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Fuzzy logic

Fuzzy logic is a form of many-valued logic in which the truth values of variables may be any real number between 0 and 1 both inclusive. It is employed to handle the concept of partial truth, where the truth value may range between true and false. By contrast, in Boolean logic, the truth values of variables may only be the integer values 0 or 1; the term fuzzy logic was introduced with the 1965 proposal of fuzzy set theory by Lotfi Zadeh. Fuzzy logic had, been studied since the 1920s, as infinite-valued logic—notably by Łukasiewicz and Tarski. Fuzzy logic is based on the observation that people make decisions based on imprecise and non-numerical information. Fuzzy models or sets are mathematical means of representing imprecise information; these models have the capability of recognising, manipulating and utilising data and information that are vague and lack certainty. Fuzzy logic has been applied from control theory to artificial intelligence. Classical logic only permits conclusions which are either false.

However, there are propositions with variable answers, such as one might find when asking a group of people to identify a color. In such instances, the truth appears as the result of reasoning from inexact or partial knowledge in which the sampled answers are mapped on a spectrum. Both degrees of truth and probabilities range between 0 and 1 and hence may seem similar at first, but fuzzy logic uses degrees of truth as a mathematical model of vagueness, while probability is a mathematical model of ignorance. A basic application might characterize various sub-ranges of a continuous variable. For instance, a temperature measurement for anti-lock brakes might have several separate membership functions defining particular temperature ranges needed to control the brakes properly; each function maps the same temperature value to a truth value in the 0 to 1 range. These truth values can be used to determine how the brakes should be controlled. While variables in mathematics take numerical values, in fuzzy logic applications, non-numeric values are used to facilitate the expression of rules and facts.

A linguistic variable such as age may accept values such as its antonym old. Because natural languages do not always contain enough value terms to express a fuzzy value scale, it is common practice to modify linguistic values with adjectives or adverbs. For example, we can use the hedges rather and somewhat to construct the additional values rather old or somewhat young. Fuzzification operations can map mathematical input values into fuzzy membership functions, and the opposite de-fuzzifying operations can be used to map a fuzzy output membership function into a "crisp" output value that can be used for decision or control purposes. Fuzzify all input values into fuzzy membership functions. Execute all applicable rules in the rulebase to compute the fuzzy output functions. De-fuzzify the fuzzy output functions to get "crisp" output values. Fuzzification is the process of assigning the numerical input of a system to fuzzy sets with some degree of membership; this degree of membership may be anywhere within the interval.

If it is 0 the value does not belong to the given fuzzy set, if it is 1 the value belongs within the fuzzy set. Any value between 0 and 1 represents the degree of uncertainty; these fuzzy sets are described by words, so by assigning the system input to fuzzy sets, we can reason with it in a linguistically natural manner. For example, in the image below the meanings of the expressions cold and hot are represented by functions mapping a temperature scale. A point on that scale has three "truth values"—one for each of the three functions; the vertical line in the image represents a particular temperature. Since the red arrow points to zero, this temperature may be interpreted as "not hot"; the orange arrow may describe it as "slightly warm" and the blue arrow "fairly cold". Therefore, this temperature has 0.2 membership in the fuzzy set "warm" and 0.8 membership in the fuzzy set "cold". The degree of membership assigned for each fuzzy set is the result of fuzzification. Fuzzy sets are defined as triangle or trapezoid-shaped curves, as each value will have a slope where the value is increasing, a peak where the value is equal to 1 and a slope where the value is decreasing.

They can be defined using a sigmoid function. One common case is the standard logistic function defined as S = 1 1 + e − x which has the following symmetry property From this it follows that Fuzzy logic works with membership values in a way that mimics Boolean logic. To this end, replacements for basic operators AND, OR, NOT must be available. There are several ways to this. A common replacement is called the Zadeh operators: For TRUE/1 and FALSE/0, the fuzzy expressions produce the same result as the Boolean expressions. There are other operators, more linguistic in nature, called hedges that can be applied; these are adverbs such as or somewhat, which modify the meaning of a set using a mathematical formula. However, an arbitrary choice table does not always define a fuzzy logic function. In the paper, a criterion has been formulated to recognize whether a given choice table defines a fuzzy logic function and a simple algorithm of fuzzy logic function synthesis has been prop

The Appendix

The Appendix is an online magazine of "narrative and experimental history." It was co-founded in fall of 2012 by Benjamin Breen, Felipe Cruz, Christopher Heaney, Brian Jones. A stated goal of the journal is that "scholarly and popular history need to come together."The journal features articles from historians, artists and other writers. The journal has been praised by Lapham's Quarterly, The Public Domain Review, Dan Cohen, the blog of the American Historical Association, novelist Midori Snyder, who called it "a terrific interstitial journal, that combines in a unique fashion history and narrative."Material from The Appendix has been featured on the websites of The Atlantic, Slate and the Smithsonian Magazine. The Public Domain Review Lapham's Quarterly Official website Geek Vibes Nation

Harold Lohner

Harold Lohner is an American printmaker and designer of freeware and shareware fonts. Lohner has designed over 100 typefaces, has licensed some of his shareware designs to the non-profit organization Autumn Leaves, he has digitised some analog Letraset fonts such as Block-Up. Lohner has designed many three-dimensional and decorative optical typefaces such as Good Vibes, Atlas Solid, Fortuna Dot, Le Film Classic, Pop Stars and Red Circle. In an alternative vein, Captain Howdy, Mystic Prophet and Sideshow are a unique trio of typefaces based on type found on Ouija game boards; the ideas and themes behind Lohner's work come from historical art and typography found in books, magazines and nostalgic films titles, flea markets and online sources, which he interprets and puts his own unique stamp on. He has drawn several revivals of 20th century classics by Rudolf Koch, including Bride of the Monster, Koch Dingbats, Koch Quadrat and Koch Rivoli. Lohner has been a significant aspect of the cultural life of the New York State Capital Region since his artwork first appeared in The Artists of the Mohawk-Hudson Region exhibition in 1978.

His works have been subsequently featured or included in over 80 exhibitions, receiving a dozen honors and awards. Lohner is a native of the region and earned BA, MA, MFA degrees from the University at Albany. In 1982 he accepted a faculty position at Russell Sage College and was Gallery Director there from 1985-1997. In 2002, Lohner transferred to Sage College of Albany, he is a member of Phi Kappa Phi and was named Professor of the Year in 2006. He teaches printmaking, artists’ books, the freshman Visualization course, he is the faculty advisor for the Little Gallery. Lohner is a rare individual who has made significant contributions as an artist and gallerist. All but one of Harold Lohner's free downloadable fonts are TrueType format, he offers his fonts in four collections on CD. Each contains over 60 fonts for Mac and Windows in PostScript Type 1 formats. Official Website - Harold's Fonts Postscript Always Renders Twice - an interview by James Arboghast / Typodermic Rubine Red Gallery Exhibition page Harold Lohner, Drawin' men by Joseph Dalton Harold Lohner: Gathering at Opalka Gallery by David Brickman Catalogue from Harold Lohner: Gathering exhibition Planete Typographie Article about Harold's National Archive font Planete Typographie Article about Harold's Dominican font Gallery of monoprints by Harold Lohner

SCF complex

Skp, Cullin, F-box containing complex is a multi-protein E3 ubiquitin ligase complex that catalyzes the ubiquitination of proteins destined for 26S proteasomal degradation. Along with the anaphase-promoting complex, SCF has important roles in the ubiquitination of proteins involved in the cell cycle; the SCF complex marks various other cellular proteins for destruction. SCF contains a variable F-box protein and three core subunits: F-box protein – FBP contributes to the substrate specificity of the SCF complex by first aggregating to target proteins independently of the complex; each FBP may recognize several different substrates in a manner, dependent on post-translational modifications such as phosphorylation or glycosylation. FBP binds to Skp1 of the SCF complex using an F-box motif, bringing the target protein into proximity with the functional E2 ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme. FBP is essential in regulating SCF activity during the course of the cell cycle. SCF levels are thought to remain constant throughout the cell-cycle.

Instead, FBP affinity for protein substrates is regulated through cyclin-CDK-mediated phosphorylation of target proteins. Skp1 – Skp1 is an adaptor protein, essential for the recognition and binding of F-box proteins. Cullin – Cullin forms the major structural scaffold of the SCF complex and links the skp1 domain to the Rbx1 domain. Different combinations of Cullin and FBPs can generate on the order of a hundred types of E3 ubiquitin ligases that target different substrates. RBX1 – Rbx1 contains a small, zinc-binding Really Interesting New Gene finger domain, to which the E2 ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme binds; this binding event allows the transferral of ubiquitin from E2 to a lysine residue on the target protein. The first hint that led to the discovery of the SCF complex came from genetic screens of Saccharomyces cerevisiae known as budding yeast. Temperature-sensitive cell division cycle mutants—such as Cdc4, Cdc34, Cdc53—arrested in G1 with unreplicated DNA and multiple elongated buds; the phenotype was attributed to a failure to degrade an inhibitor of S cyclin-CDK complexes.

These findings indicated. Next, biochemical studies revealed that Cdc34 is an E2 enzyme that physically interacts with an E3 ubiquitin ligase complex containing Skp1, Cdc4, several other proteins. Skp1’s known binding partners—specifically Skp2, Cyclin F, Cdc4—were found to share an 40 residue motif, coined the F-box motif; the F-box hypothesis that followed these discoveries proposed that F-box proteins recruit substrates targeted for degradation, that Skp1 links the F-box protein to the core ubiquitination complex. Subsequent genetic studies in Caenorhabditis elegans contributed to the elucidation of other SCF complex components; the eukaryotic cell cycle is regulated through the synthesis, binding interactions, post-translational modifications of regulatory proteins. Of these regulatory proteins, two ubiquitin ligases are crucial for progression through cell cycle checkpoints; the anaphase-promoting complex controls the metaphase-anaphase transition, while the SCF complex controls G1/S and G2/M transitions.

SCF has been shown to regulate centriole splitting from late telophase to the G1/S transition. SCF activity is regulated by post-translational modifications. For instance, ubiquitin-mediated autocatalytic degradation of FBPs is a mechanism of decreasing SCF activity. Well-characterized cell cycle substrates of SCF complexes include: cyclin family proteins: Cyclin D, Cyclin E transcriptional regulators: Myc, E2f1, p130 cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors: p27Kip1, p21, Wee1 centriole proteins: Cep250, NineinThere are seventy human FBPs, several of which are involved in cell cycle control as a component of SCF complexes. Skp2 is an FBP that binds CKIs such as p27Kip1 and p21. Skp2 binds p27Kip1 only when two conditions are met: p27Kip1 is phosphorylated by E/A/CKD2 and bound to Cks1; as a consequence of binding Skp2, p27Kip1 is ubiquitinated and targeted for degradation in late G1 and early S. SCF-Skp2 targets p130 for degradation in a phosphorylation dependent manner. Beta-transducin repeat-containing protein is an FBP that targets emi1—an APC/C-Cdh1 inhibitor—and wee1 for degradation during early mitosis.

ΒTRCP recognizes these substrates after they are phosphorylated by Polo-like kinase 1 or Cyclin B-CDK1. Fbw7, the human homolog of cdc4 in yeast, is an FBP that targets Cyclin E, Notch and c-Jun for degradation. Fbw7 is stable throughout the cell cycle and is localized to the nucleus due to the presence of a nuclear localization sequence. SCF-Fbw7 targets Sic1—when at least six out of nine possible sites are phosphorylated—and Swi5 for degradation. Since Sic1 prevents premature entry into S-phase by inhibiting Cyclin B-CDK1, targeting Sic1 for degradation promotes S-phase entry. Fbw7 is known to be a haplo-insufficient tumor suppressor gene implicated in several sporadic carcinomas, for which one mutant allele is enough to disturb the wild type phenotype. Fbxo4 is another tumor suppressor FBP, implicated in human carcinomas. SCF-fbxo4 plays a role in cell cycle control by targeting cyclin D1 for degradation. Cyclin F is an FBP, associated with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and frontotemporal dementia.

Mutations that prevent phosphorylation of Cyclin F alter the activity of SCF-Cyclin F, which affects downstream processes pertinent to neuron degeneration in ALS and FTD. Cyclin F targets E2f1 for degradation. SCF complexes have become an attractive anti-cancer target because of their upregulation in some human cancers and their biochemic

The Bots Master

The Bots Master is a French/American/Canadian 1993 cartoon series, produced by Jean Chalopin through his company "Créativité et Développement" in France and Saban International. In total 40 episodes were made, each one having titles; the series was co-produced by Avi Arad and Associates. The show had a toyline based on it. In the year 2025 A. D. robots have become performing menial tasks and working in industry. For that, the world can thank the young genius robotic engineer Ziv "ZZ" Zulander and the Robotic Megafact Corporation he works for. Ziv's creation of the "3A robot series" revolutionized its application of robotics. However, Sir Lewis Leon Paradim isn't satisfied being one of the wealthiest men in the world. With his assistants Lady Frenzy and Dr. Hiss, LLP plans to take control of the planet through a coup, using the same 3A bots that ZZ had invented to benefit humanity. Dr. Hiss creates a new chip, called the "Krang Chip", which can be used to override any 3A series robot to take orders from RM Corp.

ZZ learns of LLP's evil plan and decides to defect from the company, intending to stop the continued manufacture and distribution of the Krang Chips. LLP and his cohorts seek to capture ZZ and attempt to convince him to switch sides, but ZZ refuses. Utilizing his A. I. robotic creations, the B. O. Y. Z. Z. Zulander stages a robotic guerrilla war against RM Corps' military bots. Shortly after escaping RM Corp, ZZ rescues his sister Blitzy Zulander and takes his home and operation underground to avoid enemy detection. After securing his base of operations, ZZ and his BOYZZ begin their private campaign against RM Corp. ZZ had secretly installed a special system, called "mirrors", which allows him to monitor RM Corp from within Lady Frenzy's office PC, using this information to sabotage RM Corp plans. During attempts to foil Krang Chip delivery and production, ZZ and his BOYZZ are incriminated in a series of false media reports on his rogue activities to turn public sympathy against him, discrediting his heroic efforts as terrorism activity.

During the second half of the series, LLP begins his campaign to run for President of the World. Ziv "ZZ" Zulander - "The Bots Master" of the title, a freedom fighter and creator/leader of the Boyzz Brigade. Ziv worked for RM Corp where he developed robots until he discovered what RM Corp secretly planned to do with them. A master of disguise and an excellent mimic, as well as a capable fighter, he has a number of technological devices built into his combat suit: anti-gravity boots and a paralyzing beam in his left forearm, but lacks the battery power for sustained use. He is somewhat of a ladies' man. Able to play lead guitar and sing - or finger-and-lip-synch convincingly enough - when disguised as a rock star, he tries to avoid civilian casualties and thus tends to plan toward commando raids rather than outright combat as the series progresses. Ziv has the family trait of a lethal allergic reaction to the pollen of a particular cactus, he is enamored by Lady Frenzy despite her attempts to poison him.

Both he and sister Blitzy are from Santa Marta, a blue-collar factory-based town some distance from Mega City. He is one of the only two characters who appears in all forty episodes of the series, the other being Blitzy. Blitzy "Blitz" Zulander - Ziv's impulsive 10-year-old sister, she tries to aid her older brother in his missions in the capacity of supporting fire. Though not as talented a creator as ZZ, she still proves able to assemble the Jungle Fiver modular robot with Genesix' help, she prefers to fly the VAF jet with its heavier artillery. Blitzy tends to solve tactical problems on impulse, using force rather than guile - by the time it is necessary for her to act, the situation has rendered guile ineffective, she shares ZZ's lethal allergy to a certain cactus pollen. She is the only other character besides ZZ. Sir Lewis Leon Paradim - The main antagonist of the series. Sir Lewis Leon Paradim is the bald-headed CEO of RM Corp vows to take over the world through Krang Chips in the first half of the series seeks to become World President in the second half, all while attempting to discredit and destroy ZZ's heroic efforts.

He is crafty enough to send a bomb-equipped robot duplicate of himself to his own birthday celebration, knowing that ZZ will be there. LLP has considerable fighting skills of his own in "A Tale of Two Paradims" where he manages to fend off Ninjzz with fisticuffs and pushes Ninjzz to the ground. Dr. Hiss - The Corp's resident cyborg mad scientist who speaks with a lisp, chief creator of the Corps' bots, his faith in said bots is high, though they are destroyed on a regular basis, he becomes visibly dismayed upon learning that the Krang Chip-equipped 3A can be hacked. Hiss has a personal hatred for ZZ attempting to kill him outright with overwhelming firepower. Hiss personally engages in battles, yet the Boyzz Brigade try to avoid injuring him, his name and personality could be references to the Nazi politician Rudolf Hess. Lady Frenzy - Paradim's second-in-command who holds romantic feelings for ZZ which sometimes conflict with her loyalties to LLP and the

Jules Desnoyers

Jules Pierre François Stanislaus Desnoyers was a French geologist and archaeologist. Desnoyers was born in the department of Eure-et-Loir. Becoming interested in geology at an early age, he was one of the founders of the Geological Society of France in 1830. In 1834 he was appointed librarian of the Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle in Paris, he was elected a Foreign Member of the Geological Society of London in 1864. Parts of his collection of rare books in the earth sciences was bought by the United States Geological Survey Library at an auction in 1885, he was the Secretary of the Historical Society since its founding. His contributions to geological science comprise memoirs on the Jurassic and Tertiary Strata of the Paris Basin and of Northern France, other papers relating to the antiquity of man, to the question of his co-existence with extinct mammalia. In 1829 he proposed the term Quaternary to cover those formations which were formed just anterior to the present, following an antiquated method of referring to geologic eras as "Primary," "Secondary," "Tertiary," and so on.

His separate books were Sur la Craie et sur les terrains tertiaires du Cotentin and Recherches géologiques et historiques sur les cavernes. Desnoyers, Jules. 1836. Indication des principaux ouvrages propres à faciliter les travaux relatifs à l'histoire de France, par M. J. Desnoyers. Paris: impr. de Crapelet. Desnoyers, Jules. 1859. Note de M. Desnoyers... sur des empreintes de pas d'animaux dans le gypse des environs de Paris, et particulièrement de la vallée de Montmorency, par M. J. Desnoyers. Paris: impr. de L. Martinet. Extrait du "Bulletin de la Société géologique de France". 2e série. T. XVI. Séance du 4 juillet 1859. Desnoyers, Jules. 1862. Note sur les argiles à silex de la craie, sur les sables du Perche et d'autres dépôts tertiaires qui leur sont subordonnés, par M. J. Desnoyers. Paris: impr. de Martinet. Extrait du "Bulletin de la Société géologique de France". 2e série. T. XIX. Séance du 16 décembre 1861. Desnoyers, Jules. 1863. Note sur les indices matériels de la coexistence de l'homme avec l'Elephas meridionalis dans un terrain des environs de Chartres: plus ancien que les terrains de transport quaternaires des vallées de la Somme et de la Seine.

Aus: Comptes rendus des séances de l'Acad. des Sciences. Desnoyers, J. 1863. Résponse à des objections faites au sujet de stries et d'incisions constatées sur des ossements de mammifères fossiles des environs de Chartres. From Institut de France-Académie des sciences. Comptes rendu, séance du 8 juin 1863. Desnoyers, Jules. 1870. "Observations relatives à la découverte récente de l'amphithéâtre romain de Paris". Comptes-Rendus Des Séances De L Année - Académie Des Inscriptions Et Belles-Lettres. 14: 73-75. Desnoyers, Jules. 1875. "Note relative à un galet en silex trouvé aux environs d'Amiens". Comptes-Rendus Des Séances De L Année - Académie Des Inscriptions Et Belles-Lettres. 19: 96-98. Desnoyers, J. 1882. Notice sur le fossile à odeur de truffes. From Mémoires de la Société d'histoire naturelle de Paris. T. 1. Desnoyers, Jules. 1884. Rapport sur les travaux de la Société de l'histoire de France depuis sa dernière assemblée générale en mai 1883, jusqu'à ce jour par M. J. Desnoyers.... Desnoyers, Jules. 1887.

Note sur un monogramme d'un prêtre artiste du IXe siècle. Comptes Rendus Des Séances De L'Académie Des Inscriptions Et Belles-Lettres.: Imprimerie Nationale. Delisle, Léopold Victor, Jules Desnoyers. 1875. Notice sur un manuscrit mérovingien contenant des fragments d'Eugyppius appartenant à M. Jules Desnoyers par Léopold Delisle.-Paris: Picard 1875. Paris: Picard. Galeron, Fréd, A. de Brébisson, J. Desnoyers. 1993. Falaise: statistique de l'arrondissement. Paris: Res Universis. Delisle, Léopold, Jules Desnoyers. 1888. Collections de M. Jules Desnoyers: Catalogue des manuscrits anciens & des Chartes. Malloizel, Jules Desnoyers, Charles Brongniart, Adolphe Pacault. 1886. Oeuvres scientifiques de Michel-Eugène Chevreul doyen des étudiants de France 1806-1886. Paris