Kasuga-zukuri is a traditional Shinto shrine architectural style which takes its name from Kasuga Taisha's honden. It is characterized by the use of a building just 1x1 ken in size with the entrance on the gabled end covered by a veranda. In Kasuga Taisha's case, the honden is just 1.9 m x 2.6 m. Supporting structures are painted vermilion, while the plank walls are white, it has a tsumairi structure. The roof is gabled, decorated with purely ornamental poles called chigi or katsuogi, covered with cypress bark. After the nagare-zukuri style, this is the most common Shinto shrine style. While the first is common all over Japan, shrines with a kasuga-zukuri honden are found in the Kansai region around Nara. If a diagonal rafter is added to support the portico, the style is called sumigi-iri kasugazukuri. While superficially different, the kasuga-zukuri shares an ancestry with the most popular style in Japan, the nagare-zukuri; the two for example share pillars set over a double-cross-shaped foundation and a roof which extends over the main entrance, covering a veranda.
The foundation's configuration is typical not of permanent, but of temporary shrines, built to be periodically moved. This shows that, for example, both the nagare-zukuri Kamo Shrine and Kasuga Taisha used to be dedicated to a mountain cult, that they had to be moved to follow the movements of the kami; the styles both have a veranda in front of the main entrance, a detail which makes it they both evolved from a simple gabled roof
Japanese Buddhist architecture
Japanese Buddhist architecture is the architecture of Buddhist temples in Japan, consisting of locally developed variants of architectural styles born in China. After Buddhism arrived the continent via Three Kingdoms of Korea in the 6th century, an effort was made to reproduce original buildings as faithfully as possible, but local versions of continental styles were developed both to meet Japanese tastes and to solve problems posed by local weather, more rainy and humid than in China; the first Buddhist sects were Nara's six Nanto Rokushū, followed during the Heian period by Kyoto's Shingon and Tendai. During the Kamakura period, in Kamakura were born the Jōdo and the native Japanese sect Nichiren-shū. At the same time Zen Buddhism arrived from China influencing all other sects in many ways, including architecture; the social composition of Buddhism's followers changed radically with time. In the beginning it was the elite's religion, but it spread from the noble to warriors, merchants and to the population at large.
On the technical side, new woodworking tools like the framed pit saw and the plane allowed new architectonic solutions. Buddhist temples and Shinto shrines share their basic characteristics and differ only in details that the non-specialist may not notice; this similarity is because the sharp division between Buddhist temples and Shinto shrines is recent, dating to the Meiji period's policy of separation of Buddhism and Shinto of 1868. Before the Meiji Restoration it was common for a Buddhist temple to be built inside or next to a shrine, or for a shrine to include Buddhist sub-temples. If a shrine housed a Buddhist temple, it was called a jingū-ji. Analogously, temples all over Japan used to adopt tutelary kami (chinju and built shrines within their precincts to house them. After the forcible separation of temples and shrines ordered by the new government, the connection between the two religions was severed, but continued nonetheless in practice and is still visible today. Buddhist architecture in Japan during the country's whole history has absorbed much of the best available natural and human resources.
Between the 8th and the 16th centuries, it led the development of new structural and ornamental features. For these reasons, its history is vital to the understanding of not only Buddhist architecture itself, but of Japanese art in general. Buddhist architecture in Japan is not native, but was imported from China and other Asian cultures over the centuries with such constancy that the building styles of all Six Dynasties are represented, its history is as a consequence dominated by Chinese and other Asian techniques and styles on one side, by Japanese original variations on those themes on the other. Due to the variety of climates in Japan and the millennium encompassed between the first cultural import and the last, the result is heterogeneous, but several universal features can nonetheless be found. First of all is the choice of materials, always wood in various forms for all structures. Unlike both Western and some Chinese architecture, the use of stone is avoided except for certain specific uses, for example temple podia and pagoda foundations.
The general structure is always the same: columns and lintels support a large and curved roof, while the walls are paper-thin movable and in any case non-carrying. Arches and barrel roofs are absent. Gable and eave curves are gentler than in columnar entasis limited; the roof is the most visually impressive component constituting half the size of the whole edifice. The curved eaves extend far beyond the walls, covering verandas, their weight must therefore be supported by complex bracket systems called tokyō; these oversize eaves give the interior a characteristic dimness, which contributes to the temple's atmosphere. The interior of the building consists of a single room at the center called moya, from which sometimes depart other less important spaces, for example corridors called hisashi. Inner space divisions are fluid, room size can be modified through the use of screens or movable paper walls; the large, single space offered by the main hall can therefore be altered according to the need.
The separation between inside and outside is itself in some measure not absolute as entire walls can be removed, opening the temple to visitors. Verandas appear to be part of the building to an outsider, but part of the external world to those in the temple. Structures are therefore made to a certain extent part of their environment; the use of construction modules keeps proportions between different parts of the edifice constant, preserving its overall harmony. In cases as that of Nikkō Tōshō-gū, where every available space is decorated, ornamentation tends to follow, therefore emphasize rather than hide, basic structures. Being shared by both sacred and profane architecture, these architectonic features made it easy converting a lay building into a temple; this happened for example at Hōryū-ji, where a noblewoman's mansion was transformed into a religious building. Buddhism is not a Japanese native religion, its architecture arrived from the continent via Korea together with the first Buddhists in the 6th century.
Adopted in the wake of the Battle of Shigisan in 587, after that date Buddhist temples began to be constructed. Because of the hostility of supporters of local kami beliefs towards Buddhism, no temple of that period survives, so we don't know what they were like
The hachiman-zukuri is a traditional Japanese architectural style used at Hachiman shrines in which two parallel structures with gabled roofs are interconnected on the non-gabled side, forming one building which, when seen from the side, gives the impression of two. The front structure is called gaiden, the rear one naiden, together they form the honden; the honden itself is surrounded by a cloister-like covered corridor called kairō'. Access is made possible by a gate called rōmon, it has a hirairi or hirairi-zukuri structure, that is, the building has its main entrance on the side which runs parallel to the roof's ridge. There are entrances at the center of the gabled sides. In general, the rear structure is 3x2 ken, while the front one is 3x1; the space between the two structures forms a room called ai-no-ma. The actual width and height of this room vary with the shrine. Extant examples are Usa Shrine and Iwashimizu Hachiman-gū; this style, of which only five Edo period examples survive, may be of Buddhist origin, since some Buddhist buildings show the same division.
For example, Tōdai-ji's hokke-dō is divided in two sections laid out back. Structural details show a strong relationship with the Heian period style called shinden-zukuri used in aristocratic residences. Another possible origin of this style may have been early palaces, known to have had parallel ridges on the roof. Isaniwa Shrine in Matsuyama, Ehime, is a rare example of the hachiman-zukuri style
Daibutsuyō is a Japanese religious architectural style which emerged in the late 12th or early 13th century. Together with Wayō and Zenshūyō, it is one of the three most significant styles developed by Japanese Buddhism on the basis of Chinese models. Called tenjikuyō, because it had nothing to do with India it was rechristened by scholar Ōta Hirotarō during the 20th century, the new term stuck. Ōta derived the name from Chōgen's work Tōdai-ji's Daibutsuden. Soon abandoned after its creator's death because it didn't harmonize with Japanese tastes, it nonetheless influenced other building styles with its rational solutions; the combination of wayō and daibutsuyō in particular became so frequent that sometimes it is classed separately by scholars under the name Shin-wayō. This grandiose and monumental style is the antithesis of the traditional wayō style; the Nandaimon at Tōdai-ji and the Amida-dō at Jōdo-ji in Ono are its best extant examples. The style was introduced by priest Chōgen, who in 1180 directed the reconstruction of Tōdai-ji, destroyed during the Genpei war.
Chōgen had just come back from the last of his three travels to China and therefore chose as a basis for the work Song Dynasty architecture. He was supported in his innovative work by first shōgun Minamoto no Yoritomo. Of his work at the temple only three structures remain, the mentioned Nandaimon, which remains the best Daibutsuyō example, the Kaizandō and the Hokkedō; the gate's most characteristic features are the six-tier bracket groups projecting directly out of the columns and connected to each other by ties as long as the facade. During the Edo period the temple's Main Hall, the Daibutsuden, was rebuilt in the style, to which it would give its name. Chōgen built other buildings in this style near and around Nara, of which the Amida-dō at Jōdo-ji in Ono is a good extant example; the style declined after its creator's death because it did not agree with Japanese tastes. Structural elements are treated as design elements, the building's deliberate roughness is supposed to be part of its beauty, but the concept was too alien to Chōgen's contemporaries, was rejected.
The Daibutsuyō style was short-lived but innovative, many of the ideas it introduced were adopted by other styles as well. In particular, during the Muromachi period the traditional Wayō style was so influenced that the mix of the two is sometimes called Shin-wayō. Thick woodwork and imposing general look Use of penetrating tie beamsDuring the Heian period temples were built using only non-penetrating tie beams made to fit around columns and pillars and nailed; the daibutsuyō style and the zenshūyō style replaced them with penetrating tie-beams, which pierced the column, were therefore much more effective against earthquakes. The nageshi was however retained as a purely decorative element. Thick, visible structural elements with decorative functionAs mentioned, many structural elements are left uncovered and have a decorative function. For example, the roof's supporting members are not covered by a ceiling and are therefore visible from within the temple; the Nandaimon's stabilizing bracket ties which run the entire width of the gate are fully visible.
Structural elements are much thicker than in Zen buildings. SashihijikiThe sashihijiki is a bracket arm inserted directly into a pillar instead of resting onto a supporting block on top of a pillar, as was normal in the preceding wayō style. At Tōdai-ji, both the Nandaimon and the Daibutsuden have six sashihijiki one on top of the other.. ŌgidarukiAnother detail unique to this style are the ōgidaruki. The rafters supporting each roof corner spread in a fan-like pattern. KibanaThe tips of each protruding beam ends in a nose-like structure called kibana. Japanese Buddhist architecture - Heian period Wayō Setchūyō Zenshūyō Fletcher, Sir Banister. Sir Banister Fletcher's a history of architecture. Architectural Press. ISBN 0-7506-2267-9. Retrieved 2009-11-11. "JAANUS". Japanese Architecture and Art Net Users System. Nishi, Kazuo. What is Japanese architecture?. Kodansha International. ISBN 4-7700-1992-0. Retrieved 2009-11-11. Young, David. Introduction to Japanese architecture. Periplus Asian architecture. Tuttle Publishing.
ISBN 0-7946-0100-6. Retrieved 2010-01-11
Machiya are traditional wooden townhouses found throughout Japan and typified in the historical capital of Kyoto. Machiya and nōka constitute the two categories of Japanese vernacular architecture known as minka. Machiya originated as early as the Heian period and continued to develop through to the Edo period and into the Meiji period. Machiya housed urban merchants and craftsmen, a class collectively referred to as chōnin; the word machiya is written using two kanji: machi meaning "town", ya meaning "house" or "shop" depending on the kanji used to express it. Machiya in Kyoto, sometimes called kyōmachiya defined the architectural atmosphere of downtown Kyoto for centuries, represent the standard defining form of machiya throughout the country; the typical Kyoto machiya is a long wooden home with narrow street frontage, stretching deep into the city block and containing one or more small courtyard gardens or tsuboniwa. Machiya incorporate earthen walls and baked tile roofs, could be one, one and a half, two, or even three stories high.
The front of the building traditionally served as the retail or shop space having sliding or folding shutters that opened to facilitate the display of goods and wares. Behind this mise no ma, the remainder of the main building is divided into the kyoshitsubu or "living space", composed of divided rooms with raised timber floors and tatami mats, the doma or tōriniwa, an unfloored earthen service space that contained the kitchen and serves as the passage to the rear of the plot, where storehouses known as kura are found. A hibukuro above the kitchen serves as a chimney, carrying smoke and heat away and as a skylight, bringing light into the kitchen; the plot's width was traditionally an index of wealth, typical machiya plots were only 5.4 to 6 meters wide, but about 20 meters deep, leading to the nickname unagi no nedoko, or eel beds. The largest residential room, located in the rear of the main building, looking out over the garden which separates the main house from the storehouse, is called a zashiki and doubled as a reception room for special guests or clients.
The sliding doors which make up the walls in a machiya, as in most traditional Japanese buildings, provide a great degree of versatility. However, the remainder of the building might be arranged to create smaller rooms including an entrance hall or foyer, butsuma, and naka no ma and oku no ma, both of which mean "central room". One occasion when rooms are altered is during the Gion Matsuri, when families display their family treasures, including byōbu paintings and other artworks and heirlooms in the machiya. Machiya provide space for costumes, portable shrines and other things needed for the festival, as well as hosting spectators along the festival's parade route. Machiya design addresses climate concerns. Kyoto can be quite cold in winter, hot and humid in the summer. Multiple layers of sliding doors are used to moderate the temperature inside. Machiya homes traditionally made use of different types of screens which would be changed with the seasons; the open air garden courtyards aid in air circulation and bring light into the house.
The front of a machiya features wooden lattices, or kōshi, the styles of which were once indicative of the type of shop the machiya held. Silk or thread shops, rice sellers and liquor stores, among others, each had their own distinctive style of latticework; the types or styles of latticework are still today known by names using shop types, such as Itoya-gōshi or Komeya-gōshi. These lattices sometimes jut out from the front of the building, in which case they are called degōshi. Unpainted, the kōshi of hanamachi were painted in bengara, a vermillion or red ochre color; the facade of the second story of a machiya is not made of wood, but of earthwork, with a distinctive style of window known as mushiko mado. The main entrance into a machiya consists of two doors; the Ō-do was used only to transport goods, or large objects, into the building, while the smaller kugurido, or "side door", was for normal, everyday use, i.e. for people to enter and exit. Machiya communities can be compared to the hutongs of Beijing.
Small neighborhoods made up of grouped homes organized on both sides of a narrow street, sometimes with small alleyways in between the homes, help to create a strong sense of community. In addition, many areas were traditionally defined by product; the Nishijin neighborhood, for example, is famous for its textiles. Machiya are disappearing. Machiya are difficult and expensive to maintain, are subject to greater risk of damage or destruction fr
East Asian hip-and-gable roof
In East Asian architecture, the hip-and-gable roof consists of a hip roof that slopes down on all four sides and integrates a gable on two opposing sides. It is constructed with two large sloping roof sections in the front and back while each of the two sides is constructed with a smaller roof section; the style has spread across East Asia. The original style and similar styles are found in the traditional architecture of Japan, Vietnam, Tibet, Sri Lanka and Kalmykia, it influenced the style of the bahay na bato of the Philippines. It is known as xiēshān in Chinese, irimoya in Japanese, paljakjibung in Korean. Irimoya arrived from China to Japan in the 6th century; the style was used in the main and lecture halls of a Buddhist temple compound. It started to be used for the honden at shrines during the Japanese Middle Ages, its gable is right above the moya, or core, while the hip covers the hisashi, a veranda-like aisle surrounding the core on one or more sides. It is still in wide use in Buddhist temples and Shinto shrines in Japan, in palaces and folk dwellings.
In the last case, it is called moya-zukuri. In Sri Lanka, a style known as the Kandyan roof bears many similarities to the original East Asian hip-and-gable roof; the Kandyan roof is used for religious, royal buildings. Its roots however lie in the traditions of the "Sri Lankan village". Gablet roof
A hōkyōintō is a Japanese pagoda, so called because it contained the Hōkyōin dharani sūtra. A Chinese variant of the Indian stūpa, it was conceived as a cenotaph of the King of Wuyue – Qian Liu. Made in stone and metal or wood, hōkyōintō started to be made in their present form during the Kamakura period. Like a gorintō, they are divided in five main sections called kaeribanaza, or "inverted flower seat", kiso, or base, tōshin, or body, kasa, or umbrella, sōrin, or pagoda finial; the tōshin is carved with a Sanskrit letter. The'sōrin has the same shape as the tip of a five-storied pagoda; the kasa can be called yane, or roof. It's decorated with four characteristic wings called sumikazari. Different structures exist, the hōkyōintō property of the Yatsushiro Municipal Museum in Kyushu for example is divided in just four parts, with no kaeribanaza; the sūtra contain all the pious deeds of a Tathagata Buddha, the faithful believe that praying in front of a hōkyōintō their sins will be canceled, during their lives they will be protected from disasters and after death they will go to heaven.
The hōkyōintō tradition in Japan is believed to have begun during the Asuka period. They started to be made in stone only during the Kamakura period, it is during this period that they started to be used as tombstones and cenotaphs. Iwanami Kōjien Japanese dictionary Sixth Edition, DVD Version Shinkō no Katachi - Hōkyōintō, Yatsushiro Municipal Museum, accessed on September 18, 2008 "Nihon Rekishi Chimei Taikei, online version". Hatakeyama Shigeyasu no Haka. Heibonsha. Retrieved 2008-09-18