can compensate for this at design stage, e.g. by shifting the keel aft, or having two jibs to counter the effect. The gaff-cutter is in fact a popular sailplan for small craft; the helmsman can reduce weather helm simply by sheeting out the mainsail. Sheeting out may appear to create an inefficient belly in the sail, but it is a pragmatic alternative to having a heavy helm. A swing keel lifted halfway is the perfect treatment for weather helm on a gaffer.
The usual adjustments to mast rake, or bowsprit length may be made to a gaffer with persistent heavy weather helm. On a gaff-rigged vessel, any heading where the wind is within 20 degrees of dead aft is considered a run; when running with a gaff-rig, the CE of the mainsail may be overboard of the hull, in a stiff wind the craft may want to broach. Running goose winged with a balloon staysail poled out to windward will balance the CE. In light winds, or when racing, a watersail may be set. Gunter Parts of a sail Spritsail Lug sail Rousmaniere, John; the Illustrated Dictionary of Boating Terms: 2,000 Essential Terms for Sailors & Powerboaters. W. W. Norton. ISBN 978-0-393-04649-6
A full-rigged ship or rigged ship is a sailing vessel's sail plan with three or more masts, all of them square-rigged. A full-rigged ship is said to be ship-rigged. Sometimes such a vessel will be called a ship in 18th- to early-19th-century and earlier usage, to distinguish it from other large three-masted blue-water working vessels such as barques, fluyts etc; this full or ship-rig sail plan thus is a term of art that differentiates such vessels as well from other working or cargo vessels with diverse alternative sail-plans such as galleons, sloops, schooners and carracks. The ship-rig sail plan differs drastically from the large panoply of one and two masted vessels found as working and recreational sailboats. Alternatively, a full-rigged ship may be referred to by its function instead, as in collier or frigate, rather than being called a ship. In many languages the word frigate or frigate rig refers to a full-rigged ship; the masts of a full-rigged ship, from bow to stern, are: Foremast, the second tallest mast Mainmast, the tallest Mizzenmast, the third tallest Jiggermast, which may not be present but will be fourth tallest if soThere is no standard name for a fifth mast on a ship-rigged vessel.
Only one five-masted full-rigged ship had been built until recent years, when a few modern five-masted cruise sailing ships have been launched. A fourth mast is rare for full-rigged ships. Ships with five and more masts are not fully rigged and their masts may be numbered rather than named in extreme cases. If the masts are of wood, each mast is in three or more pieces, they are: The lowest piece is called the mast or the lower. Topmast Topgallant mast Royal mast, if fittedOn steel-masted vessels, the corresponding sections of the mast are named after the traditional wooden sections; the lowest and largest sail on a mast is the course sail of that mast, is referred to by the mast name: Foresail, mizzen sail, jigger sail or more forecourse etc. Note that a full-rigged ship did not have a lateral course on the mizzen mast below the mizzen topmast. Instead, the lowest sail on the mizzen was a fore/aft sail—originally a lateen sail, but a gaff sail called a spanker or driver; the key distinction between a "ship" and "barque" is that a "ship" carries a square-rigged mizzen topsail whereas the mizzen mast of a barque has only fore-and-aft rigged sails.
The cross-jack yard was the lowest yard on a ship's mizzen mast. Unlike the corresponding yards on the fore and main mast it did not have fittings to hang a sail from: its purpose was to control the lower edge of the topsail. In the rare case that the cross-jack yard did carry a square sail, this sail would be called the cross-jack rather than the mizzen course. Above the course sail, in order, are: Topsail, or Lower topsail, if fitted. Upper topsail, if fitted. Topgallant sail, or Lower topgallant sail, if fitted. Upper topgallant sail, if fitted. Royal sail, if fitted. Skysail, if fitted. Moonraker, if fitted; the division of a sail into upper and lower sails was a matter of practicality, since undivided sails were larger and more difficult to handle. Larger sails necessitated hiring, paying, a larger crew. Additionally, the great size of some late-19th and 20th century vessels meant that their correspondingly large sails would have been impossible to handle had they not been divided. Jibs are carried forward of the foremast, are tacked down on the bowsprit or jib-boom and have varying naming conventions.
Staysails may be carried between any other mast and the one in front of it or from the foremast to the bowsprit. They are named after the mast from which they are hoisted, so for example a staysail hoisted to the top of the mizzen topgallant on a stay running to the top of the main topmast would be called the mizzen topgallant staysail. In light winds studding sails may be carried on either side of any or all of the square rigged sails except royals and skysails, they are named after the adjacent sail and the side of the vessel on which they are set, for example main topgallant starboard stu'nsail. One or more spritsails may be set on booms set athwart and below the bowsprit. One or two spankers are carried aft of the aftmost mast, if two they are called the upper spanker and lower spanker. A fore-and-aft topsail may be carried above the upper or only spanker, is called the gaff sail. To stop a full-rigged ship except when running directly down wind, the sails of the foremast are oriented in the direction perpendicular to those of the mainmast.
Thus, the masts cancel out of their push on the ship. This allows the crew to stop and restart the ship without retracting and lowering the sails, to dynamically compensate for the push of the wind on the masts themselves and the yards. Running downwind. Glossary of nautical terms Rigging Sail Sail-plan Types of sailing ships Yard Willaumez, Jean-Baptiste-Philibert. Dictionnaire de marine. Bachelier. Rousmaniere, John; the Illustrated Dictionary of Boating Terms: 2000 Essential Terms for Sailors and Powerboaters. W. W. Norton & Company. P. 174. ISBN 0393339181. ISBN 978-0393339185 The Development of the Full-Rigged Ship From the Carrack to the Full-Rigger Example of full-rigged ship: Stad Amsterdam Christian Radich
Moriscos were former Muslims and their descendants who were pressured by the Catholic church and the Spanish Crown under the threat of death to convert to Christianity after Spain outlawed the open practice of Islam by its sizeable Muslim population in the early 16th century. The government distrusted the Moriscos and began systematic expulsions from Spain's various kingdoms between 1609 and 1614; the most severe expulsions occurred in the eastern Kingdom of Valencia. The exact number of Moriscos present in Spain prior to expulsion is unknown and can only be guessed on the basis of official records of the edict of expulsion. Furthermore, the overall success of the expulsion is subject to academic debate, with estimates on the proportion of those who avoided expulsion or returned to Spain ranging from 5% to 60%; the large majority of those permanently expelled settled on the western fringe of the Ottoman Empire and the Kingdom of Morocco. The last mass prosecution against Moriscos for crypto-Islamic practices occurred in Granada in 1727, with most of those convicted receiving light sentences.
The label morisco for Muslims who were converted to Christianity began to appear in texts from the first half of the sixteenth century, however at this time the term's use was limited. It became widespread in Christian sources during the second half of the century, but it was unclear whether the Moriscos themselves adopted the term. In their texts, it was more common for them to speak of themselves as muslimes, but in periods they might have begun to accept the label. In modern times, the label is in widespread use in Spanish literature and adopted to other languages, including in Modern Standard Arabic which adopts it as al-muriskiyyun; the word morisco itself began to be used in twelfth-century Castilian text as an adjective for the noun moro. These two words are comparable to the English adjective noun Moor; these terms were used by the Castilians in two general senses: "North African" or "Muslim". The terms moro and morisco in this older meaning continued to be used in Spanish after the more specific meaning of morisco became widespread.
According to L. P. Harvey, the two different meanings of the word morisco have resulted in mistakes where modern scholars misread historical text containing morisco in the older meaning as having the newer meaning. In the early years after the forced conversions, the Christians used the terms "New Christians", "New converts", or the longer "New Christians, converted from being Moors" to refer to this group. In 1517, the word morisco became a "category" added to the array of cultural and religious identities that existed at the time, as it was used to denominate the Muslim converts to Christianity in Granada and Castille; the term was a pejorative adaptation of the adjective morisco, that would soon became the standard reference to all Spain's former Muslims". There is no universally agreed figure of Morisco population. Estimates vary because of the lack of precise census, the Moriscos' tendencies to avoid registration and authorities, to pass off as the majority; the population figure might have fluctuated depending on the period, due to factors such as birth rates, forced conversions and/or relocations, emigration.
There is a general agreement among historians that, based on expulsion records, around 275,000 Moriscos were expelled in the early 17th century. Historian L. P. Harvey in 2005 gave a range of 300,000 to 330,000 for the early 16th century. However, Christiane Stallaert put the number at around one million Moriscos at the beginning of the 16th century. Recent studies by Trevor Dadson on the expulsion of the Moriscos propose the figure of 500,000 just before the expulsion, consistent with figures given by other historians. Dadson concludes that, assuming the 275,000 figure from the official expulsion records is correct, around 40% of Spain's Moriscos managed to avoid expulsions altogether and up to a further 20% managed to return to Spain in the years following their expulsion; the Emirate of Granada was the last Muslim Kingdom in the Iberian Peninsula, which surrendered in 1492 to the Catholic forces after a decade-long campaign. Granada was annexed to Castile as the Kingdom of Granada, had a majority Muslim population of between 250,000 and 300,000.
The Treaty of Granada guaranteed their rights to be Muslim but Cardinal Cisneros's effort to convert the population led to the a series of rebellions. The rebellions were suppressed, afterwards the Muslims in Granada were given the choice to remain and accept baptism, reject baptism and be enslaved or killed, or to be exiled; the option of exile was not feasible in practice, hindered by the authorities. Shortly after the rebellions' defeat, the entire Muslim population of Granada had nominally become Christian. Although they converted to Christianity, they maintained their existing customs, including their language, distinct names, food and some ceremonies. Many secretly practiced Islam as they publicly professed and practiced Christianity; this led the Catholic rulers to adopt intolerant and harsh policies to eradicate these characteristics. This culminated in Philip II's Pragmatica of 1 January 1567 which ordered the Moriscos to abandon their customs and language; the pragmatica triggered the Morisco r
Lakatoi are double-hulled sailing watercraft of Papua New Guinea. They are traditionally used in the Hiri trade cycle. Crab claw sail
A sail plan is a set of drawings prepared by a naval architect which shows the various combinations of sail proposed for a sailing ship. Alternatively, as a term of art, it refers to the way; the combinations shown in a sail plan always include three configurations: A light air sail plan. Over most of the Earth, most of the time, the wind force is Force 1 or less, thus a sail plan should include a set of huge, lightweight sails that will keep the ship underway in light breezes. A working sail plan; this is the set of sails that are changed in variable conditions. They are still lightweight. An economical sail in this set will include several sets of reefing ties, so the area of the sail can be reduced in a stronger wind. A storm sail plan; this is the set of small rugged sails flown in a gale, to keep the vessel under way and in control. In all sail plans, the architect attempts to balance the force of the sails against the drag of the underwater keel in such a way that the vessel points into the wind.
In this way, if control is lost, the vessel will avoid broaching, being beaten by breaking waves. Broaching always causes uncomfortable motion, in a storm, the breaking waves can destroy a built boat; the architect tries to balance the wind force on each sail plan against a range of loads and ballast. The calculation assures that the sail will not knock the vessel sideways with its mast in the water and sinking it. Fore-and-aft rig features sails that run fore and aft, controlled by lines called "sheets", that changes sides, as the bow passes through the wind from one side of the craft to the other. Three variants include: Bermuda rig features a three-sided mainsail. Gaff rig features a four-sided mainsail with the upper edge made fast to a spar called a gaff. Lateen rig features a three-sided sail set on a long yard, mounted at an angle on the mast and running in a fore-and-aft direction. Square rig features sails set square to the mast from a yard, a spar running transversely in relation to the hull.
Although these sails are more or less "square" in appearance, this is not the reason they are referred to as "square". In ships built using older designs of the square rig, sailors would have to climb the rigging and walk out on footropes under the yard to furl and unfurl the sails. In a modern square rigged design the crew can unfurl sails by remote control from the deck; some cruising craft with fore-and-aft sails will carry a small square sail with top and bottom yards that are rigged and hauled up from the deck. A modern version of this rig is the German-engineered DynaRig which has its yards fixed permanently in place on its rotating masts and has twice the efficiency of operation of the traditional square rig; each form of rig requires its own type of sails. Among them are: A staysail is a piece of cloth that has one or two sides attached to a stay, that is, one of the ropes or wires that helps hold the mast in place. A staysail was classically attached to the stay with wooden or steel hoops, but on modern yachts are attached by clips.
Sailors would test the hoops by climbing on them. A jib is a headsail that flies in front of the foremost vertical mast and attaches to a stay or roller furling gear, whether that be the mainmast or a somewhat shorter foremast. A genoa is a large jib. A mainsail is a sail attached to the main mast. For fore-and-aft sails it is triangular sail with the forward edge attached to the mast with the foot or lower edge attached to a boom. A gaff rig mainsail has a boom at the top of the sail and is truncated triangle. For square-rigged ships it is suspended on a cross spar attached to the mast, is the lowest of such sails A mizzen sail is a small triangular sail at the stern of a boat. A lug sail is a quadrilateral sail suspended on a spar on the mast to a square main sail but used as a fore-and-aft sail The standard terminology assumes three masts, from front to back, the foremast and mizzenmast. On ships with fewer than three masts, the tallest is the mainmast. Ships with more masts number them. From bottom to top, the sails of each mast are named by the mast and position on the mast, e.g. for the mainmast, from lowest to highest: main course, main topsail, main topgallant, main royal, main skysail, main moonraker.
Since the early nineteenth century, the topsails and topgallants are split into a lower and an upper sail to allow them to be more handled. This makes the mast appear to have more "sails" than it has. On many warships, sails above the fighting top were mounted on separate masts held in wooden sockets called "tabernacles"; these masts and their stays could be rigged or struck as the weather and tactical situation demanded. In light breezes, the working square sails would be supplemented by studding sails out on the ends of the yardarms; these were called as a regular sail, with the addition of "studding". For example, the main top studding sail. Between the main mast and mizzen as well as between main mast and foremast, the staysails between the masts are named from the sail below the highest attachment point of the stay holding up that staysail. Thus, the mizzen topgallant staysail can be found dang
The paraw is a double outrigger sail boat native to the Visayas region of the Philippines. The paraw is similar to a proa, they characteristically have large crab-claw sails opposite a smaller triangular foresail. The word paraw parao is related to proa and may be used to denote a boat. However, the term for boats in the Philippines without sails or layag are called vanca or bangka; the paraw has three major elements that make it a paraw: the bangka, the katig, the layag. Motorized versions of bangkas are known as pump boats and are used for inter-island travel. Paraws can sail between 17 knots; the outriggers, or katig, are made of wood or bamboo, may be straight or curved upward much like skis. Traditionally these boats have been made from dungon, ipil, baslayan, bayog, Philippine mahogany and molave. Modern versions use plywood; the ropes of the boats are traditionally made from abaca, but are now synthetic rope. The boat or canoe without outriggers is called a bangka or baroto and may be dug out from solid tree trunk or made of planks secured with wooden nails.
People familiar with terminology relating to the proa may recognize this as the vaka. The boat itself may be classified by passenger capacity as isahan or duwahan, but the paraw has capacity for more than two people, leading to its use in ferrying small groups of passengers and goods between islands; the narrow cross-section of the boat made it sleek. The two katig or outriggers made from bamboo or various kinds of wood and served as counterpoise so that the boat would not overturn, they are attached to the boat via tarik. The presence of the outriggers negates the need for a heavy keel and therefore reduces the overall weight of the paraw without sacrificing stability; the layag or main sail may be made of anything from woven mats, canvas sack cloth. Traditionally the main sail is similar to a lateen rig or a crabclaw sail and is attached to a vertical and horizontal spar, the sail differs from a traditional lateen rig in that the vertical spar is parallel to the mast and does not suffer from bad tack.
The sail's spar may be as long as the mast and may appear to be longer than the mast when attached to it. There are no guidelines as to how the main sail is shaped but it may approximate an equilateral triangle; the paraw is equipped with a foresail or jib and adds to the overall surface area and generated thrust derived from the wind. A variation of the paraw with rectangular sails is the vinta; the mast made of bamboo, is secured by lines attached to, among other things, the outriggers, the fore and various parts of the boat. The mast of smaller paraws was a spear or bangkaw and was a useful part of the ship when conducting raids against other seaside villages. In November 2012, a team led by the artisan Gener Paduga, along with the Tao Philippines organization, started building a full-sized paraw sailboat in Palawan. Paduca envisioned the project while crewing a sailing yacht from Palawan to Africa. After having witnessed the thriving native sailing traditions in the Indian Ocean, he decided to revive the extinct native boat-building and sailing traditions of the Philippines.
Sailing ships, which were once used throughout the islands, were in steep decline after engines became available in the 1970s. The team consisted of several traditional boat carpenters from the islands of Cagayancillo and Romblon; the boat was constructed using native techniques and featured intricate designs by two master carvers of the native Palaw'an people. The boat was completed in March 2014 and was named the Balatik, it is 9 ft at the widest point of the hull. It could be crewed by three or four people; the boat is used both for tourism and for educational and social welfare projects of the Tao Kalahi Foundation in Palawan. The Paraw Regatta a large tourism event is held annually since 1973 is a 36.5 kilometer race held in the Iloilo City. Before Boracay Island became a tourist resort, paraws were used for fishing and transportation of people as well as goods. Paraw sailing these days is a major tourist attraction. Local sailors offer their paraws for Island hopping and sunset sailing for a small renting fee.
Balangay Karakoa Vinta "A Perspective of the Paraw". Iloilo Paraw Regatta. Iloilo Paraw Regatta Foundation. 2009-06-09. Retrieved 2009-06-09. Henry F. Funtecha, Ph. D.. "Baroto, batil, etc: Panay's maritime legacy". The News Today; the News Today. Retrieved May 21, 2010. Ernesto J. Laput. "Mga Barko ng Ninuno". PINAS: Munting Kasaysayan ng Pira-Pirasong Bayan. Elaput.org. Retrieved May 13, 2010