The Human League
The Human League are an English synth-pop band formed in Sheffield in 1977. An experimental electronic outfit, the group signed to Virgin Records in 1979 and attained widespread commercial success with their third album Dare in 1981; the album contained four hit singles, including the UK/US number one hit "Don't You Want Me." The band received the Brit Award for Best British Breakthrough Act in 1982. Further hits followed throughout the 1980s and into the 1990s, including "Mirror Man," " Fascination," "The Lebanon," "Human" and "Tell Me When." The only constant band member since 1977 has been songwriter Philip Oakey. Keyboard players Martyn Ware and Ian Craig Marsh both left the band in 1980 to form Heaven 17. Under Oakey's leadership, The Human League evolved into a commercially successful New Pop band with a new line-up including female vocalists Joanne Catherall and Susan Ann Sulley. Since the mid-1990s, the band has been a trio of Oakey and Sulley with various sidemen. Since 1978, the Human League have released nine studio albums, two remix albums, one live album, six EPs, 30 singles and several compilation albums.
They have had five albums and eight singles in the UK Top 10 and have sold more than 20 million records worldwide. Before adopting the name the Human League, the band had two previous incarnations. In early 1977, Martyn Ware and Ian Craig Marsh, who had met at youth arts project Meatwhistle, were both working as computer operators, their musical collaboration combined pop music with avant-garde electronic music. With the price of electronic components dropping in the mid-1970s, equipment became more affordable for the average consumer, their musical reputation spread and they were invited to play at a friend's 21st birthday party. For the party and Marsh formed themselves into an informal band called The Dead Daughters, their live highlight was a rendition of the theme of the British TV series Doctor. After a few more low-key, private performances and Marsh decided to form a band. Joined by their friend Adi Newton and another synthesizer, they formed The Future and began to create music in their own rehearsal facility in a disused cutlery workshop in the centre of Sheffield.
Although The Future was never signed and did not release material commercially at the time, a collection of demos from this period was released retrospectively on CD in 2002 titled The Golden Hour of the Future, mixed by Richard X. The association with Adi Newton was short; the reason for this was twofold: record companies had been reluctant to sign The Future, as they could not offer any "marketable" songs, therefore a talented singer was required for any chance of commercial success. Ware and Marsh searched for a vocalist. Ware decided to invite an old school friend, Philip Oakey, to join the band. Oakey was working as a hospital porter at the time and was known on the Sheffield social scene for his eclectic style of dress. Although he had no musical experience, Ware thought he would be ideal as lead singer for The Future as "he looked like a pop star." When Ware called on Oakey he found he was out, so asked him to join the Future by leaving a note stuck to his front door. He accepted the invitation.
Oakey had never sung in front of an audience before, could not play keyboards and only owned a saxophone. Listening to one of Ware and Marsh's demos, Oakey was inspired to write some lyrics which became the single "Being Boiled." With a new line-up, vocalist, Ware decided that the band needed a new name. It would allow them to approach record companies again from a different angle. Ware suggested a quote derived from Starforce: a science-fiction wargame. In the game, "The Human League" arose in 2415 A. D, were a frontier-oriented society that desired more independence from Earth. Ware suggested that the Future rename themselves after the game, in early 1978 the Future became "The Human League." Using Future material, the Human League released a demo tape to record companies under their new name. The tape contained versions of "Being Boiled," "Toyota City" and "Circus of Death." Ware's friend Paul Bower of Sheffield new-wave band "2.3", who had just recorded a single for Bob Last's Edinburgh-based independent label Fast Product, took their demo to Last and he signed the band.
The band released their first single, "Being Boiled," in June 1978 which became Fast Product's third release. Although a limited release – because it was unique and at odds with everything else on the market – it was picked up on by NME who championed the band, although one guest reviewer, John Lydon of Public Image Limited condemned the band as "trendy hippies." Boosted by critical praise, on 12 June 1978 the band played their first live gig together at Bar 2 in Sheffield's Psalter Lane Art College. With their reliance on technology and tape machines, the band had been nervous about playing live. After the Psalter Lane performance, they worried that they had appeared uninspiring. A friend of Oakey's, in the audience, Philip Adrian Wright, who had an ar
Science fiction is a genre of speculative fiction dealing with imaginative and futuristic concepts such as advanced science and technology, space exploration, time travel, extraterrestrials in fiction. Science fiction explores the potential consequences of scientific other various innovations, has been called a "literature of ideas." "Science fiction" is difficult to define as it includes a wide range of concepts and themes. James Blish wrote: "Wells used the term to cover what we would today call'hard' science fiction, in which a conscientious attempt to be faithful to known facts was the substrate on which the story was to be built, if the story was to contain a miracle, it ought at least not to contain a whole arsenal of them."Isaac Asimov said: "Science fiction can be defined as that branch of literature which deals with the reaction of human beings to changes in science and technology." According to Robert A. Heinlein, "A handy short definition of all science fiction might read: realistic speculation about possible future events, based solidly on adequate knowledge of the real world and present, on a thorough understanding of the nature and significance of the scientific method."Lester del Rey wrote, "Even the devoted aficionado or fan—has a hard time trying to explain what science fiction is," and that the reason for there not being a "full satisfactory definition" is that "there are no delineated limits to science fiction."
Author and editor Damon Knight summed up the difficulty, saying "science fiction is what we point to when we say it." Mark C. Glassy described the definition of science fiction as U. S. Supreme Court Justice Potter Stewart did with the definition of pornography: "I know it when I see it." Science fiction had its beginnings in a time when the line between myth and fact was arguably more blurred than the present day. Written in the 2nd century CE by the satirist Lucian, A True Story contains many themes and tropes that are characteristic of contemporary science fiction, including travel to other worlds, extraterrestrial lifeforms, interplanetary warfare, artificial life; some consider it the first science-fiction novel. Some of the stories from The Arabian Nights, along with the 10th-century The Tale of the Bamboo Cutter and Ibn al-Nafis's 13th-century Theologus Autodidactus contain elements of science fiction. Products of the Age of Reason and the development of modern science itself, Johannes Kepler's Somnium, Francis Bacon's New Atlantis, Cyrano de Bergerac's Comical History of the States and Empires of the Moon and The States and Empires of the Sun, Margaret Cavendish's "The Blazing World", Jonathan Swift's Gulliver's Travels, Ludvig Holberg's Nicolai Klimii Iter Subterraneum and Voltaire's Micromégas are regarded as some of the first true science-fantasy works.
Indeed, Isaac Asimov and Carl Sagan considered Somnium the first science-fiction story. Following the 18th-century development of the novel as a literary form, Mary Shelley's books Frankenstein and The Last Man helped define the form of the science-fiction novel. Brian Aldiss has argued. Edgar Allan Poe wrote several stories considered science fiction, including "The Unparalleled Adventure of One Hans Pfaall" which featured a trip to the Moon. Jules Verne was noted for his attention to detail and scientific accuracy Twenty Thousand Leagues Under the Sea which predicted the contemporary nuclear submarine. In 1887, the novel El anacronópete by Spanish author Enrique Gaspar y Rimbau introduced the first time machine. Many critics consider H. G. Wells one of science fiction's most important authors, or "the Shakespeare of science fiction." His notable science-fiction works include The Time Machine, The Island of Doctor Moreau, The Invisible Man, The War of the Worlds. His science fiction imagined alien invasion, biological engineering and time travel.
In his non-fiction futurologist works he predicted the advent of airplanes, military tanks, nuclear weapons, satellite television, space travel, something resembling the World Wide Web. In 1912, Edgar Rice Burroughs published A Princess of Mars, the first of his three-decade-long planetary romance series of Barsoom novels, set on Mars and featuring John Carter as the hero. In 1926, Hugo Gernsback published the first American science-fiction magazine, Amazing Stories, in which he wrote: By'scientifiction' I mean the Jules Verne, H. G. Wells and Edgar Allan Poe type of story—a charming romance intermingled with scientific fact and prophetic vision... Not only do these amazing tales make tremendously interesting reading—they are always instructive, they supply knowledge... in a palatable form... New adventures pictured for us in the scientifiction of today are not at all impossible of realization tomorrow... Many great science stories destined to be of historical interest are still to be written...
Posterity will point to them as having blazed a new trail, not only in literature and fiction, but progress as well. In 1928, E. E. "Doc" Smith's first published work, The Skylark of Space, written in collaboration with Lee Hawkins Garby, appeared in Amazing Stories. It is called the first great space opera; the same year, Philip Francis Nowlan's original Buck Rogers story, Armageddon 2419 appeared in Amazing Stories. This was followed by the first serious science-fiction comic. In 1937, John W. Campbell became editor of Astounding Science Fiction, an event, sometimes conside
Dennis Gabor. Gábor Dénes College in Budapest, Hungary, is named after him in honour of his works. Gabor was born into a Jewish family in Budapest, Hungary. In 1918, his family converted to Lutheranism. Dennis was the first-born son of Jakobovits Adél. Despite having a religious background, religion played a minor role in his life and he considered himself agnostic. In 1902, the family received permission to change their surname from Günszberg to Gábor, he served with the Hungarian artillery in northern Italy during World War I. He began his studies in engineering at the Technical University of Budapest in 1918 in Germany, at the Charlottenburg Technical University in Berlin, now known as the Technical University of Berlin. At the start of his career, he analysed the properties of high voltage electric transmission lines by using cathode-beam oscillographs, which led to his interest in electron optics. Studying the fundamental processes of the oscillograph, Gabor was led to other electron-beam devices such as electron microscopes and TV tubes.
He wrote his PhD thesis on Recording of Transients in Electric Circuits with the Cathode Ray Oscillograph in 1927, worked on plasma lamps. In 1933 Gabor fled from Nazi Germany, where he was considered Jewish, was invited to Britain to work at the development department of the British Thomson-Houston company in Rugby, Warwickshire. During his time in Rugby, he met Marjorie Louise Butler, they married in 1936, he became a British citizen in 1946, it was while working at British Thomson-Houston that he invented holography, in 1947. He experimented with a filtered mercury arc light source. However, the earliest hologram was only realised in 1964 following the 1960 invention of the laser, the first coherent light source. After this, holography became commercially available. Gabor's research focused on electron inputs and outputs, which led him to the invention of re-holography; the basic idea was that for perfect optical imaging, the total of all the information has to be used. In this manner a complete holo-spatial picture can be obtained.
Gabor published his theories of re-holography in a series of papers between 1946 and 1951. Gabor researched how human beings communicate and hear. Gabor's work in this and related areas was foundational in the development of time–frequency analysis. In 1948 Gabor moved from Rugby to Imperial College London, in 1958 became professor of Applied Physics until his retirement in 1967, his inaugural lecture on 3 March 1959,'Electronic Inventions and their Impact on Civilisation' provided inspiration for Norbert Wiener's treatment of self-reproducing machines in the penultimate chapter in the 1961 edition of his book Cybernetics. In 1963 Gabor published Inventing the Future which discussed the three major threats Gabor saw to modern society: war and the Age of Leisure; the book contained the now well-known expression that "the future cannot be predicted, but futures can be invented." Reviewer Nigel Calder rephrased the concept as, "The best way to predict the future is to invent it." Others such as Alan Kay, Peter Drucker, Forrest Shaklee who have used various forms of the quote have been incorrectly credited with coining it.
His next book, Innovations: scientific and social, published in 1970, expanded on some of the topics he had earlier touched upon, pointed to his interest in technological innovation as mechanism of both liberation and destruction. In 1971 he was the single recipient of the Nobel Prize in Physics with the motivation "for his invention and development of the holographic method" and presented the history of the development of holography from 1948 in his Nobel lecture. While spending much of his retirement in Italy at Lavinio Rome, he remained connected with Imperial College as a senior research fellow and became staff scientist of CBS Laboratories, in Stamford, Connecticut. Goldmark in many new schemes of communication and display. One of Imperial College's new halls of residence in Prince's Gardens, Knightsbridge is named Gabor Hall in honour of Gabor's contribution to Imperial College, he developed an interest in social analysis and published The Mature Society: a view of the future in 1972.
He joined the Club of Rome and supervised a working group studying energy sources and technical change. The findings of this group was published in the report Beyond the Age of Waste in 1978, a report, an early warning of several issues that only received widespread attention. Following the rapid development of lasers and a wide variety of holographic applications, Gabor achieved acknowledged success and worldwide attention during his lifetime, he received numerous awards besides the Nobel Prize. Gabor died in a nursing home in South Kensington, London, on 9 February 1979. In 2006 a blue plaque was put up on No. 79 Queen's Gate in Kensington, where he lived from 1949 until the early 1960s. On 8 August 1936 he married Marjorie Louise Butler with, they did not have any children. Gabor won numerous awards including: The International Society for Optical Engineering presents its D
Alvin Toffler was an American writer and businessman known for his works discussing modern technologies, including the digital revolution and the communication revolution, with emphasis on their effects on cultures worldwide. Toffler was an associate editor of Fortune magazine. In his early works he focused on technology and its impact, which he termed "information overload." In 1970 his first major book about the future, Future Shock, became a worldwide best-seller and has sold over 6 million copies. He and his wife Heidi Toffler, who collaborated with him for most of his writings, moved on to examining the reaction to changes in society with another best-selling book, The Third Wave in 1980. In it, he foresaw such technological advances as cloning, personal computers, the Internet, cable television and mobile communication, his focus, via their other best-seller, was on the increasing power of 21st-century military hardware and the proliferation of new technologies. He founded Toffler Associates, a management consulting company, was a visiting scholar at the Russell Sage Foundation, visiting professor at Cornell University, faculty member of the New School for Social Research, a White House correspondent, a business consultant.
Toffler's ideas and writings were a significant influence on the thinking of business and government leaders worldwide, including China's Zhao Ziyang, AOL founder Steve Case. Alvin Toffler was born on October 4, 1928, in New York City, raised in Brooklyn, he was Jewish immigrants from Poland. He had one younger sister, he was inspired to become a writer at the age of 7 by his aunt and uncle, who lived with the Tofflers. "They were Depression-era literary intellectuals," Toffler said, "and they always talked about exciting ideas."Toffler graduated from New York University in 1950 as an English major, though by his own account he was more focused on political activism than grades. He met his future wife, Adelaide Elizabeth Farrell, when she was starting a graduate course in linguistics. Being radical students, they decided against further graduate work and moved to the Midwest, where they married on April 29, 1950. Seeking experiences to write about and Heidi Toffler spent the next five years as blue collar workers on assembly lines while studying industrial mass production in their daily work.
He compared his own desire for experience to other writers, such as Jack London, who in his quest for subjects to write about sailed the seas, John Steinbeck, who went to pick grapes with migrant workers. In their first factory jobs, Heidi became a union shop steward in the aluminum foundry where she worked. Alvin became a welder. In the evenings Alvin discovered he was proficient at neither, his hands-on practical labor experience helped Alvin Toffler land a position at a union-backed newspaper, a transfer to its Washington bureau in 1957 three years as a White House correspondent, covering Congress and the White House for a Pennsylvania daily newspaper. They returned to New York City in 1959 when Fortune magazine invited Alvin to become its labor columnist having him write about business and management. After leaving Fortune magazine in 1962, Toffler began a freelance career, writing long form articles for scholarly journals and magazines, his 1964 Playboy interviews with Russian novelist Vladimir Nabokov and Ayn Rand were considered among the magazine's best.
His interview with Rand was the first time the magazine had given such a platform to a female intellectual, which as one commentator said, "the real bird of paradise Toffler captured for Playboy in 1964 was Ayn Rand."Toffler was hired by IBM to conduct research and write a paper on the social and organizational impact of computers, leading to his contact with the earliest computer "gurus" and artificial intelligence researchers and proponents. Xerox invited him to write about its research laboratory and AT&T consulted him for strategic advice; this AT&T work led to a study of telecommunications, which advised the company's top management to break up the company more than a decade before the government forced AT&T to break up. In the mid-1960s, the Tofflers began five years of research on what would become Future Shock, published in 1970, it has sold over 6 million copies worldwide, according to the New York Times, or over 15 million copies according to the Tofflers' Web site. Toffler coined the term "future shock" to refer to what happens to a society when change happens too fast, which results in social confusion and normal decision-making processes breaking down.
The book has been translated into dozens of languages. He continued the theme in The Third Wave in 1980. While he describes the first and second waves as the agricultural and industrial revolutions, the "third wave," a phrase he coined, represents the current information, computer-based revolution, he forecast the spread of the Internet and email, interactive media, cable television and other digital advancements. He claimed that one of the side effects of the digital age has been "information overload," another term he coined. In 1990 he wrote Powershift with the help of his wife, Heidi. In 1996, with American business consultant Tom Johnson, they co-founded Toffler Associates, an advisory firm designed to implement many of the ideas the Tofflers had written on; the firm worked with businesses, NGOs, governments in the United States, South Korea, Brazil, Singapore and other countries. During this period in his career, Toffler lectured worldwide, taught at several schools and met world leaders, such as Mikhail Gorbachev, along with key executives and mil
Orchestral Manoeuvres in the Dark
Orchestral Manoeuvres in the Dark are an English electronic band formed in Wirral, Merseyside in 1978. Spawned by earlier group The Id, the outfit is composed of co-founders Andy McCluskey and Paul Humphreys, along with Martin Cooper and Stuart Kershaw. OMD released their debut single, "Electricity", in 1979, gained popularity throughout Europe with the 1980 anti-war song "Enola Gay"; the band achieved broader recognition via their album Architecture & Morality and its three singles, all of which were international hits. Although retrospectively reappraised, the experimental Dazzle Ships eroded European support; the band embraced a more straightforward pop sound on Junk Culture, while continuing to experiment via newly acquired digital samplers. A year after the release of The Best of OMD, creative differences rendered McCluskey the only remaining member of the group as Humphreys formed spin-off band The Listening Pool. OMD would return with a new line-up and explore the dance-pop genre: Sugar Tax and its initial singles were sizeable hits.
By the mid 1990s, electronic music had been supplanted by alternative rock, both OMD and The Listening Pool disbanded in 1996. McCluskey conceived pop girl group Atomic Kitten, for whom he served as a principal songwriter, while Humphreys performed as half of the duo Onetwo. In 2006, the outfit reformed with Humphreys back in the fold, began to work on material more akin to their early output; the band re-established themselves as a chart act, kept on touring extensively. Founders Andy McCluskey and Paul Humphreys met at primary school in Meols in the early 1960s, in the mid-1970s, as teenagers, they were involved in different local groups but shared a distaste for guitar driven rock with a macho attitude popular among their friends at the time. By 1975 McCluskey had formed Equinox, as bassist and vocalist, alongside schoolmate Malcolm Holmes on drums, while Humphreys was their roadie. During that time McCluskey and Humphreys discovered their electronic style influenced by Kraftwerk. After Equinox, McCluskey joined Pegasus, the short-lived Hitlerz Underpantz, alongside Humphreys.
McCluskey would sing and play bass guitar. The pair shared a love of electronic music Brian Eno and Kraftwerk. In September 1977, McCluskey and Humphreys put together the seven-piece Wirral group The Id, whose line-up included drummer Malcolm Holmes and McCluskey's girlfriend Julia Kneale on vocals; the group began to gig in the Merseyside area, performing original material. They had quite a following on the scene, one of their tracks was included on a compilation record of local bands called Street to Street. Meanwhile, Humphreys and McCluskey collaborated on a side-project called VCL XI; this side-project allowed them to pursue their more bizarre electronic experiments working with tape collages, home-made kit-built synthesisers, circuit-bent radios. In August 1978, The Id split due to musical differences; the same month, McCluskey joined Wirral electronic outfit Dalek I Love You as their lead singer, but quit in September. In September 1978, the same month he left Dalek I Love You, McCluskey rejoined Humphreys and their VCL XI project was renamed Orchestral Manoeuvres in the Dark.
The name was gleaned from a list of song lyrics and ideas that were written on McCluskey's bedroom wall. OMD began to gig as a duo, performing to backing tracks played from a TEAC 4-track tape-recorder christened "Winston", their debut performance was in October 1978 at Eric's Club in Liverpool. Finding themselves on the cusp of an electronic new wave in British pop-music, they released a one-off single, "Electricity", with independent label Factory Records; the track was supposed to be produced by the Factory Records producer Martin Hannett. However, the A-side was the band's original demo produced by their friend, owner of Winston and soon to be manager, Paul Collister under the pseudonym Chester Valentino; the single's sleeve was designed by Peter Saville, whose distinctive graphics provided OMD's public image well into the mid-1980s. In 1979 they were asked to support Gary Numan on his first major British tour. Humphreys noted, " gave us our first big break, he saw us opening for Joy Division and he asked us to go on tour with him... we went from the small clubs to playing huge arenas.
Gary was good to us." Numan supported OMD on a 1993 arena tour. The eponymous first album showcased the band's live set at the time, was recorded by the Humphreys/McCluskey duo, although included some guest drums from Id drummer Malcolm Holmes, saxophone from Wirral musician Martin Cooper, it had a simple, poppy, melodic synth-pop sound. Dindisc arranged for the song "Messages" to be re-recorded and released as a single – this gave the band their first hit. Dave Hughes, a founder member of Dalek I Love You who joined OMD in early 1980, is featured in the "Messages"
Futurism was an artistic and social movement that originated in Italy in the early 20th century. It emphasised speed, youth and objects such as the car, the airplane, the industrial city, its key figures were the Italians Filippo Tommaso Marinetti, Umberto Boccioni, Carlo Carrà, Gino Severini, Giacomo Balla, Luigi Russolo. It aimed to liberate Italy from the weight of its past. Cubism contributed to the formation of Italian Futurism's artistic style. Important Futurist works included Marinetti's Manifesto of Futurism, Boccioni's sculpture Unique Forms of Continuity in Space, Balla's painting Abstract Speed + Sound, Russolo's The Art of Noises. Although it was an Italian phenomenon, there were parallel movements in Russia, England and elsewhere; the Futurists practiced in every medium of art, including painting, ceramics, graphic design, industrial design, interior design, urban design, film, textiles, music and cooking. To some extent Futurism influenced the art movements Art Deco, Surrealism, to a greater degree Precisionism and Vorticism.
Futurism is an avant-garde movement founded in Milan in 1909 by the Italian poet Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. Marinetti launched the movement in his Manifesto of Futurism, which he published for the first time on 5 February 1909 in La gazzetta dell'Emilia, an article reproduced in the French daily newspaper Le Figaro on Saturday 20 February 1909, he was soon joined by the painters Umberto Boccioni, Carlo Carrà, Giacomo Balla, Gino Severini and the composer Luigi Russolo. Marinetti expressed a passionate loathing of everything old political and artistic tradition. "We want no part of it, the past", he wrote, "we the young and strong Futurists!" The Futurists admired speed, technology and violence, the car, the airplane and the industrial city, all that represented the technological triumph of humanity over nature, they were passionate nationalists. They repudiated the cult of the past and all imitation, praised originality, "however daring, however violent", bore proudly "the smear of madness", dismissed art critics as useless, rebelled against harmony and good taste, swept away all the themes and subjects of all previous art, gloried in science.
Publishing manifestos was a feature of Futurism, the Futurists wrote them on many topics, including painting, religion and cooking. The founding manifesto did not contain a positive artistic programme, which the Futurists attempted to create in their subsequent Technical Manifesto of Futurist Painting; this committed them to a "universal dynamism", to be directly represented in painting. Objects in reality were not separate from one another or from their surroundings: "The sixteen people around you in a rolling motor bus are in turn and at the same time one, ten four three; the motor bus rushes into the houses which it passes, in their turn the houses throw themselves upon the motor bus and are blended with it."The Futurist painters were slow to develop a distinctive style and subject matter. In 1910 and 1911 they used the techniques of Divisionism, breaking light and color down into a field of stippled dots and stripes, adopted from Divisionism by Giovanni Segantini and others. Severini, who lived in Paris, attributed their backwardness in style and method at this time to their distance from Paris, the centre of avant-garde art.
Severini was the first to come into contact with Cubism and following a visit to Paris in 1911 the Futurist painters adopted the methods of the Cubists. Cubism offered them a means of expressing dynamism, they painted modern urban scenes. Carrà's Funeral of the Anarchist Galli is a large canvas representing events that the artist had himself been involved in, in 1904; the action of a police attack and riot is rendered energetically with broken planes. His Leaving the Theatre uses a Divisionist technique to render isolated and faceless figures trudging home at night under street lights. Boccioni's The City Rises represents scenes of construction and manual labour with a huge, rearing red horse in the centre foreground, which workmen struggle to control, his States of Mind, in three large panels, The Farewell, Those who Go, Those Who Stay, "made his first great statement of Futurist painting, bringing his interests in Bergson and the individual's complex experience of the modern world together in what has been described as one of the'minor masterpieces' of early twentieth century painting."
The work attempts to convey feelings and sensations experienced in time, using new means of expression, including "lines of force", which were intended to convey the directional tendencies of objects through space, "simultaneity", which combined memories, present impressions and anticipation of future events, "emotional ambience" in which the artist seeks by intuition to link sympathies between the exterior scene and interior emotion. Boccioni's intentions in art were influenced by the ideas of Bergson, including the idea of intuition, which Bergson defined as a simple, indivisible experience of sympathy through which one is moved into the inner being of an object to grasp what is unique and ineffable within it; the Futurists aimed through their art thus to enable the viewer to apprehend the inner being of what they depicted. Boccioni developed these ideas at length in his book, Pittura scultura Futuriste: Dinamismo plastico. Balla's Dynamism of a Do