The Tischofer Cave is a cave in the Kaisertal valley in the Kaisergebirge mountains in Austria. It was important locally as a place and weapons cache for local rebels during the Napoleonic Wars. The roughly 40 m long cave, which is about 8.5 m high at the entrance, was used during the Stone Age by bears and other predators as shelter and that makes the Tischofer Cave the oldest proven site of human occupation in Tyrol. Discoveries of human skeletons and tools indicate that the cave acted as a copper smithy, the Tischofer Cave may be reached on foot via the Kaiser Path in the Kaisertal valley, a pathway secured with cable railings. It is recorded in the Tyrolean Cave Register as number 1312/001, article from Hofmann, Wege im Inntal with comprehensive description Die Tischofer Höhle im Kaisertal bei Kufstein at www. tirol-infos. at. Tischofer Höhle im Kaisertal at www. kaisergebirge-online. de
Niah National Park
Niah National Park, located within Miri Division, Malaysia, is the site of the Niah Caves, a limestone cave and archeological site. Niah National Park was 31.4 km² when it was gazetted in 1974, nomination for World Heritage status of the Niah Caves was sent to UNESCO in 2010. Alfred Russel Wallace learned about the caves during his 1855 expedition to Borneo and he wrote about the caves as a potential site for discovering important hominin fossils in a letter to Charles Darwin. British archaeologists excavated the site in 1869-1870, but failed to make significant discoveries, in the 1950s and 1960s, Barbara and Tom Harrisson excavated the site and made significant discoveries. They discovered the Deep Skull in 1958, since local universities and foreign scientists have continued the archaeological research, and many articles have been published in the Sarawak Museum Journal. The site has been re-excavated by The Niah Caves Project, a joint British-Malaysian expedition, the main cave, Niah Great Cave, is located in Gunung Subis and is made up of several voluminous chambers with high ceilings.
The main Gunung Subis complex rises to about 394 meters above sea level at its highest point. The whole Gunung Subis Limestone Complex lies some 17 kilometres inland from the South China Sea coast, near the town of Batu Niah and it is roughly heart shaped measuring five kilometres from its northern tip to the south and four kilometres across. Though it is not an extensive cave system compared to others in Sarawak, it has estimated to cover some 10 hectares. In geological terms, the limestones are part of the Subis Formation and this is dated to some 20 to 16 million years ago during the Early Miocene. The cave is an important prehistorical site where remains dating to 40,000 years have been found. This is the oldest recorded settlement in east Malaysia. More recent studies published in 2006 have shown evidence of the first human activity at the Niah caves from ca.46,000 to ca.34,000 years ago. Painted Cave, situated in a much smaller block of its own. Archeologists have claimed a much earlier date for stone tools found in the Mansuli valley, near Lahad Datu in Sabah, the most famous find is the human skull dated at around 38,000 years BCE.
Painted Cave has paintings and wooden coffin death ships, the caves are well known for the birds nest industry. They are a popular tourist destination in Sarawak, every section of the ceiling in the caves where there are birds roosting is privately owned and only the owner has the right to collect the nests. The collector climbs up hundreds of feet on a pole to the cave ceiling
Armenia, officially the Republic of Armenia, is a sovereign state in the South Caucasus region of Eurasia. The Republic of Armenia constitutes only one-tenth of historical Armenia, Armenia is a unitary, multi-party, democratic nation-state with an ancient cultural heritage. Urartu was established in 860 BC and by the 6th century BC it was replaced by the Satrapy of Armenia, in the 1st century BC the Kingdom of Armenia reached its height under Tigranes the Great. Armenia became the first state in the world to adopt Christianity as its official religion, in between the late 3rd century to early years of the 4th century, the state became the first Christian nation. The official date of adoption of Christianity is 301 AD. The ancient Armenian kingdom was split between the Byzantine and Sasanian Empires around the early 5th century, under the Bagratuni dynasty, the Bagratid Kingdom of Armenia was restored in the 9th century. Declining due to the wars against the Byzantines, the fell in 1045. An Armenian principality and a kingdom Cilician Armenia was located on the coast of the Mediterranean Sea between the 11th and 14th centuries.
By the 19th century, Eastern Armenia had been conquered by the Russian Empire, during World War I, Armenians living in their ancestral lands in the Ottoman Empire were systematically exterminated in the Armenian Genocide. By 1920, the state was incorporated into the Transcaucasian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic, in 1936, the Transcaucasian state was dissolved, transforming its constituent states, including the Armenian Soviet Socialist Republic, into full Union republics. The modern Republic of Armenia became independent in 1991 during the dissolution of the Soviet Union, the Republic of Armenia recognises the Armenian Apostolic Church, the worlds oldest national church, as the countrys primary religious establishment. The unique Armenian alphabet was invented by Mesrop Mashtots in 405 AD, Armenia is a member of the Eurasian Economic Union, the Council of Europe and the Collective Security Treaty Organization. Armenia supports the de facto independent Nagorno-Karabakh Republic, which was proclaimed in 1991, the native Armenian name for the country is Հայք.
The name in the Middle Ages was extended to Հայաստան, by addition of the Persian suffix -stan, the further origin of the name is uncertain. It is postulated that the name Hay comes from one of the two confederated, Hittite vassal states—the Ḫayaša-Azzi. The exonym Armenia is attested in the Old Persian Behistun Inscription as Armina, the ancient Greek terms Ἀρμενία and Ἀρμένιοι are first mentioned by Hecataeus of Miletus. Xenophon, a Greek general serving in some of the Persian expeditions, describes many aspects of Armenian village life and he relates that the people spoke a language that to his ear sounded like the language of the Persians. According to the histories of both Moses of Chorene and Michael Chamchian, Armenia derives from the name of Aram, a descendant of Hayk
Austria, officially the Republic of Austria, is a federal republic and a landlocked country of over 8.7 million people in Central Europe. It is bordered by the Czech Republic and Germany to the north and Slovakia to the east and Italy to the south, the territory of Austria covers 83,879 km2. The terrain is mountainous, lying within the Alps, only 32% of the country is below 500 m. The majority of the population speaks local Bavarian dialects of German as their native language, other local official languages are Hungarian, Burgenland Croatian, and Slovene. The origins of modern-day Austria date back to the time of the Habsburg dynasty, from the time of the Reformation, many northern German princes, resenting the authority of the Emperor, used Protestantism as a flag of rebellion. Following Napoleons defeat, Prussia emerged as Austrias chief competitor for rule of a greater Germany, Austrias defeat by Prussia at the Battle of Königgrätz, during the Austro-Prussian War of 1866, cleared the way for Prussia to assert control over the rest of Germany.
In 1867, the empire was reformed into Austria-Hungary, Austria was thus the first to go to war in the July Crisis, which would ultimately escalate into World War I. The First Austrian Republic was established in 1919, in 1938 Nazi Germany annexed Austria in the Anschluss. This lasted until the end of World War II in 1945, after which Germany was occupied by the Allies, in 1955, the Austrian State Treaty re-established Austria as a sovereign state, ending the occupation. In the same year, the Austrian Parliament created the Declaration of Neutrality which declared that the Second Austrian Republic would become permanently neutral, Austria is a parliamentary representative democracy comprising nine federal states. The capital and largest city, with a population exceeding 1.7 million, is Vienna, other major urban areas of Austria include Graz, Linz and Innsbruck. Austria is one of the richest countries in the world, with a nominal per capita GDP of $43,724, the country has developed a high standard of living and in 2014 was ranked 21st in the world for its Human Development Index.
Austria has been a member of the United Nations since 1955, joined the European Union in 1995, Austria signed the Schengen Agreement in 1995, and adopted the euro currency in 1999. The German name for Austria, Österreich, meant eastern realm in Old High German, and is cognate with the word Ostarrîchi and this word is probably a translation of Medieval Latin Marchia orientalis into a local dialect. Austria was a prefecture of Bavaria created in 976, the word Austria is a Latinisation of the German name and was first recorded in the 12th century. Accordingly, Norig would essentially mean the same as Ostarrîchi and Österreich, the Celtic name was eventually Latinised to Noricum after the Romans conquered the area that encloses most of modern-day Austria, around 15 BC. Noricum became a Roman province in the mid-first century AD, heers hypothesis is not accepted by linguists. Settled in ancient times, the Central European land that is now Austria was occupied in pre-Roman times by various Celtic tribes, the Celtic kingdom of Noricum was claimed by the Roman Empire and made a province
Huanglong Cave is a karst cave located near the Wulingyuan district of Zhangjiajie City, Peoples Republic of China and a national 4A rated scenic area. As of 2010, the cave has over a million visitors per year, since 1997, the Huanglong Cave scenic area has been managed by Beijing-based China Datong Co. Ltd. It was previously managed directly by the Hunan provincial government, in addition to the cave itself the Huanglong Cave scenic area includes Huanglong Cave Ecology Square, completed in 2009 by restoring the landscape of the area adjacent to the cave entrance. In 2010, the Zhangjiajie government ordered the construction of the Hallelujah Concert Hall as the centerpiece to the Ecology Square, the hall has a grass-planted roof and cost 160 million Chinese yuan. Covering a total area of 48 hectares, the system extends to 15 kilometres in length and is divided into dry. There are four levels, thirteen chambers, three waterfalls, two underground rivers, three pools, ninety-six passages, as well as an underground lake.
The largest chamber in the cave is 4,000 square metres, the guided tour through the cave lasts about two hours and includes a boat ride down one of the underground rivers. List of caves in China Huanglong Cave website Zhangjiajie City Government website - Huanlong Cave
Shuanlong Cave is a water-filled karst cave located some 8 km from Jinhua City, Zhejiang Province, Peoples Republic of China. The cave is 66 m high and 33 m long with an area in excess of 1,200 m2. Formed around 100 million years ago, the entrance is flanked on both sides by stalactites that resemble dragon heads, hence the Chinese name for the cave. Since the entrance only has a clearance of around 30 cm above the water level. The caves interior is criss-crossed by stalactites and stalagmites and features an 8 m high stone waterfall, Shuanglong Cave provides access to the adjacent Binghu Cave via a series of stone steps. The surrounding Shuanglong Scenic Area, covering 79.9 km2, is a 4A rated national tourist attraction
Neanderthals, or more rarely Neandertals, were a species or subspecies of archaic humans in the genus Homo that became extinct about 40,000 years ago. Neanderthals and modern humans share 99. 7% of their DNA and are closely related. Neanderthals left bones and stone tools in Eurasia, from Western Europe to Central, from the 1950s to the early 1980s, Neanderthals were widely considered a subspecies of Homo sapiens and a minority of scholars still hold this view. Several cultural assemblages have been linked to the Neanderthals in Europe, the earliest, the Mousterian stone tool culture, dates to about 160,000 years ago. Late Mousterian artifacts were found in Gorhams Cave on the south-facing coast of Gibraltar, male Neanderthals had cranial capacities averaging 1600 cm3, females 1300 cm3, extending to 1736 cm3 in Amud 1. This is notably larger than the 1250–1400 cm3 typical of modern humans, males stood 164–168 cm and females 152–156 cm tall. Recent studies show that a few Neanderthals began mating with ancestors of modern humans long before the out of Africa migration of present day non-Africans.
Claims that Neanderthals deliberately buried their dead, and if they did, the debate on deliberate Neanderthal burials has been active since the 1908 discovery of the well-preserved Chapelle-aux-Saints 1 skeleton in a small hole in a cave in southwestern France. In 2013, scientists sequenced the genome of a Neanderthal for the first time. The genome was extracted from the bone of a 50. In 2016, elaborate constructions of rings of broken stalagmites made by early Neanderthals around 176,000 years ago were discovered 336 m inside Bruniquel Cave in southwestern France and this would have required a more advanced social structure than previously known for Neanderthals. Thal is a spelling of the German word Tal, which means valley. Nevertheless, Kings name had priority over the proposal put forward in 1866 by Ernst Haeckel, the practice of referring to the Neanderthals and a Neanderthal emerged in the popular literature of the 1920s. The German pronunciation of Neanderthaler or Neandertaler is in the International Phonetic Alphabet, in British English, Neanderthal is pronounced with the /t/ as in German, but different vowels.
In laymans American English, Neanderthal is pronounced with a /θ/ and /ɔ/ instead of the longer British /aː/, during the early 20th century the prevailing view was heavily influenced by Arthur Keith and Marcellin Boule, who wrote the first scientific description of a nearly complete Neanderthal skeleton. During the 1930s scholars Ernst Mayr, George Gaylord Simpson and Theodosius Dobzhansky reinterpreted the existing fossil record, Neanderthal man was classified as Homo sapiens neanderthalensis - an early subspecies contrasted with what was now called Homo sapiens sapiens. The obviously unbroken succession of fossil sites of both subspecies in Europe was considered evidence that there was a slow and gradual evolutionary transition from Neanderthals to modern humans, contextual interpretations of similar excavation sites in Asia lead to the hypothesis of multiregional origin of modern man in the 1980s. Current scientific ideas hold that both evolved from a common African ancestor, Homo erectus
The caves contain some of the finest examples of Buddhist art spanning a period of 1,000 years. The first caves were dug out in 366 AD as places of Buddhist meditation, the Mogao Caves are the best known of the Chinese Buddhist grottoes and, along with Longmen Grottoes and Yungang Grottoes, are one of the three famous ancient Buddhist sculptural sites of China. An important cache of documents was discovered in 1900 in the so-called Library Cave, the caves themselves are now a popular tourist destination, with a number open for visiting. Dunhuang was established as a frontier garrison outpost by the Han Dynasty Emperor Wudi to protect against the Xiongnu in 111 BC. It became an important gateway to the West, a centre of commerce along the Silk Road, as well as a place of various people. The construction of the Mogao Caves near Dunhuang is generally taken to have begun sometime in the fourth century AD. The story is found in other sources, such as in inscriptions on a stele in cave 332. He was joined by a second monk Faliang, and the site gradually grew, members of the ruling family of Northern Wei and Northern Zhou constructed many caves here, and it flourished in the short-lived Sui Dynasty.
By the Tang Dynasty, the number of caves had reached over a thousand, from the 4th until the 14th century, caves were constructed by monks to serve as shrines with funds from donors. The major caves were sponsored by such as important clergy, local ruling elite, foreign dignitaries. Other caves may have been funded by merchants, military officers, during the Tang Dynasty, Dunhuang became the main hub of commerce of the Silk Road and a major religious centre. The site escaped the persecution of Buddhists ordered by Emperor Wuzong in 845 as it was under Tibetan control, as a frontier town, Dunhuang had been occupied at various times by other non-Han Chinese people. After the Tang Dynasty, the site went into a gradual decline, by Islam had conquered much of Central Asia, and the Silk Road declined in importance when trading via sea-routes began to dominate Chinese trade with the outside world. During the Ming Dynasty, the Silk Road was finally officially abandoned, the biggest discovery, came from a Chinese Taoist named Wang Yuanlu who appointed himself guardian of some of these temples around the turn of the century.
Some of the caves had by been blocked by sand, in one such cave, on 25 June 1900, Wang discovered a walled up area behind one side of a corridor leading to a main cave. Behind the wall was a small cave stuffed with a hoard of manuscripts. Words of Wangs discovery drew the attention of a joint British/Indian group led by Hungarian archaeologist Aurel Stein who was on an expedition in the area in 1907. Stein negotiated with Wang to allow him to remove a significant number of manuscripts as well as the finest paintings, a well-known scholar Luo Zhenyu edited some of the manuscripts Pelliot acquired into a volume which was published in 1909 as Manuscripts of the Dunhuang Caves
Lake Mungo remains
The Lake Mungo remains are three prominent sets of bodies, Lake Mungo 1, Lake Mungo 3, and Lake Mungo 2. Lake Mungo is in New South Wales, specifically the World Heritage listed Willandra Lakes Region, LM1 was discovered in 1969 and is one of the worlds oldest known cremations. LM3, discovered in 1974, was an early Aboriginal Australian human inhabitant of the continent, the remains are the oldest anatomically modern human remains found in Australia to date. His exact age is a matter of ongoing dispute, Lake Mungo is a dry lake located in south-eastern Australia, in the south-western portion of New South Wales. It is about 760 kilometres due west of Sydney and 90 kilometres north-east of Mildura, the lake is the central feature of Mungo National Park, and is one of seventeen lakes in the World Heritage listed Willandra Lakes Region. Sediments at Lake Mungo have been deposited over more than 100,000 years, there are three distinct layers of sands and soil forming the Walls. The oldest is the reddish Gol Gol layer, formed between 100,000 and 120,000 years ago, the middle greyish layer is the Mungo layer, deposited between 50,000 and 25,000 years ago.
The most recent is the pale brown Zanci layer, which was laid down mostly between 25,000 and 15,000 years ago, the Mungo layer, which was deposited before the last ice age period, is archaeologically the richest. It supported a significant human population and had abundant resources, as well as varieties of Australian megafauna. During the last ice age period, the level in the lake dropped. This made the soil alkaline, which helped to preserve the remains left behind, LM1 was discovered in 1969 in the Willandra Lakes Region by Jim Bowler with the University of Melbourne. LM1 has been 14C dated at 24,700 to 19,030 years ago, a date of 26,250 ±1120 BP was achieved with charcoal from a hearth 15 cm above the burial. Preservation of the remains is poor, very limited detailed information was published before the bones were unconditionally repatriated to the Indigenous people of Australia in 1992. A lack of a description of the remains along with a limited distribution of casts with no access to the original artifacts makes it difficult to assess the published material.
The reconstruction and description were mainly done by Alan Thorne at the Australian National University, the LM1 was an early human inhabitant of the continent of Australia. Her remains are one of the oldest anatomically modern human found in Australia. It represents one of the worlds oldest known cremations, the finding implies that complicated burial rituals existed in early human societies. One suggested explanation for this behaviour is that the process was perhaps a ritual wherein the descendants try to ensure that the dead did not return to haunt them
Belgium, officially the Kingdom of Belgium, is a sovereign state in Western Europe bordered by France, the Netherlands, Germany and the North Sea. It is a small, densely populated country which covers an area of 30,528 square kilometres and has a population of about 11 million people. Additionally, there is a group of German-speakers who live in the East Cantons located around the High Fens area. Historically, the Netherlands and Luxembourg were known as the Low Countries, the region was called Belgica in Latin, after the Roman province of Gallia Belgica. From the end of the Middle Ages until the 17th century, Belgium is a federal constitutional monarchy with a parliamentary system of governance. It is divided into three regions and three communities, that exist next to each other and its two largest regions are the Dutch-speaking region of Flanders in the north and the French-speaking southern region of Wallonia. The Brussels-Capital Region is a bilingual enclave within the Flemish Region. A German-speaking Community exists in eastern Wallonia, Belgiums linguistic diversity and related political conflicts are reflected in its political history and complex system of governance, made up of six different governments.
Upon its independence, declared in 1830, Belgium participated in the Industrial Revolution and, during the course of the 20th century, possessed a number of colonies in Africa. This continuing antagonism has led to several far-reaching reforms, resulting in a transition from a unitary to a federal arrangement during the period from 1970 to 1993. Belgium is a member of the Eurozone, NATO, OECD and WTO. Its capital, hosts several of the EUs official seats as well as the headquarters of major international organizations such as NATO. Belgium is a part of the Schengen Area, Belgium is a developed country, with an advanced high-income economy and is categorized as very high in the Human Development Index. A gradual immigration by Germanic Frankish tribes during the 5th century brought the area under the rule of the Merovingian kings, a gradual shift of power during the 8th century led the kingdom of the Franks to evolve into the Carolingian Empire. Many of these fiefdoms were united in the Burgundian Netherlands of the 14th and 15th centuries, the Eighty Years War divided the Low Countries into the northern United Provinces and the Southern Netherlands.
The latter were ruled successively by the Spanish and the Austrian Habsburgs and this was the theatre of most Franco-Spanish and Franco-Austrian wars during the 17th and 18th centuries. The reunification of the Low Countries as the United Kingdom of the Netherlands occurred at the dissolution of the First French Empire in 1815, although the franchise was initially restricted, universal suffrage for men was introduced after the general strike of 1893 and for women in 1949. The main political parties of the 19th century were the Catholic Party, French was originally the single official language adopted by the nobility and the bourgeoisie