A round-robin tournament is a competition in which each contestant meets all other contestants in turn. A round-robin contrasts with an elimination tournament, in which participants are eliminated after a certain number of losses; the term round-robin is derived from the French term ruban, meaning "ribbon". Over a long period of time, the term was idiomized to robin. In a single round-robin schedule, each participant plays every other participant once. If each participant plays all others twice, this is called a double round-robin; the term is used when all participants play one another more than twice, is never used when one participant plays others an unequal number of times. In the United Kingdom, a round-robin tournament is called an American tournament in sports such as tennis or billiards which have knockout tournaments. In Italian it is called girone all'italiana. In Serbian it is called the Berger system, after chess player Johann Berger. A round-robin tournament with four players is sometimes called "quad" or "foursome".
In sports with a large number of competitive matches per season, double round-robins are common. Most association football leagues in the world are organized on a double round-robin basis, in which every team plays all others in its league once at home and once away; this system is used in qualification for major tournaments such as the FIFA World Cup and the continental tournaments. There are round-robin bridge, draughts, go, curling and Scrabble tournaments; the World Chess Championship decided in 2005 and in 2007 on an eight-player double round-robin tournament where each player faces every other player once as white and once as black. Group tournaments rankings go by number of matches won and drawn, with any of a variety of tiebreaker criteria. Pool stages within a wider tournament are conducted on a round-robin basis. Examples with single round-robin scheduling include the FIFA World Cup, UEFA European Football Championship, UEFA Cup in football, Super Rugby in the Southern Hemisphere during its past iterations as Super 12 and Super 14, the Cricket World Cup along Pakistan Super League & Indian Premier League, the two major Twenty-20 Cricket tournaments, ] and many American Football college conferences, such as the Big 12.
The group phases of the UEFA Champions League and Copa Libertadores de América are contested as a double round-robin, as are most basketball leagues outside the United States, including the regular-season and Top 16 phases of the Euroleague. Season ending tennis tournaments use a round robin format prior to the semi on stages The champion, in a round-robin tournament, is the contestant that wins the most games. In the circle of death, it is possible that no champion emerges from a round-robin tournament if there is no draw. In theory, a round-robin tournament is the fairest way to determine the champion from among a known and fixed number of contestants; each contestant, whether player or team, has equal chances against all other opponents because there is no prior seeding of contestants that will preclude a match between any given pair. The element of luck is seen to be reduced as compared to a knockout system since one or two bad performances need not cripple a competitor's chance of ultimate victory.
Final records of participants are more accurate as they represent the results over a longer period against the same opposition. This can be used to determine which teams are the poorest performers and thus subject to relegation if the format is used in a multi-tiered league; this is helpful to determine the final rank of all competitors, from strongest to weakest, for purposes of qualification for another stage or competition as well as for prize money. In team sport the major league champions are regarded as the "best" team in the land, rather than the cup winners. Moreover, in tournaments such as the FIFA or ICC world cups, a first round stage consisting of a number of mini round robins between groups of 4 teams guards against the possibility of a team travelling thousands of miles only to be eliminated after just one poor performance in a straight knockout system; the top one, two, or three teams in these groups proceed to a straight knockout stage for the remainder of the tournament. Round-robins can suffer from being too long compared to other tournament types, with scheduled games not having any substantial meaning.
They may require tiebreaking procedures. Swiss system tournaments attempt to combine elements of the round-robin and elimination formats, to provide a worthy champion using fewer rounds than a round-robin, while allowing draws and losses; the main disadvantage of a round robin tournament is the time needed to complete it. Unlike a knockout tournament where half of the participants are eliminated after each round, a round robin requires one round less than the number of participants if the number of participants is and as many rounds as participants if the number of participants is odd. For instance, a tournament of 16 teams can be completed in just 4 rounds in a knockout format. Other issues
Melbourne is the capital and most populous city of the Australian state of Victoria, the second most populous city in Australia and Oceania. Its name refers to an urban agglomeration of 9,992.5 km2, comprising a metropolitan area with 31 municipalities, is the common name for its city centre. The city occupies much of the coastline of Port Phillip bay and spreads into the hinterlands towards the Dandenong and Macedon ranges, Mornington Peninsula and Yarra Valley, it has a population of 4.9 million, its inhabitants are referred to as "Melburnians". The city was founded on 30 August 1835, in the then-British colony of New South Wales, by free settlers from the colony of Van Diemen’s Land, it was incorporated as a Crown settlement in 1837 and named in honour of the British Prime Minister, William Lamb, 2nd Viscount Melbourne. In 1851, four years after Queen Victoria declared it a city, Melbourne became the capital of the new colony of Victoria. In the wake of the 1850s Victorian gold rush, the city entered a lengthy boom period that, by the late 1880s, had transformed it into one of the world's largest and wealthiest metropolises.
After the federation of Australia in 1901, it served as interim seat of government of the new nation until Canberra became the permanent capital in 1927. Today, it is a leading financial centre in the Asia-Pacific region and ranks 15th in the Global Financial Centres Index; the city is home to many of the best-known cultural institutions in the nation, such as the Melbourne Cricket Ground, the National Gallery of Victoria and the World Heritage-listed Royal Exhibition Building. It is the birthplace of Australian impressionism, Australian rules football, the Australian film and television industries and Australian contemporary dance. More it has been recognised as a UNESCO City of Literature and a global centre for street art, live music and theatre, it is the host city of annual international events such as the Australian Grand Prix, the Australian Open and the Melbourne Cup, has hosted the 1956 Summer Olympics and the 2006 Commonwealth Games. Due to it rating in entertainment and sport, as well as education, health care and development, the EIU ranks it the second most liveable city in the world.
The main airport serving the city is Melbourne Airport, the second busiest in Australia, Australia's busiest seaport the Port of Melbourne. Its main metropolitan rail terminus is Flinders Street station and its main regional rail and road coach terminus is Southern Cross station, it has the most extensive freeway network in Australia and the largest urban tram network in the world. Indigenous Australians have lived in the Melbourne area for an estimated 31,000 to 40,000 years; when European settlers arrived in the 19th-century, under 2,000 hunter-gatherers from three regional tribes—the Wurundjeri and Wathaurong—inhabited the area. It was an important meeting place for the clans of the Kulin nation alliance and a vital source of food and water; the first British settlement in Victoria part of the penal colony of New South Wales, was established by Colonel David Collins in October 1803, at Sullivan Bay, near present-day Sorrento. The following year, due to a perceived lack of resources, these settlers relocated to Van Diemen's Land and founded the city of Hobart.
It would be 30 years. In May and June 1835, John Batman, a leading member of the Port Phillip Association in Van Diemen's Land, explored the Melbourne area, claimed to have negotiated a purchase of 600,000 acres with eight Wurundjeri elders. Batman selected a site on the northern bank of the Yarra River, declaring that "this will be the place for a village" before returning to Van Diemen's Land. In August 1835, another group of Vandemonian settlers arrived in the area and established a settlement at the site of the current Melbourne Immigration Museum. Batman and his group arrived the following month and the two groups agreed to share the settlement known by the native name of Dootigala. Batman's Treaty with the Aborigines was annulled by Richard Bourke, the Governor of New South Wales, with compensation paid to members of the association. In 1836, Bourke declared the city the administrative capital of the Port Phillip District of New South Wales, commissioned the first plan for its urban layout, the Hoddle Grid, in 1837.
Known as Batmania, the settlement was named Melbourne in 1837 after the British Prime Minister, William Lamb, 2nd Viscount Melbourne, whose seat was Melbourne Hall in the market town of Melbourne, Derbyshire. That year, the settlement's general post office opened with that name. Between 1836 and 1842, Victorian Aboriginal groups were dispossessed of their land by European settlers. By January 1844, there were said to be 675 Aborigines resident in squalid camps in Melbourne; the British Colonial Office appointed five Aboriginal Protectors for the Aborigines of Victoria, in 1839, however their work was nullified by a land policy that favoured squatters who took possession of Aboriginal lands. By 1845, fewer than 240 wealthy Europeans held all the pastoral licences issued in Victoria and became a powerful political and economic force in Victoria for generations to come. Letters patent of Queen Victoria, issued on 25 June 1847, declared Melbourne a city. On 1 July 1851, the Port Phillip District separated from New South Wales to become the Colony of Victoria, with Melbourne as its capital.
The discovery of gold in Victoria in mid-1851 sparked a
Victoria cricket team
The Victoria cricket team, who were named Victorian Bushrangers between 1995 and 2018, is an Australian first-class cricket team based in Melbourne, Victoria. The Victoria cricket team, which first played in 1851, represents the state of Victoria in the Sheffield Shield first-class competition and the JLT One Day Cup competition; the team shares home matches between the Junction Oval. The team is administered by Cricket Victoria and draws its players from Victoria's Premier Cricket competition and throughout the country. Victoria played in the now-defunct Twenty20 competition, the KFC Twenty20 Big Bash, replaced by the franchise-based Big Bash League. Victoria is the second-most successful state team in Australian first-class cricket, having won 32 Sheffield Shield titles, the most recent of, in the 2018–19 season; the Victorians have claimed six One-Day Cups and four KFC Twenty20 Big Bash tiles. The team's origins date back to the start of Australian cricket when the Melbourne Cricket Club was formed in 1838, in that same year an MCC team played its first match against the Victorian Military.
However, the first official inter-colonial game was contested between Port Phillip and Van Diemen's Land in 1851, in Launceston. Victoria was the dominant force in the early days of Australian first-class cricket, winning two of the first three Sheffield Shield tournaments, most of its early domestic friendly games against the other states; the first game between the great rivals Victoria and New South Wales was played at the Melbourne Cricket Ground in 1856. The annual Sheffield Shield tournament first began in the 1892/93 season, contested by Victoria, New South Wales and South Australia. Victoria won that tournament by defeating both opponents twice each. During the history of the Shield, Victoria has won the competition 30 times, most in the 2015/16 season; the Victorian Cricket Association, now Cricket Victoria, was founded in 1895 and since March 2018 has been based at its headquarters, the Junction Oval in St Kilda. Victoria has featured a significant number of cricketing greats, such as Warwick Armstrong, Bill Woodfull, Bill Ponsford, Neil Harvey, Hugh Trumble, Lindsay Hassett, Dean Jones, Jack Blackham, Jack Ryder, Bill Lawry, Bob Cowper, Shane Warne, Keith Miller and Ian Redpath..
Victoria has been a powerful force in Australian cricket and the Australian cricket team has, at least until recent decades, never been short of Victorians in the line up. The tradition of starting a cricket match at the MCG on Boxing Day featured Victoria when they played New South Wales in 1965. Victoria is the only first-class cricket team to have scored over 1,000 in an innings, which it achieved twice in the 1920s – 1,023 against Tasmania in 1922–23, 1,107 against New South Wales in 1926–27. Throughout its history, Victoria's dominant colour has been navy blue, either in full when playing One-Day or Twenty20 competitions or on predominantly white kits in first-class cricket; the team logo replicates that of Cricket Victoria and has done so since the organisation chose to cease referring to the Bushrangers nickname when describing the men's team. The current major sponsor of the team is the CitiPower. Squad for the 2018/19 domestic season. Players with international caps are listed in bold.
Source: Sheffield Shield Titles –: 1882/83, 1894/95, 1897/98, 1898/99, 1900/01, 1907/08, 1914/15, 1921/22, 1923/24, 1924/25, 1927/28, 1929/30, 1930/31, 1933/34, 1934/35, 1936/37, 1946/47, 1950/51, 1962/63, 1966/67, 1969/70, 1973/74, 1978/79, 1979/80, 1990/91, 2003/04, 2008/09, 2009/10, 2014/15, 2015/16, 2016/17, 2018/19. National One Day Cup Titles –: 1971/72, 1979/80, 1994/95, 1998/99, 2010/11, 2018/19, KFC Twenty20 Big Bash Titles –: 2005/06, 2006/07, 2007/08, 2009/10 First Class Batting Records for Victoria First Class Bowling Records for Victoria Cricket Victoria Cricket Australia List of Victoria first-class cricketers List of international cricketers from Victoria Official Website of the Victorian cricket team Official Website of Cricket Australia
Australia women's national cricket team
The Australian women's national cricket team represent Australia in international women's cricket. They were nicknamed Southern Stars, but in 2017 this name was dropped and are now known only as the Australian women's cricket team in an attempt to promote gender equality with the men, who have no nickname for their team; the team is captained by Meg Lanning and coached by former Victoria and Queensland batsman Matthew Mott. As of 21 August 2018, they are ranked first in all forms of women's international cricket; the team played their first Test match in 1934–35, when they lost to England two-nil in a three-Test series. They now compete against England for the Women's Ashes, they have won more World Cups than any other side — winning in 1978, 1982, 1988, 1997, 2005 and 2013. The team has be crowned champions of the ICC Women's World Twenty20 tournament more than any other side – winning in 2010, 2012, 2014 and 2018. In 2003, Women's Cricket Australia, the Australian Cricket board merged to form a single national cricket board, which remains to this day.
This merger has been a positive influence on women's cricket, providing more financial support and gathering more exposure for the sport. As of 5 April 2018, the Australian national women's contracted players are: Highest team total: 569/6d v England, 6 August 1998 at Woodbridge Road, England Highest individual score: 213*, Ellyse Perry v England, 11 November 2017 at North Sydney Oval, North Sydney, Australia Best innings bowling: 7/7, Betty Wilson v England, 21 February 1958 at Junction Oval, Australia Best match bowling: 11/16, Betty Wilson v England, 21 February 1958 at Junction Oval, Australia Highest team total: 412/3 v Denmark, 16 December 1997 at Middle Income Group Ground, India Highest individual innings: 229*, Belinda Clark v Denmark, 16 December 1997 at Middle Income Group Ground, India Best innings bowling: 7/24, Shelley Nitschke v England, 19 August 2005 at Chester Road North Ground, England Highest team total: 191/4 v Ireland, 27 March 2014 at Sylhet International Cricket Stadium, Bangladesh Highest individual innings: 126, Meg Lanning v Ireland, 27 March 2014 at Sylhet International Cricket Stadium, Bangladesh Best innings bowling: 5/22, Julie Hunter v West Indies, 5 October 2012 at R. Premadasa Stadium, Sri Lanka Australian Women's Twenty20 Cup Women's National Cricket League Women's Big Bash League Women's cricket in Australia Photographs from the English Women's Cricket Association tour of Australia, 1934–1935 Women's Cricket in Australia: news, history and competitions, results and statistics Official Facebook page
Queensland cricket team
The Queensland cricket team or the Queensland Bulls, is the Brisbane-based Queensland representative cricket side in Australia's domestic cricket tournaments: Sheffield Shield: four-day matches with first-class status, since the 1926/27 season Matador BBQs One-Day Cup: a one-day tournament with List-A status, since its inception in 1969/70 KFC Twenty20 Big Bash: a twenty overs per side tournament from 2005/06 to 2010/11. The first European settlement in Queensland was a penal colony established at Redcliffe in 1824, which moved to Brisbane the following year. Free settlers first arrived in 1842; the earliest evidence of cricket being played in Queensland is in 1857, two years prior to separation from New South Wales and statehood. A match between Brisbane and Ipswich was held in 1859. By 1862 there were teams in Warwick, Gayndah, Gympie and the Lockyer Valley. Queensland's first inter-colonial match was in 1864 when their XXII was beaten by a New South Wales XI. In 1875, Queensland recorded their first victory when their XVIII beat the NSW XI.
That victory was a catalyst for the formation of the Queensland Cricket Association in 1876. Queensland was granted first-class status in 1892/93, winning its inaugural first-class match against NSW in that season by 14 runs. Queensland played more than two inter-colonial matches per season from 1892/93, with one match against New South Wales; the tyranny of distance and non-professional status of the players limited opportunities for more first-class competition during this period. The Sheffield Shield competition commenced in 1892/93 but Queensland's initial applications for admission were refused. Despite their minimal first-class exposure, Queensland still produced four Australian Test players prior to their Sheffield Shield debut, though none played more than six Tests; the first was the colourful Arthur Coningham who played his only Test in 1895. Remarkably, he took a wicket with his first delivery, he scored Queensland's initial first-class century, 151 against NSW.1910/11 was a successful season as Queensland recorded three first-class wins for the first time, beating NSW home and away and Victoria in Melbourne in their only three games of the summer.
Queensland was admitted to the Sheffield Shield in 1926/27 and had a successful debut year, defeating NSW in their first Shield match and eventual winners SA in their only meeting. Like most new teams the side struggled to maintain that level of performance and finished last in the four-team competition 15 times in its first 19 seasons; however the decision to include Queensland paid off with the emergence of regular Test players such as Bill Brown, Don Tallon, Percy Hornibrook and Ron Oxenham. Brisbane hosted its first Test match in 1928/29. By the early 1950s Queensland had a competitive side and was finishing in the top three of the five team Shield following Western Australia's admission in 1946/47. In 1956/57 they finished an agonising one point behind winners NSW. More Australian players were produced, including Ron Archer, Wally Grout, Ken'Slasher' Mackay and Peter Burge. Another highlight of this period was the dramatic Tied Test between Australia and the West Indies at the Gabba in 1960/61.
This period was undoubtedly Queensland's worst era, finishing last eight times in nine Shield seasons. Rock bottom was reached in 1967/68; the QCA decided to recruit high-profile interstate players to revive the team's fortunes. Greg Chappell was vice-captain of South Australia under brother Ian and was lured north for the 1973/74 season with the promise of the Queensland captaincy. Emerging pace bowler Jeff Thomson followed the next year; the addition of Chappell and Thomson to a side containing players such as Sam Trimble, Martin Kent, Tony Dell and Geoff Dymock had an immediate impact. Queensland gained four seconds and a third over the next five seasons, as well as winning the domestic one day cup in 1975/76, Queensland's first piece of silverware; the Queensland teams of the 1980s were stronger, featuring many outstanding cricketers, both "home-grown" like Craig McDermott, Carl Rackemann and Ian Healy and others attracted from interstate or overseas such as Vivian Richards, Allan Border, Kepler Wessels and Ian Botham.
Queensland were runners up five times in seven seasons in the 1980s, won the one-day trophy three more times in this period, but that first Shield win was still elusive. The 68-year wait came to an end in the 1994/95 season when Stuart Law led Queensland to their inaugural Sheffield Shield win after finishing last the previous year. Since their breakthrough win, Queensland has enjoyed a golden era winning the competition a further six times and finishing as runners-up six times, their most recent title, a victory over the Tasmanian Tigers in 2011–12 saw the Bulls win by 7 wickets in one of the most contested finals of recent times. Since a final was introduced to the Sheffield Shield competition in the 1982/83 cricket season the Queensland Bulls have contested 18 out of 30 finals. Since Tasmania were admitted in 1977/78, the Bulls have finished in sixth just twice; the primary club colour of Queensland Bulls is Maroon, which represents the state colour of Queensland. The secondary club colour is Gold, with additional contrasting colour of white.
The "Bulls" mascot and nickname were adopted at the commencement of the 1993/94 season. The side p
Cricket is a bat-and-ball game played between two teams of eleven players on a field at the centre of, a 20-metre pitch with a wicket at each end, each comprising two bails balanced on three stumps. The batting side scores runs by striking the ball bowled at the wicket with the bat, while the bowling and fielding side tries to prevent this and dismiss each player. Means of dismissal include being bowled, when the ball hits the stumps and dislodges the bails, by the fielding side catching the ball after it is hit by the bat, but before it hits the ground; when ten players have been dismissed, the innings ends and the teams swap roles. The game is adjudicated by two umpires, aided by a third umpire and match referee in international matches, they communicate with two off-field scorers. There are various formats ranging from Twenty20, played over a few hours with each team batting for a single innings of 20 overs, to Test matches, played over five days with unlimited overs and the teams each batting for two innings of unlimited length.
Traditionally cricketers play in all-white kit, but in limited overs cricket they wear club or team colours. In addition to the basic kit, some players wear protective gear to prevent injury caused by the ball, a hard, solid spheroid made of compressed leather with a raised sewn seam enclosing a cork core, layered with wound string. Cricket's origins are uncertain and the earliest definite reference is in south-east England in the middle of the 16th century, it spread globally with the expansion of the British Empire, leading to the first international matches in the second half of the 19th century. The game's governing body is the International Cricket Council, which has over 100 members, twelve of which are full members who play Test matches; the game's rules are held in a code called the Laws of Cricket, owned and maintained by Marylebone Cricket Club in London. The sport is followed in the Indian subcontinent, the United Kingdom, southern Africa and the West Indies, its globalisation occurring during the expansion of the British Empire and remaining popular into the 21st century.
Women's cricket, organised and played separately, has achieved international standard. The most successful side playing international cricket is Australia, having won seven One Day International trophies, including five World Cups, more than any other country, having been the top-rated Test side more than any other country. Cricket is one of many games in the "club ball" sphere that involve hitting a ball with a hand-held implement. In cricket's case, a key difference is the existence of a solid target structure, the wicket, that the batsman must defend; the cricket historian Harry Altham identified three "groups" of "club ball" games: the "hockey group", in which the ball is driven to and fro between two targets. It is believed that cricket originated as a children's game in the south-eastern counties of England, sometime during the medieval period. Although there are claims for prior dates, the earliest definite reference to cricket being played comes from evidence given at a court case in Guildford on Monday, 17 January 1597.
The case concerned ownership of a certain plot of land and the court heard the testimony of a 59-year-old coroner, John Derrick, who gave witness that: "Being a scholler in the ffree schoole of Guldeford hee and diverse of his fellows did runne and play there at creckett and other plaies". Given Derrick's age, it was about half a century earlier when he was at school and so it is certain that cricket was being played c. 1550 by boys in Surrey. The view that it was a children's game is reinforced by Randle Cotgrave's 1611 English-French dictionary in which he defined the noun "crosse" as "the crooked staff wherewith boys play at cricket" and the verb form "crosser" as "to play at cricket". One possible source for the sport's name is the Old English word "cryce" meaning a staff. In Samuel Johnson's Dictionary, he derived cricket from "cryce, Saxon, a stick". In Old French, the word "criquet" seems to have meant a kind of stick. Given the strong medieval trade connections between south-east England and the County of Flanders when the latter belonged to the Duchy of Burgundy, the name may have been derived from the Middle Dutch "krick", meaning a stick.
Another possible source is the Middle Dutch word "krickstoel", meaning a long low stool used for kneeling in church and which resembled the long low wicket with two stumps used in early cricket. According to Heiner Gillmeister, a European language expert of Bonn University, "cricket" derives from the Middle Dutch phrase for hockey, met de sen. Gillmeister has suggested that not only the name but the sport itself may be of Flemish origin. Although the main object of the game has always been to score the most runs, the early form of cricket differed from the modern game in certain key technical aspects; the ball was bowled underarm by the bowler and all along the ground towards a batsman armed with a bat that, in shape, resembled a hockey stick.
Australia the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands. It is the world's sixth-largest country by total area; the neighbouring countries are Papua New Guinea and East Timor to the north. The population of 25 million is urbanised and concentrated on the eastern seaboard. Australia's capital is Canberra, its largest city is Sydney; the country's other major metropolitan areas are Melbourne, Brisbane and Adelaide. Australia was inhabited by indigenous Australians for about 60,000 years before the first British settlement in the late 18th century, it is documented. After the European exploration of the continent by Dutch explorers in 1606, who named it New Holland, Australia's eastern half was claimed by Great Britain in 1770 and settled through penal transportation to the colony of New South Wales from 26 January 1788, a date which became Australia's national day; the population grew in subsequent decades, by the 1850s most of the continent had been explored and an additional five self-governing crown colonies established.
On 1 January 1901, the six colonies federated. Australia has since maintained a stable liberal democratic political system that functions as a federal parliamentary constitutional monarchy, comprising six states and ten territories. Being the oldest and driest inhabited continent, with the least fertile soils, Australia has a landmass of 7,617,930 square kilometres. A megadiverse country, its size gives it a wide variety of landscapes, with deserts in the centre, tropical rainforests in the north-east and mountain ranges in the south-east. A gold rush began in Australia in the early 1850s, its population density, 2.8 inhabitants per square kilometre, remains among the lowest in the world. Australia generates its income from various sources including mining-related exports, telecommunications and manufacturing. Indigenous Australian rock art is the oldest and richest in the world, dating as far back as 60,000 years and spread across hundreds of thousands of sites. Australia is a developed country, with the world's 14th-largest economy.
It has a high-income economy, with the world's tenth-highest per capita income. It is a regional power, has the world's 13th-highest military expenditure. Australia has the world's ninth-largest immigrant population, with immigrants accounting for 26% of the population. Having the third-highest human development index and the eighth-highest ranked democracy globally, the country ranks in quality of life, education, economic freedom, civil liberties and political rights, with all its major cities faring well in global comparative livability surveys. Australia is a member of the United Nations, G20, Commonwealth of Nations, ANZUS, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, World Trade Organization, Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, Pacific Islands Forum and the ASEAN Plus Six mechanism; the name Australia is derived from the Latin Terra Australis, a name used for a hypothetical continent in the Southern Hemisphere since ancient times. When Europeans first began visiting and mapping Australia in the 17th century, the name Terra Australis was applied to the new territories.
Until the early 19th century, Australia was best known as "New Holland", a name first applied by the Dutch explorer Abel Tasman in 1644 and subsequently anglicised. Terra Australis still saw occasional usage, such as in scientific texts; the name Australia was popularised by the explorer Matthew Flinders, who said it was "more agreeable to the ear, an assimilation to the names of the other great portions of the earth". The first time that Australia appears to have been used was in April 1817, when Governor Lachlan Macquarie acknowledged the receipt of Flinders' charts of Australia from Lord Bathurst. In December 1817, Macquarie recommended to the Colonial Office. In 1824, the Admiralty agreed that the continent should be known by that name; the first official published use of the new name came with the publication in 1830 of The Australia Directory by the Hydrographic Office. Colloquial names for Australia include "Oz" and "the Land Down Under". Other epithets include "the Great Southern Land", "the Lucky Country", "the Sunburnt Country", "the Wide Brown Land".
The latter two both derive from Dorothea Mackellar's 1908 poem "My Country". Human habitation of the Australian continent is estimated to have begun around 65,000 to 70,000 years ago, with the migration of people by land bridges and short sea-crossings from what is now Southeast Asia; these first inhabitants were the ancestors of modern Indigenous Australians. Aboriginal Australian culture is one of the oldest continual civilisations on earth. At the time of first European contact, most Indigenous Australians were hunter-gatherers with complex economies and societies. Recent archaeological finds suggest. Indigenous Australians have an oral culture with spiritual values based on reverence for the land and a belief in the Dreamtime; the Torres Strait Islanders, ethnically Melanesian, obtained their livelihood from seasonal horticulture and the resources of their reefs and seas. The northern coasts and waters of Australia were visited s