Province of Rome (1870–2014)
The Province of Rome was one of the five provinces that formed part of the region of Lazio in Italy. It was established in 1870 and disestablished in 2014, it was coterminous with the Rome metropolitan area. The city of Rome was the provincial capital. During the 1920s, the boundary of the province shrank; the Province of Rome was the most populous province in Italy. On 1 January 2015, it was superseded by a new local government body - the Metropolitan City of Rome Capital. Prior to 1870, the area of the province was the Papal States. Following the capture of Rome by the forces of the Kingdom of Italy, the Province of Rome was established; the province was divided into five "districts": Rome, Frosinone and Viterbo. They corresponded to the old papal delegazioni. In 1923 the district of Rieti part of the province of Perugia, was annexed to that of Rome. In 1927 the provincial territory was reduced through the creation of new provinces: Frosinone and Viterbo. After a few months, the comuni of Amaseno, Castro dei Volsci and Vallecorsa were annexed to the province of Frosinone, while Monte Romano was annexed to that of Viterbo.
In 1934 the provincial territory lost its southern part. Administrative subdivisions of the Papal States from 1816 to 1871 Latium — the oldest regional division of the former province & present day Metropolitan City of Rome Capital. Metropolitan City of Rome Capital topics Official former website
Villa Borghese may refer to: The Villa Borghese Pinciana, the villa built by the architect Flaminio Ponzio, developing sketches by Scipione Borghese, who used it as a villa suburbana, a party villa, at the edge of Rome, to house his art collection. The Galleria Borghese which now occupies the above; the Villa Borghese gardens, the gardens in which the above villa is sited Any other villas held by the Borghese family Villa Borghese a 1953 Italian film directed by Vittorio de Sica A 3D reconstruction of the decorated facades on the Louvre's web site
The ruble or rouble is or was a currency unit of a number of countries in Eastern Europe associated with the economy of Russia. The ruble was the currency unit of Imperial Russia and the Soviet Union, it is the currency unit of Russia and Belarus; the Russian ruble is used in two regions of Georgia, which are considered by Russia as recognised states of Abkhazia and South Ossetia. In the past, several other countries influenced by Russia and the Soviet Union had currency units that were named rubles. One ruble is divided into 100 kopeks. According to one version, the word "ruble" is derived from the Russian verb рубить, "to cut, to chop, to hack", as a ruble was considered a cutout piece of a silver grivna. Rubles were pieces of silver with notches indicating their weight; each grivna was divided into four parts. Others say the ruble was never a synonym for it; this is attested in a 13th century Novgorod birch bark manuscript, where both ruble and grivna referred to 204 gramms of silver. The casting of these pieces included some sort of cutting, hence the name from рубить.
Another version of the word's origin is that it comes from the Russian noun рубец, the seam, left around a silver bullions after casting: silver was added to the cast in two steps. Therefore, the word ruble means "a cast with a seam". A popular theory deriving the word ruble from rupee is not correct; the ruble was the Russian equivalent of the mark, a measurement of weight for silver and gold used in medieval Western Europe. The weight of one ruble was equal to the weight of one grivna. In Russian, a folk name for ruble, tselkovyj, is known, a shortening of the целковый рубль, i.e. a wholesome, uncut ruble. This name persists in the Mordvin word for ruble, целковой; the word kopek, copeck, or kopeyka is a diminutive form of the Russian kop'yo — a spear. The first kopek coins, minted at Novgorod and Pskov from about 1534 onwards, show a horseman with a spear. From the 1540s onwards the horseman bears a crown, doubtless the intention was to represent Ivan the Terrible, Grand Prince of all Russia until 1547, Tsar thereafter.
Subsequent mintings of the coin, starting in the 18th century, bear instead Saint George striking down a serpent. Since the monetary reform of 1534, one Russian accounting ruble became equivalent to 100 silver Novgorod denga coins or smaller 200 Muscovite denga coins or smaller 400 polushka coins; the former coin with a rider on it soon became colloquially known as kopek and was the higher coin until the beginning of the 18th century. Ruble coins as such did not exist till Peter the Great, when in 1704 he reformed the old monetary system and ordered mintage of a 28-gramme silver ruble coin equivalent to 100 new copper kopek coins. Apart from one ruble and one kopek coins other smaller and greater coins existed as well. Both the spellings ruble and rouble are used in English; the form rouble is preferred by the Oxford English Dictionary, but the earliest use recorded in English is the now obsolete robble. The form rouble derives from the transliteration into French used among the Tsarist aristocracy.
There are two main usage tendencies: one is for North American authors to use ruble and other English speakers to use rouble, while the other is for older sources to use rouble and more recent ones to use ruble. Neither tendency is consistent; the Russian plurals that may be seen on the actual currency are modified according to Russian grammar. Numbers ending in 1 are followed by nominative singular рубль rubl′, копе́йка kopéyka. Numbers ending in 2, 3 or 4 are followed by копе́йки kopéyki. Numbers ending in 5 -- 9, 0, or 11 -- 14 are followed by копе́ек kopéyek. In several languages spoken in Russia and the former Soviet Union, the currency name has no etymological relation with ruble. In Turkic languages or languages influenced by them, the ruble is known as som or sum, or manat. Soviet banknotes had their value printed in the languages of all 15 republics of the Soviet Union. From the 14th to the 17th centuries the ruble was neither a coin nor a currency but rather a unit of weight; the most used currency was a small silver coin called denga.
There were two variants of the denga minted in Moscow. The weight of a denga silver coin was unstable and inflating, but by 1535 one Novgorod denga weighted 0.68 grams, the Moscow denga being a half of the Novgorod denga. Thus one account ruble consisted of 100 Novgorod or 200 Moscow dengi; as the Novgorod denga bore the image of a rider with a spear, it has become known as kopek. In the 17th century the weight of a kopek coin lowered to 0.48 g, thus one ruble was equal to 48 g of silver. In 1654–1655 tsar Alexis I tried to carry out a monetary reform and ordered to mint silver one ruble coins from imported joachimsthalers and new kopek coins from copper. Although around 1 million of such rubles was made, its lower weight against the nominal ruble led to counte
Brockhaus and Efron Encyclopedic Dictionary
The Brockhaus and Efron Encyclopedic Dictionary is a comprehensive multi-volume encyclopedia in Russian. It contains 121,240 articles, 7,800 images, 235 maps, it was published in Imperial Russia in 1890–1907, as a joint venture of Leipzig and St Petersburg publishers. The articles were written by the prominent Russian scholars of the period, such as Dmitry Mendeleyev and Vladimir Solovyov. Reprints have appeared following the dissolution of the Soviet Union. In 1889, the owner of one of the St. Petersburg printing houses Ilya Efron on the initiative of Professor Semyon Vengerov signed an agreement with the German publishing house F. A. Brockhaus to make Russian translation of a large encyclopaedia Konversations-Lexikon, issued by this publishing house. To this end the Brockhaus-Efron joint stock company was established, they intended to translate the German publication with a more detailed account of issues related to Russia. It was supposed to release 16-18 volumes; the first 8 half-volumes were edited by Ivan Andrievsky.
The Brockhaus and Efron Encyclopedic Dictionary contains 121,240 entries, 7800 illustrations and 235 maps. The encyclopedia came out in two versions: one had 41 main and 2 additional volumes. Half-volumes have double numbering: e.g. 49 and 50 and on the title pages are numbered XXV and XXVa. In the years 1899-1902 the Small Brockhaus and Efron Encyclopedic Dictionary was produced. In the years 1911-1916 there appeared the New Encyclopedic Dictionary; the National Library of Russia holds proof-copies of the 30th, the 31st volumes. Illustrations from the Brockhaus and Efron Encyclopedic Dictionary Brockhaus Enzyklopädie Brockhaus Granat Encyclopedic Dictionary "Brockhaus and Efron Encyclopedic Dictionary. Full edition". Retrieved October 26, 2009. Digitized copy – DjVu format at Runivers.ru
Woodcut is a relief printing technique in printmaking. An artist carves an image into the surface of a block of wood—typically with gouges—leaving the printing parts level with the surface while removing the non-printing parts. Areas that the artist cuts away carry no ink, while characters or images at surface level carry the ink to produce the print; the block is cut along the wood grain. The surface is covered with ink by rolling over the surface with an ink-covered roller, leaving ink upon the flat surface but not in the non-printing areas. Multiple colors can be printed by keying the paper to a frame around the woodblocks; the art of carving the woodcut can be called "xylography", but this is used in English for images alone, although that and "xylographic" are used in connection with block books, which are small books containing text and images in the same block. They became popular in Europe during the latter half of the 15th century. A single-sheet woodcut is a woodcut presented as a single image or print, as opposed to a book illustration.
Since it's origins in China, the practice of woodcut has spread across the world from Europe, to other parts of Asia, to Latin America. In both Europe and the Far East, traditionally the artist only designed the woodcut, the block-carving was left to specialist craftsmen, called block-cutters, or Formschneider in Germany, some of whom became well-known in their own right. Among these, the best-known are the 16th-century Hieronymus Andreae, Hans Lützelburger and Jost de Negker, all of whom ran workshops and operated as printers and publishers; the formschneider in turn handed the block on to specialist printers. There were further specialists; this is why woodcuts are sometimes described by museums or books as "designed by" rather than "by" an artist. The division of labour had the advantage that a trained artist could adapt to the medium easily, without needing to learn the use of woodworking tools. There were various methods of transferring the artist's drawn design onto the block for the cutter to follow.
Either the drawing would be made directly onto the block, or a drawing on paper was glued to the block. Either way, the artist's drawing was destroyed during the cutting process. Other methods were used, including tracing. In both Europe and the Far East in the early 20th century, some artists began to do the whole process themselves. In Japan, this movement was called sōsaku-hanga, as opposed to shin-hanga, a movement that retained traditional methods. In the West, many artists used the easier technique of linocut instead. Compared to intaglio techniques like etching and engraving, only low pressure is required to print; as a relief method, it is only necessary to ink the block and bring it into firm and contact with the paper or cloth to achieve an acceptable print. In Europe, a variety of woods including boxwood and several nut and fruit woods like pear or cherry were used. There are three methods of printing to consider: Stamping: Used for many fabrics and most early European woodcuts; these were printed by putting the paper/fabric on a table or other flat surface with the block on top, pressing or hammering the back of the block.
Rubbing: Apparently the most common method for Far Eastern printing on paper at all times. Used for European woodcuts and block-books in the fifteenth century, widely for cloth. Used for many Western woodcuts from about 1910 to the present; the block goes face up with the paper or fabric on top. The back is rubbed with a "hard pad, a flat piece of wood, a burnisher, or a leather frotton". A traditional Japanese tool used for this is called a baren. In Japan, complex wooden mechanisms were used to help hold the woodblock still and to apply proper pressure in the printing process; this was helpful once multiple colors were introduced and had to be applied with precision atop previous ink layers. Printing in a press: presses only seem to have been used in Asia in recent times. Printing-presses were used from about 1480 for European prints and block-books, before that for woodcut book illustrations. Simple weighted presses may have been used in Europe before the print-press, but firm evidence is lacking.
A deceased Abbess of Mechelen in 1465 had "unum instrumentum ad imprintendum scripturas et ymagines... cum 14 aliis lapideis printis"—"an instrument for printing texts and pictures... with 14 stones for printing". This is too early to be a Gutenberg-type printing press in that location. Main articles Old master print for Europe, Woodblock printing in Japan for Japan, Lubok for Russia Woodcut originated in China in antiquity as a method of printing on textiles and on paper; the earliest woodblock printed fragments to survive are from China, from the Han dynasty, are of silk printed with flowers in three colours. "In the 13th century the Chinese technique of blockprinting was transmitted to Europe." Paper arrived in Europe from China via al-Andalus later, was being manufactured in Italy by the end of the thirteenth century, in Burgundy and Germany by the end of the fourteenth. In Europe, woodcut is the oldest technique used for old master prints, developing about 1400, by using, on paper, existing techniques for printing.
One of the more ancient woodcuts on paper that can be seen today is The Fire Madonna, in the Cat
Anticoli Corrado is a comune in the Metropolitan City of Rome in the Italian region Latium, located about 40 kilometres northeast of Rome. Anticoli Corrado borders the following municipalities: Mandela, Marano Equo, Rocca Canterano, Saracinesco. Anticoli became known in the 19th century because its young inhabitants used to pose as models for the community of artists living near Piazza di Spagna in Rome; some artists went to see the birthplace of their models and found Anticoli a picturesque site to the point of living there for some time. The town attracted artists until World War II. Stanley Kramer's The Secret of Santa Vittoria was entirely shot here. Church of St. Peter Palazzo Baronale Piazza delle Ville, with a fountain by Arturo Martini Civic Museum of Modern Art, housing works by artists connected to the town, such as Oscar Kokoschka, Felice Carena, Paolo Salvati, others. Arcos de la Frontera, Spain
Pythagoreanism originated in the 6th century BC, based on the teachings and beliefs held by Pythagoras and his followers, the Pythagoreans. Pythagoras established the first Pythagorean community in Italy. Early-Pythagorean communities lived throughout Magna Graecia. Espousing a rigorous life of the intellect and strict rules on diet and behavior comprised a cult of following Pythagorean's Code. For example, the Code's diet prohibits the consumption or touching any sort of bean or legume. Pythagoras’ death and disputes about his teachings led to the development of two philosophical traditions within Pythagoreanism; the practitioners of akousmatikoi were superseded in the 4th century BC as a significant mendicant school of philosophy by the Cynics. The Pythagorean mathēmatikoi philosophers were in the 4th century BC absorbed into the Platonic school. Following the political instability in the Magna Graecia, some Pythagorean philosophers fled to mainland Greece while others regrouped in Rhegium. By about 400 BC the majority of Pythagorean philosophers had left Italy.
Pythagorean ideas exercised a marked influence on Plato and through him, on all of Western philosophy. Many of the surviving sources on Pythagoras originate with Aristotle and the philosophers of the Peripatetic school; as a philosophic tradition, Pythagoreanism was revived in the 1st century BC, giving rise to Neopythagoreanism. The worship of Pythagoras continued in Italy and as a religious community Pythagoreans appear to have survived as part of, or influenced, the Bacchic cults and Orphism. Pythagoras was in ancient times well known for the mathematical achievement of the Pythagorean theorem. Pythagoras had discovered that "in a right-angled triangle the square of the hypotenuse is equal to the squares of the other two sides". In ancient times Pythagoras was noted for his discovery that music had mathematical foundations. Antique sources that credit Pythagoras as the philosopher who first discovered music intervals credit him as the inventor of the monochord, a straight rod on which a string and a movable bridge could be used to demonstrate the relationship of musical intervals.
Much of the surviving sources on Pythagoras originate with Aristotle and the philosophers of the Peripatetic school, which founded histographical academic traditions such as biography and the history of science. The surviving 5th century BC sources on Pythagoras and early Pythagoreanism are void of supernatural elements. While surviving 4th century BC sources on Pythagoreas' teachings introduced legend and fable. Philosophers who discussed Pythagoreanism, such as Anaximander, Andron of Ephesus and Neanthes had access to historical written sources as well as the oral tradition about Pythagoreanism, which by the 4th century BC was in decline. Neopythagorean philosophers, who authored many of the surviving sources on Pythagoreanism, continued the tradition of legend and fantasy; the earliest surviving ancient source on Pythagoras and his followers is a satire by Xenophanes, on the Pythagorean beliefs on the transmigration of souls. Xenophanes wrote of Pythagoras that: Once they say that he was passing by when a puppy was being whipped, And he took pity and said: "Stop!
Do not beat it! For it is the soul of a friend That I recognized when I heard it giving tongue." In a surviving fragment from Heraclitus and his followers are described as follows: Pythagoras, the son of Mnesarchus, practised inquiry beyond all other men and selecting of these writings made for himself a wisdom or made a wisdom of his own: a polymathy, an imposture. Two other surviving fragments of ancient sources on Pythagoras are by Ion of Empedocles. Both were born after Pythagoras' death. By that time he was known as a sage and his fame had spread throughout Greece. According to Ion, Pythagoras was:... distinguished for his many virtue and modesty in death has a life, pleasing to his soul, if Pythagoras the wise achieved knowledge and understanding beyond that of all men. Empedocles described Pythagoras as "a man of surpassing knowledge, master of all kinds of wise works, who had acquired the upmost wealth of understanding." In the 4th century BC the Sophist Alcidamas wrote that Pythagoras was honored by Italians.
Today scholars distinguish two periods of Pythagoreanism: early-Pythagoreanism, from the 6th till the 5th century BC, late-Pythagoreanism, from the 4th till the 3rd century BC. The Spartan colony of Taranto in Italy became the home for many practitioners of Pythagoreanism and for Neopythagorean philosophers. Pythagoras had lived in Crotone and Metaponto, both were Achaean colonies. Early-Pythagorean sects lived throughout Magna Graecia, they espoused to a rigorous life of the intellect and strict rules on diet and behavior. Their burial rites were tied to their belief in the immortality of the soul. Early-Pythagorean sects were closed societies and new Pythagoreans were chosen based on merit and discipline. Ancient sources record that early-Pythagoreans underwent a five year initiation period of listening to the teachings in silence. Initiates could through a test become members of the inner circle. However, Pythagoreans could leave the community if they wished. Iamblichus listed 235 Pythagoreans by name, among them 17 women who he described as the "most famous" women practitioners of Pythagoreanism.
It was customary that family members became Pythagoreans, as Pythagoreanism developed into a philosophic traditions that entailed rules for everyday life and Pythagoreans were bound by secrets. The home of a Pythagorean was known as the site of mysteries. Pythagoras had been born on the island of Samos at around 570 BC and left his homeland at around 530 BC in opposition