Gákti is the Northern Sámi word for a piece of traditional clothing worn by the Sámi in northern areas of Norway, Sweden and the Kola Peninsula in Russia. The gákti is worn both in ceremonial contexts and while working when herding reindeer; the traditional Sami outfit is characterized by a dominant color adorned with bands of contrasting colours, pewter embroidery, tin art, a high collar. In the Norwegian language the garment is called a'kofte', in Swedish it is called'kolt'; the colours and decorations of the costume can signify a person's marital status and geographical origin. There are different gákti for men. Traditionally the gákti was made from reindeer skin, but in modern times, cotton or silk are more common; the gákti can be worn with silver jewellery, traditional leather footwear and a silk scarf. Traditionally, if the buttons on the belt are square, it shows. If they are round, the person is unmarried. If a married couple divorce, the ex-husband still continues to use the Sami costume made by his ex-wife, he states by this that he wants her back.
Inari Sámi: mááccuhSkolt Sámi: määccaǩSouth Sámi: Gaeptie Four winds hat Luhkka Beaska Fra hverdagsplagg til kulturelt kjennetegn Norwegian Digital Learning Arena / Norwegian News Agency Media related to Sami clothing at Wikimedia Commons
Finland the Republic of Finland, is a country in Northern Europe bordering the Baltic Sea, Gulf of Bothnia, Gulf of Finland, between Norway to the north, Sweden to the northwest, Russia to the east. Finland is situated in the geographical region of Fennoscandia; the capital and largest city is Helsinki. Other major cities are Espoo, Tampere and Turku. Finland's population is 5.52 million, the majority of the population is concentrated in the southern region. 88.7% of the population is Finnish and speaks Finnish, a Uralic language unrelated to the Scandinavian languages. Finland is the eighth-largest country in Europe and the most sparsely populated country in the European Union; the sovereign state is a parliamentary republic with a central government based in the capital city of Helsinki, local governments in 311 municipalities, one autonomous region, the Åland Islands. Over 1.4 million people live in the Greater Helsinki metropolitan area, which produces one third of the country's GDP. Finland was inhabited when the last ice age ended 9000 BCE.
The first settlers left behind artefacts that present characteristics shared with those found in Estonia and Norway. The earliest people were hunter-gatherers; the first pottery appeared in 5200 BCE. The arrival of the Corded Ware culture in southern coastal Finland between 3000 and 2500 BCE may have coincided with the start of agriculture; the Bronze Age and Iron Age were characterised by extensive contacts with other cultures in the Fennoscandian and Baltic regions and the sedentary farming inhabitation increased towards the end of Iron Age. At the time Finland had three main cultural areas – Southwest Finland and Karelia – as reflected in contemporary jewellery. From the late 13th century, Finland became an integral part of Sweden through the Northern Crusades and the Swedish part-colonisation of coastal Finland, a legacy reflected in the prevalence of the Swedish language and its official status. In 1809, Finland was incorporated into the Russian Empire as the autonomous Grand Duchy of Finland.
In 1906, Finland became the first European state to grant all adult citizens the right to vote, the first in the world to give all adult citizens the right to run for public office. Following the 1917 Russian Revolution, Finland declared itself independent. In 1918, the fledgling state was divided by civil war, with the Bolshevik-leaning Red Guard supported by the new Soviet Russia, fighting the White Guard, supported by the German Empire. After a brief attempt to establish a kingdom, the country became a republic. During World War II, the Soviet Union sought to occupy Finland, with Finland losing parts of Karelia, Kuusamo and some islands, but retaining their independence. Finland established an official policy of neutrality; the Finno-Soviet Treaty of 1948 gave the Soviet Union some leverage in Finnish domestic politics during the Cold War era. Finland joined the OECD in 1969, the NATO Partnership for Peace in 1994, the European Union in 1995, the Euro-Atlantic Partnership Council in 1997, the Eurozone at its inception, in 1999.
Finland was a relative latecomer to industrialisation, remaining a agrarian country until the 1950s. After World War II, the Soviet Union demanded war reparations from Finland not only in money but in material, such as ships and machinery; this forced Finland to industrialise. It developed an advanced economy while building an extensive welfare state based on the Nordic model, resulting in widespread prosperity and one of the highest per capita incomes in the world. Finland is a top performer in numerous metrics of national performance, including education, economic competitiveness, civil liberties, quality of life, human development. In 2015, Finland was ranked first in the World Human Capital and the Press Freedom Index and as the most stable country in the world during 2011–2016 in the Fragile States Index, second in the Global Gender Gap Report, it ranked first on the World Happiness Report report for 2018 and 2019. A large majority of Finns are members of the Evangelical Lutheran Church, freedom of religion is guaranteed under the Finnish Constitution.
The earliest written appearance of the name Finland is thought to be on three runestones. Two have the inscription finlonti; the third was found in Gotland. It dates back to the 13th century; the name can be assumed to be related to the tribe name Finns, mentioned at first known time AD 98. The name Suomi has uncertain origins, but a candidate for a source is the Proto-Baltic word *źemē, meaning "land". In addition to the close relatives of Finnish, this name is used in the Baltic languages Latvian and Lithuanian. Alternatively, the Indo-European word * gʰm-on "man" has been suggested; the word referred only to the province of Finland Proper, to the northern coast of Gulf of Finland, with northern regions such as Ostrobothnia still sometimes being excluded until later. Earlier theories suggested derivation from suomaa or suoniemi, but these are now considered outdated; some have suggested common etymology with saame and Häme, but that theory is uncertain
Tin is a chemical element with the symbol Sn and atomic number 50. It is a post-transition metal in group 14 of the periodic table of elements, it is obtained chiefly from the mineral cassiterite, which contains stannic oxide, SnO2. Tin shows a chemical similarity to both of its neighbors in group 14, germanium and lead, has two main oxidation states, +2 and the more stable +4. Tin is the 49th most abundant element and has, with 10 stable isotopes, the largest number of stable isotopes in the periodic table, thanks to its magic number of protons, it has two main allotropes: at room temperature, the stable allotrope is β-tin, a silvery-white, malleable metal, but at low temperatures it transforms into the less dense grey α-tin, which has the diamond cubic structure. Metallic tin does not oxidize in air; the first tin alloy used on a large scale was bronze, made of 1/8 tin and 7/8 copper, from as early as 3000 BC. After 600 BC, pure metallic tin was produced. Pewter, an alloy of 85–90% tin with the remainder consisting of copper and lead, was used for flatware from the Bronze Age until the 20th century.
In modern times, tin is used in many alloys, most notably tin/lead soft solders, which are 60% or more tin, in the manufacture of transparent, electrically conducting films of indium tin oxide in optoelectronic applications. Another large application for tin is corrosion-resistant tin plating of steel; because of the low toxicity of inorganic tin, tin-plated steel is used for food packaging as tin cans. However, some organotin compounds can be as toxic as cyanide. Tin is a soft, malleable and crystalline silvery-white metal; when a bar of tin is bent, a crackling sound known as the "tin cry" can be heard from the twinning of the crystals. Tin melts at low temperatures of about 232 °C, the lowest in group 14; the melting point is further lowered to 177.3 °C for 11 nm particles. Β-tin, stable at and above room temperature, is malleable. In contrast, α-tin, stable below 13.2 °C, is brittle. Α-tin has a diamond cubic crystal structure, similar to silicon or germanium. Α-tin has no metallic properties at all because its atoms form a covalent structure in which electrons cannot move freely.
It is a dull-gray powdery material with no common uses other than a few specialized semiconductor applications. These two allotropes, α-tin and β-tin, are more known as gray tin and white tin, respectively. Two more allotropes, γ and σ, exist at temperatures above 161 pressures above several GPa. In cold conditions, β-tin tends to transform spontaneously into α-tin, a phenomenon known as "tin pest". Although the α-β transformation temperature is nominally 13.2 °C, impurities lower the transition temperature well below 0 °C and, on the addition of antimony or bismuth, the transformation might not occur at all, increasing the durability of the tin. Commercial grades of tin resist transformation because of the inhibiting effect of the small amounts of bismuth, antimony and silver present as impurities. Alloying elements such as copper, bismuth and silver increase its hardness. Tin tends rather to form hard, brittle intermetallic phases, which are undesirable, it does not form wide solid solution ranges in other metals in general, few elements have appreciable solid solubility in tin.
Simple eutectic systems, occur with bismuth, lead and zinc. Tin was one of the first superconductors to be studied. Tin can be attacked by acids and alkalis. Tin can be polished and is used as a protective coat for other metals. A protective oxide layer prevents further oxidation, the same that forms on pewter and other tin alloys. Tin helps to accelerate the chemical reaction. Tin has ten stable isotopes, with atomic masses of 112, 114 through 120, 122 and 124, the greatest number of any element. Of these, the most abundant are 120Sn, 118Sn, 116Sn, while the least abundant is 115Sn; the isotopes with mass numbers have no nuclear spin, while those with odd have a spin of +1/2. Tin, with its three common isotopes 116Sn, 118Sn and 120Sn, is among the easiest elements to detect and analyze by NMR spectroscopy, its chemical shifts are referenced against SnMe4; this large number of stable isotopes is thought to be a direct result of the atomic number 50, a "magic number" in nuclear physics. Tin occurs in 29 unstable isotopes, encompassing all the remaining atomic masses from 99 to 137.
Apart from 126Sn, with a half-life of 230,000 years, all the radioisotopes have a half-life of less than a year. The radioactive 100Sn, discovered in 1994, 132Sn are one of the few nuclides with a "doubly magic" nucleus: despite being unstable, having lopsided proton–neutron ratios, they represent endpoints beyond which stability drops off rapidly. Another 30 metastable isomers have been characterized for isotopes between 111 and 131, the most stable being 121mSn with a half-life of 43.9 years. The relative differences in the abundances of tin's stable isotopes can be explained by their different modes of formation in stellar nucleosynthesis. 116Sn through 120Sn inclusive are formed in the s-process in most stars and hence they are the most common isotopes, while 122Sn and 124Sn are only formed in the r-process (rapid neutr
A folk costume expresses an identity through costume, associated with a geographic area or a period of time in history. It can indicate social, marital or religious status. If the costume is used to represent the culture or identity of a specific ethnic group, it is known as ethnic costume; such costumes come in two forms: one for everyday occasions, the other for traditional festivals and formal wear. Following the outbreak of romantic nationalism, the peasantry of Europe came to serve as models for all that appeared genuine and desirable, their dress crystallised into so-called "typical" forms, enthusiasts adopted that attire as part of their symbolism. In areas where Western dress codes have become usual, traditional garments are worn at special events or celebrations. International events may cater for non-Western attendees with a compound dress code such as "business suit or national dress". In modern times, there are instances. In Bhutan, the traditional Tibetan-style clothing of gho and kera for men, kira and toego for women, must be worn by all citizens, including those not of Tibetan heritage.
In Saudi Arabia, women are required to wear the abaya in public. Cameroon – Pagne, Toghu Democratic Republic of the Congo – Pagne Gabon – Pagne Republic of the Congo – Pagne São Tomé and Príncipe – Pano Burundi – Imvutano Comoros – Lesso, Kanzu Djibouti – Macawiis, Dirac, Garbasaar Eritrea – Kidan Habesha, Zuria or Habesha kemis Ethiopia – Ethiopian suit or Kidan Habesha, Habesha kemis Sudan – Jalabiyyah and Turban, Toob, a cotton women's dress Kenya – Kenya is unique among African nations in that it is the only country that does not have a national costume. All tribes have their respective traditional garments, for example: Maasai traditional costume: Kitenge, Maasai beadwork Rwanda – Mushanana Madagascar – Lamba Somalia – Macawiis, Dirac, Garbasaar Tanzania – Kanzu and Kofia, Kanga Uganda – Kanzu and Kofia, Gomesi Algeria Sétif – Binouar Bikhmar Blouza Burnous, Caftan El-Bey, Gandoura, Haïek, Mlaya, Sarouel Chemsa Fergani Gandoura Annabiya Ghlila, Sarouel Mdawer Qashabiya, Labsa Kbaylia Labsa M'zabia Labsa Naïlia Labsa Touratia Lefa we dlala Melhfa Chaouïa Melhfa Sahraouia Egypt – Galabeya Libya – Jellabiya, Fouta Morocco – Djellaba, Fez hat and Balgha, Takchita Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic – Darra'a, Melhfa Sahraouia Tunisia – Jebba, Fouta South Africa – Afrikaners and British diaspora: slouch hat, safari shirt, knee-high socks, khaki Bermuda shorts.
Each ethnic groups of China have their own traditional costume. Han Chinese – Hanfu, Changshan, Zhongshan suit Tibetans – Chuba Mongols – Deel Manchus – Magua Uyghurs and other Chinese Muslims – Tubeteika Japan – Kimono, Sokutai Korea – Hanbok /Chosŏn-ot Mongolia – Deel Taiwan - Han Taiwanese - Hanfu, Tangzhuang Taiwanese Aborigines - Aboriginal groups in Taiwan conserve traditional indigenous styles. Afghanistan – Pashtun dress: Afghan cap, Shalwar Kameez, Firaq partug, Chador Bangladesh – Sherwani and Pyjama and Sari, Shalwar Kameez and Dupatta Bhutan – Gho and Kira India – Achkan, Shalwar Kameez, Dhoti, Kurta and Sari, Patiala salwar, Choli, Pathin Maldives – Dhivehi libaas Dhivehi mundu Nepal – Daura-Suruwal and Dhaka topi, Gunyou Cholo.
Kente, known as nwentom in Akan, is a type of silk and cotton fabric made of interwoven cloth strips made and native to the Akan ethnic group of Ghana. Kente is made in Akan lands such as the Ashanti Kingdom, including the towns of Bonwire, Sakora Wonoo, Ntonso in the Kwabre areas of the Ashanti Region; this fabric is worn by every Ghanaian tribe. Kente comes from the word kenten. Akans refer to kente as nwentoma, it is an Akan royal and sacred cloth worn only in times of extreme importance and was the cloth of kings. Over time, the use of kente became more widespread. However, its importance has remained and it is held in high esteem by Akans. Kente cloth varies in complexity. Ahwepan refers to a simple design of warp stripes, created using plain weave and a single pair of heddles. In contrast, which translates to "my skill is exhausted", is a decorated type of kente with weft-based patterns woven into every available block of plain weave; because of the intricate patterns, adweneasa cloth requires three heddles to weave.
The Akan people choose kente cloths as much for their names as their patterns. Although the cloths are identified by the patterns found in the lengthwise threads, there is little correlation between appearance and name. Names are derived from several sources, including proverbs, historical events, important chiefs, queen mothers, plants; the cloth symbolizes high in value. West Africa has had a cloth weaving culture for centuries via the stripweave method, but Akan history tells of the cloth being created independent of outsider influence. Kente cloth has its origin from the Akan-Ashanti kingdoms in Ghana; the origin of kente is in the Akan empire of Bonoman. Most Akans migrated out of the area, Bonoman to create various states; the Ewe people of Ghana claim the weaving of Kente originates with them, although they are not claiming they invented the art of weaving. They suggest that the name is derived from Kete which relates to the two alternating rhythmic actions associated with the weaving of the loom.
But the main creators are the Bonwire people of Asanteman in the Ashanti Region of Ghana. Black: maturation, intensified spiritual energy blue: peacefulness and love green: vegetation, harvesting, spiritual renewal gold: royalty, high status, spiritual purity grey: healing and cleansing rituals. Silver: serenity, joy. For example, the Obaakofoo Mmu Man pattern symbolizes democratic rule. Legend has it that kente was first made by two Akan friends who went hunting in an Asanteman forest and found a spider making its web; the friends stood and watched the spider for two days returned home and implemented what they had seen. Kente academic stoles are used by African Americans as a symbol of ethnic pride; this practice is very popular with black Greek letter fraternities and sororities. African American students hold special ceremonies called "Donning of the Kente" where the stoles are presented to the graduates. African fabric and fashion
The tagelmust is an indigo-dyed cotton garment, with the appearance of both a veil and a turban. The cloth may exceed ten meters in length, it is worn by Tuareg Berber men, the Hausa of the far northern Sahel region and the Songhai. In recent times, other colors have come into use, with the indigo veils saved for use on special occasions, it has many layers that cover the head, it drapes down to loosely cover the neck. It is worn by some French people as a scarf; the tagelmust covers the head. It prevents the inhalation of wind-borne sand by its wearers in the Sahara region; the indigo is believed by many of the wearers to be healthy and beautiful, with a buildup of indigo in the skin of the wearer being considered to protect the skin, denote affluence. Because of the scarcity of water, the tagelmust is dyed by pounding in dried indigo instead of soaking it; the dye permanently leaches into the skin of the wearer, because of this, the Tuareg are referred to as the "blue men of the desert". Among the Tuareg, men who wear the tagelmust are called Kel Tagelmust, or "People of the Veil".
The tagelmust is worn only by adult males, only taken off in the presence of close family. Tuareg men find shame in showing their mouth or nose to strangers or people of a higher standing than themselves, have been known to hide their features using their hands if a tagelmust is unavailable; the tagelmust has other cultural significance, as the manner in which it is wrapped and folded is used to show clan and regional origin, the darkness to which it is dyed showing the wealth of the wearer. Alasho, a similar turban veil worn by Hausa men Litham, the Arabic term for the garment Philippi, Dieter. Sammlung Philippi: Kopfbedeckungen in Glaube, Religion und Spiritualität. St. Benno Verlag, Leipzig. ISBN 978-3-7462-2800-6
Goldwork is the art of embroidery using metal threads. It is prized for the way light plays on it; the term "goldwork" is used when the threads are imitation gold, silver, or copper. The metal wires used to make the threads have never been gold. Most metal threads are available in sometimes copper as well as gold. A new coating technology however enables the direct coating of 24K gold on a filament yarn without any other metal or adhesive layer underneath. Goldwork is always free embroidery; the ends of the thread, depending on type, are cut off, or are pulled through to the back of the embroidery and secured with the couching thread. A tool called a mellore or a stiletto is used to help position the threads and create the holes needed to pull them through. Goldwork was developed in Asia, has been used for at least 2000 years, its use reached a remarkable level of skill in the Middle Ages, when a style called Opus Anglicanum was developed in England and used extensively in church vestments and hangings.
After this period it was used in the clothing and furnishings of the royalty and nobility throughout Europe, still on military and other regalia. Goldwork is a uncommon skill among embroiderers who work in other free embroidery styles, it has always been reserved for occasional and special use only, due to both the expense of the materials and the time to create the embroidery, because the threads will not hold up to frequent laundering of any kind. This is however not the case with gold yarns coated with newer technologies. A variety of threads exists. Passing is the most common thread used in goldwork. For gold thread this is yellow, or in older examples orange; this is always attached by couching, either one or two threads at a time, pulled through to the back to secure it. When multiple threads must be laid next to each other, a technique called bricking is used: the position of the couching stitches is offset between rows, producing an appearance similar to a brick wall; this same type of thread is used in making cloth of gold.
Japan thread, sometimes called jap, is a cheaper replacement for passing, is far more used in modern goldwork. It appears nearly identical, but rather than a strip of metal, a strip of foil paper is wrapped around the core. Bullion or Purl is structurally a long spring, hollow at the core; this thread comes in both matte versions. Jaceron or Pearl purl is similar to buillion, but with a much wider piece of metal, shaped prior to purling it, such that it looks like a string of pearl-like beads when couched down between the wraps of metal. Lizerine is a similar thread. Frieze or Check purl is again similar, but the metal used is shaped differently, producing a faceted, sparkly look. Faconnee or Crimped purl is identical to buillion, but has been crimped at intervals. Roccoco and the similar Crinkle cordonnet are made of wire wrapped around a cotton core, with a wavy or kinked appearance. Milliary wire is a stretched pearl purl laced to a base of passing thread. Broad Plate is a strip of metal a 2 millimeters wide.
This is available as 11's plate, 1mm wide and whipped plate where the broad plate has a fine wire wrapped around it. Flat Worm or Oval thread is a thin plate wrapped around a yarn core and flattened slightly; this is used like plate, but is easier to work with. Twists or Torsade, threads made of multiple strands of metal twisted together are sometimes used, some of which, such as Soutache, sometimes have different colored metals or colored non-metal threads twisted together; these are either couched like passing, with the couching thread visible, or with the thread angled with the twist to make it invisible. In addition, paillettes or spangles, small pieces of appliqued rich fabric or kid leather and real or imitation gems are used as accents, felt or string padding may be used to create raised areas or texture. Silk thread work in satin stitch or other stitches is combined with goldwork, in some periods goldwork was combined with blackwork embroidery as well. Using newer technology, it is now possible to coat yarns with pure 24 karat gold that are workable just like normal embroidery yarn.
These yarns furthermore have a well washing behaviour: they can be washed several times without losing metal. As there is no silver layer underneath the gold, the thread neither starts to oxidize as gold is inert.'Or nué' is a special technique invented in the 15th century, wherein many threads of passing or Japan thread are laid down parallel and touching. By varying the spacing and color of the couching stitches, gleaming images can be created; this is not uncommonly used to depict the garments of saints in church embroidery. Goldwork styles an