click links in text for more info
SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Gáe Bulg

The Gáe Bulg, meaning "spear of mortal pain/death", "gapped/notched spear", or "belly spear", was the name of the spear of Cúchulainn in the Ulster Cycle of Irish mythology. It was given to him by his martial arts teacher, the warrior woman Scáthach, its technique was taught only to him, it was made from the bone of a sea monster, the Coinchenn, that had died while fighting another sea monster, the Curruid. Although some sources make it out to be a deadly spear, others—notably the Book of Leinster—state that it could only be used under specialized, ritual conditions: In other versions of the legend, the spear had seven heads, each with seven barbs. In the Táin Bó Cuailnge, Cúchulainn received the spear after training with the great warrior mistress Scáthach in Alba, she taught him and his foster-brother, everything the same, except she only taught the Gáe Bulg feat to Cuchulainn. He used it in single combat against Ferdiad, they were fighting in a ford, Ferdiad had the upper hand. Ferdiad died soon after.

On a separate occasion, Cúchulainn killed his own son, with the spear. In both instances, it was used as a last resort, as once thrown. Cúchulainn's use of the Gáe Bulg in the Táin Bó Cuailnge exemplifies its deadliness and the gruesome condition in which it leaves its victims; this can be seen in the fact that after it is used, one must cut into the victim to retrieve it. This was the case in Cúchulainn's slaying of Ferdiad; as it is stated in Ciaran Carson's translation of The Táin: Traditionally, the name has been translated as "belly spear", with the second element of the name, being treated as a derivative of Old Irish bolg "belly, bag". Several notable Celtic scholars, including Joseph Loth and Kuno Meyer, have preferred to derive it rather from Old Irish bolc "gap, notch", suggesting a linguistic link with the second element in the name of Fergus mac Róich's sword and King Arthur's sword Caledfwlch. Linguist Eric Hamp derives the second element, from a Proto-Celtic compound *balu-gaisos meaning "spear of mortal pain/death spear".

Once the second element *gaisos "spear" was no longer recognizable to Irish speaker, its Old Irish cognate, gáe, was reattached to the beginning for clarification, forming a new, tautological compound. An episode of Stuff to Blow Your Mind postulated from their team's research. Gungnir, Odin's spear in Nordic legend Spear of Lugh in Irish myth Mythological weapons, for a list

Olatubosun Oladapo

Ọlátúbọ́sún Oládàpọ̀ known as Túbọ́sún Ọládàpọ̀, or Odidere Aiyekooto – "the loquacious parrot", is a Yoruba-language folk poet, music producer, radio personality/broadcaster and researcher from Nigeria whose audience resides chiefly in South-West Nigeria, speak Yorùbá. Born Abraham Ọlátúbọ́sún Ọládàpọ̀, he attended Phillip's Primary School in Ararọmi Owu, Osun State in 1950 went to St James’ Olanla in Akinyele and the University of Lagos, he underwent training at St. Luke’s Teachers’ Training College, where he first started performing poetry with a presentation at the school in the 1965 festival of arts where he chanted Ìjálá Yorùbá oral poetry, he completed that in 1967 and was posted to St. David's School, Ibadan, he has said: "It was at St Luke’s that my talent in drama was discovered, it was on account of this that I was sent to the University of Lagos to study for a diploma in Yorùbá Studies free of charge. I came out with a distinction in that programme."In 1969 he joined "The Sketch newspaper", GbounGboun, a Yorùbá newspaper, where he worked for a year before moving in 1970 to Western Nigeria Television, Western Nigeria Broadcasting Service.

There he met the likes of Adebayo Faleti, who impacted on him and Prince Adebayo Sanda, the presenter of Kaaro Ooojiire and Tiwa N’tiwa. Oladapo resigned in 1977 to found a record company, Olatubosun Records, to seek out and produce indigenous-language artists and folk poets across the Yorùbá country, he has produced more than 51 different albums and produced 200 artistes’ records on the label, including the late Ojogbon Ogundare Foyanmu from Ogbomoso, Odolaye Aremu from Kwara, Ayanyemi Atoko wa gbowo nile, the talking-drum specialist. His personal Yoruba poetry albums feature Yorùbá poetry recited over an orchestra of folk music. Oladapo's back-up choir once included the famous "K-12 Voices" led by the now-deceased Diipo Sodiipo. Oladapo has released about 29 different books, some of which are used as recommended text across primary and secondary schools and Universities in Nigeria and abroad, he is the author of print collections of Aroye Akewi and Arofo Awon Omode. His plays Ogun Lakaaye and Egbade Falade were joint prize winners of the Oxford University Press drama competition in 1970.

He is a traditional chief in the city of Ire-Ekiti, Nigeria. He is father to a number of children, including writer/linguist Kola Tubosun, writer/accountant Yemi Adesanya

Winston-Salem/Forsyth County Schools

Winston-Salem/Forsyth County Schools is a school district in Forsyth County, North Carolina. WS/FCS has over 80 schools in its system, it serves 54,984 students every year. WS/FCS was formed in 1963 by the merger of the Forsyth County School System and the Winston-Salem School System. WS/FCS is now the fourth largest school system in North Carolina, it is the 81st largest in the United States. WS/FCS is the most diverse school district in North Carolina. Ashley Elementary Bolton Elementary Brunson Elementary Caleb's Creek Elementary Cash Elementary Clemmons Elementary Cook Elementary Diggs-Latham Elementary Easton Elementary Forest Park Elementary Julian Gibson Elementary School Griffith Elementary Hall-Woodward Elementary Ibraham Elementary Jefferson Elementary Kernersville Elementary Kimberly Park Elementary Kimmel Farm Elementary Konnoak Elementary Lewisville Elementary Meadowlark Elementary Middle Fork Elementary Mineral Springs Elementary Moore Elementary Morgan Elementary North Hills Elementary Old Richmond Elementary Old Town Elementary Petree Elementary Piney Grove Elementary Rural Hall Elementary Sedge Garden Elementary Sherwood Forest Elementary Smith Farm Elementary South Fork Elementary Southwest Elementary Speas Elementary The Downtown Union Cross Elementary Vienna Elementary Walkertown Elementary Ward Elementary Whitaker Elementary Clemmons Middle East Forsyth Middle Flat Rock Middle Hanes Magnet Middle Jacket Academy Jefferson Middle Kernersville Middle Meadowlark Middle Mineral Springs Middle Northwest Middle Paisley IB Magnet Philo-Hill Magnet Academy Southeast Middle Walkertown Middle Wiley Magnet Middle Winston-Salem Prep Academy Atkins Academic and Technology High Career Center Carver High Early College of Forsyth East Forsyth High Glenn High John F. Kennedy High Kingswood Mount Tabor High North Forsyth High Parkland High Reagan High Reynolds High Walkertown High West Forsyth High Winston-Salem Prep Academy Carter High Children's Center Forsyth Middle College Hospital-Homebound Lowrance Middle Main Street Academy Special Children's School List of school districts in North Carolina Official website

James Jeans

Sir James Hopwood Jeans was an English physicist and mathematician. Born in Ormskirk, the son of William Tulloch Jeans, a parliamentary correspondent and author. Jeans was educated at Merchant Taylors' School, Wilson's Grammar School and Trinity College, Cambridge; as a gifted student, Jeans was counselled to take an aggressive approach to the Cambridge Mathematical Tripos competition: Early in the Michaelmas term of 1896, Walker sent for Jeans and Hardy and advised them to take Part I of the Mathematical Tripos in two years. He told them that he could not guarantee that they would come out higher than fifteenth in the list of wranglers, but he understood that they would never regret it, they accepted his advice, went to R. R. Webb, the most famous private coach of the period... At the end of his first year, told Walker that he had quarrelled with Webb, his coach. Walker accordingly took Jeans himself, the result was a triumph:... Jeans was bracketed second wrangler with J. F. Cameron... R. W. H.

T. Hudson was G. H. Hardy fourth wrangler. Jeans was elected Fellow of Trinity College in October 1901, taught at Cambridge, but went to Princeton University in 1904 as a professor of applied mathematics, he returned to Cambridge in 1910. He made important contributions in many areas of physics, including quantum theory, the theory of radiation and stellar evolution, his analysis of rotating bodies led him to conclude that Pierre-Simon Laplace's theory that the solar system formed from a single cloud of gas was incorrect, proposing instead that the planets condensed from material drawn out of the sun by a hypothetical catastrophic near-collision with a passing star. This theory is not accepted today. Jeans, along with Arthur Eddington, is a founder of British cosmology. In 1928, Jeans was the first to conjecture a steady state cosmology based on a hypothesized continuous creation of matter in the universe. In his book Astronomy and Cosmology he stated: "The type of conjecture which presents itself, somewhat insistently, is that the centers of the nebulae are of the nature'singular points' at which matter is poured into our universe from some other, extraneous spatial dimension, so that, to a denizen of our universe, they appear as points at which matter is being continually created."

This theory fell out of favour when the 1965 discovery of the cosmic microwave background was interpreted as the tell-tale signature of the Big Bang. His scientific reputation is grounded in the monographs The Dynamical Theory of Gases, Theoretical Mechanics, Mathematical Theory of Electricity and Magnetism. After retiring in 1929, he wrote a number of books for the lay public, including The Stars in Their Courses, The Universe Around Us, Through Space and Time, The New Background of Science, The Mysterious Universe; these books made Jeans well known as an expositor of the revolutionary scientific discoveries of his day in relativity and physical cosmology. In 1939, the Journal of the British Astronomical Association reported that Jeans was going to stand as a candidate for parliament for the Cambridge University constituency; the election, expected to take place in 1939 or 1940, did not take place until 1945, without his involvement. He wrote the book Physics and Philosophy where he explores the different views on reality from two different perspectives: science and philosophy.

On his religious views, Jeans was an agnostic Freemason. Jeans married twice, first to the American poet Charlotte Tiffany Mitchell in 1907, to the Austrian organist and harpsichordist Suzanne Hock in 1935. At Merchant Taylors' School there is a James Jeans Academic Scholarship for the candidate in the entrance exams who displays outstanding results across the spectrum of subjects, notably in mathematics and the sciences. One of Jeans' major discoveries, named Jeans length, is a critical radius of an interstellar cloud in space, it depends on the temperature, density of the cloud, the mass of the particles composing the cloud. A cloud, smaller than its Jeans length will not have sufficient gravity to overcome the repulsive gas pressure forces and condense to form a star, whereas a cloud, larger than its Jeans length will collapse. Λ J = 15 k B T 4 π G m ρ Jeans came up with another version of this equation, called Jeans mass or Jeans instability, that solves for the critical mass a cloud must attain before being able to collapse.

Jeans helped to discover the Rayleigh–Jeans law, which relates the energy density of black-body radiation to the temperature of the emission source. F = 8 π c k B T λ 4 Jeans is credited with calculating the rate of atmospheric escape from a planet due to kinetic energy of the gas molecules, a process known as Jeans Escape; the stream of knowledge is heading towards a non-mechanical reality. Mind no longer appears to be an accidental intruder into the realm of matter... we ought rather hail it as the creator and governor of the realm of matter. In an interview published in The Observer, when asked the question "Do you believe that life on this plane

1963 Cotton Bowl Classic

The 1963 Cotton Bowl Classic featured the Texas Longhorns and the LSU Tigers. The Longhorns were making their second consecutive Cotton Bowl appearance after winning the Southwest Conference again; the Tigers, who finished 3rd in the Southeastern Conference, were making their first Cotton Bowl appearance since a scoreless tie against Arkansas in 1947. This was head coach Charlie McClendon's first year at LSU, where he would remain until 1979. Lynn Amedee's 23 yard field goal gave the Tigers a 3–0 halftime lead after Texas had missed their own which led to an 80-yard drive; this was the first field goal in the Classic since 1942. Amedee recovered a Longhorn fumble at the 37 early in the third quarter and Jimmy Field scored 5 plays on a touchdown run. Buddy Hamic recovered a Longhorn fumble to set up an Amedee field goal 13 plays as the Tigers shut the Longhorns out; the Longhorns would reach the Cotton Bowl twice. The Tigers would go to the Cotton Bowl Classic three years later

Linguistic relativity and the color naming debate

The concept of linguistic relativity concerns the relationship between language and thought whether language influences thought, and, if so, how. This question has led to research in multiple disciplines—including anthropology, cognitive science and philosophy. Among the most debated theories in this area of work is the Sapir–Whorf hypothesis; this states. The theory varies between two main proposals: that language structure determines how we perceive the world and that language structure influences the world view of speakers of a given language but does not determine it. There are two formal sides to the universalist and the relativist; the universalist side claims that the biology of all human beings is all the same, so the development of color terminology has absolute universal constraints. The relativist side asserts that the variability of color terms cross-linguistically points to more culture-specific phenomena; because color exhibits both biological and linguistic aspects, it has become a focus of the study of the relationship between language and thought.

In a 2006 review of the debate Paul Kay and Terry Regier concluded that "There are universal constraints on color naming, but at the same time, differences in color naming across languages cause differences in color cognition and/or perception."The color debate was made popular in large part due to Brent Berlin and Paul Kay's famous 1969 study and their subsequent publishing of Basic Color Terms: Their Universality and Evolution. Although much on color terminology has been done since Berlin and Kay's famous study, other research predates it, including the mid-nineteenth century work of William Ewart Gladstone and Lazarus Geiger, which predates the Sapir–Whorf hypothesis, as well as the work of Eric Lenneberg and Roger Brown in 1950s and 1960s; the universalist theory that color cognition is an innate, physiological process rather than a cultural one was introduced in 1969 by Brent Berlin and Paul Kay in their book Basic Color Terms: Their Universality and Evolution. Their study was intended to challenge the prevailing theory of linguistic relativity set forth by Edward Sapir and Benjamin Lee Whorf.

Berlin and Kay found universal restrictions on the number of basic color terms that a language can have, on the ways the language can use these terms. The study included data collected from speakers of twenty different languages from a range of language families. Berlin and Kay identified eleven possible basic color categories: white, red, yellow, brown, pink and gray. To be considered a basic color category, the term for the color in each language had to meet certain criteria: It is monolexemic It is monomorphemic Its signification is not included in that of any other color term Its application must not be restricted to a narrow class of objects It must be psychologically salient for informants In case of doubt, the following "subsidiary criteria" were implemented: The doubtful form should have the same distributional potential as the established basic color terms Color terms that are the name of an object characteristically having that color are suspect, for example, gold and ash Recent foreign loan words may be suspect In cases where lexemic status is difficult to assess, morphological complexity is given some weight as a secondary criterion Berlin and Kay found that, in languages with fewer than the maximum eleven color categories, the colors followed a specific evolutionary pattern.

This pattern is as follows: All languages contain terms for black and white. If a language contains three terms it contains a term for red. If a language contains four terms it contains a term for either green or yellow. If a language contains five terms it contains terms for both green and yellow. If a language contains six terms it contains a term for blue. If a language contains seven terms it contains a term for brown. If a language contains eight or more terms it contains terms for purple, orange or gray. In addition to following this evolutionary pattern each of the languages studied selected identical focal hues for each color category present. For example, the term for "red" in each of the languages corresponded to the same shade in the Munsell color system, they posited that the cognition, or perception, of each color category is universal. A study supporting this universal, physiological theory was done by Kessen and Weiskopf. In this study, sixteen four-month-old infants were presented with lights of different frequencies corresponding to different colors.

The lengths of habituation were measured and found to be longer when the infant was presented with successive hues surrounding a certain focal color than with successive focal colors. This pattern of response is what is expected when the infants are distinguishing between the focal colors, but not distinguishing between successive hues; this is to say that infants respond to different hues of color in much the same way as adults do, demonstrating the presence of color vision at an age younger than expected. Kessen and Weiskopf there