Switzerland the Swiss Confederation, is a country situated in western and southern Europe. It consists of 26 cantons, the city of Bern is the seat of the federal authorities; the sovereign state is a federal republic bordered by Italy to the south, France to the west, Germany to the north, Austria and Liechtenstein to the east. Switzerland is a landlocked country geographically divided between the Alps, the Swiss Plateau and the Jura, spanning a total area of 41,285 km2. While the Alps occupy the greater part of the territory, the Swiss population of 8.5 million people is concentrated on the plateau, where the largest cities are to be found: among them are the two global cities and economic centres Zürich and Geneva. The establishment of the Old Swiss Confederacy dates to the late medieval period, resulting from a series of military successes against Austria and Burgundy. Swiss independence from the Holy Roman Empire was formally recognized in the Peace of Westphalia in 1648; the country has a history of armed neutrality going back to the Reformation.
It pursues an active foreign policy and is involved in peace-building processes around the world. In addition to being the birthplace of the Red Cross, Switzerland is home to numerous international organisations, including the second largest UN office. On the European level, it is a founding member of the European Free Trade Association, but notably not part of the European Union, the European Economic Area or the Eurozone. However, it participates in the Schengen Area and the European Single Market through bilateral treaties. Spanning the intersection of Germanic and Romance Europe, Switzerland comprises four main linguistic and cultural regions: German, French and Romansh. Although the majority of the population are German-speaking, Swiss national identity is rooted in a common historical background, shared values such as federalism and direct democracy, Alpine symbolism. Due to its linguistic diversity, Switzerland is known by a variety of native names: Schweiz. On coins and stamps, the Latin name – shortened to "Helvetia" – is used instead of the four national languages.
Switzerland is one of the most developed countries in the world, with the highest nominal wealth per adult and the eighth-highest per capita gross domestic product according to the IMF. Switzerland ranks at or near the top globally in several metrics of national performance, including government transparency, civil liberties, quality of life, economic competitiveness and human development. Zürich and Basel have all three been ranked among the top ten cities in the world in terms of quality of life, with the first ranked second globally, according to Mercer in 2018; the English name Switzerland is a compound containing Switzer, an obsolete term for the Swiss, in use during the 16th to 19th centuries. The English adjective Swiss is a loan from French Suisse in use since the 16th century; the name Switzer is from the Alemannic Schwiizer, in origin an inhabitant of Schwyz and its associated territory, one of the Waldstätten cantons which formed the nucleus of the Old Swiss Confederacy. The Swiss began to adopt the name for themselves after the Swabian War of 1499, used alongside the term for "Confederates", used since the 14th century.
The data code for Switzerland, CH, is derived from Latin Confoederatio Helvetica. The toponym Schwyz itself was first attested in 972, as Old High German Suittes perhaps related to swedan ‘to burn’, referring to the area of forest, burned and cleared to build; the name was extended to the area dominated by the canton, after the Swabian War of 1499 came to be used for the entire Confederation. The Swiss German name of the country, Schwiiz, is homophonous to that of the canton and the settlement, but distinguished by the use of the definite article; the Latin name Confoederatio Helvetica was neologized and introduced after the formation of the federal state in 1848, harking back to the Napoleonic Helvetic Republic, appearing on coins from 1879, inscribed on the Federal Palace in 1902 and after 1948 used in the official seal.. Helvetica is derived from the Helvetii, a Gaulish tribe living on the Swiss plateau before the Roman era. Helvetia appears as a national personification of the Swiss confederacy in the 17th century with a 1672 play by Johann Caspar Weissenbach.
Switzerland has existed as a state in its present form since the adoption of the Swiss Federal Constitution in 1848. The precursors of Switzerland established a protective alliance at the end of the 13th century, forming a loose confederation of states which persisted for centuries; the oldest traces of hominid existence in Switzerland date back about 150,000 years. The oldest known farming settlements in Switzerland, which were found at Gächlingen, have been dated to around 5300 BC; the earliest known cultural tribes of the area were members of the Hallstatt and La Tène cultures, named after the archaeological site of La Tène on the north side of Lake Neuchâtel. La Tène culture developed and flourished during the late Iron Age from around 450 BC under some influence from the Gree
Beringen is a municipality in the canton of Schaffhausen in Switzerland. On 1 January 2013 the municipality of Guntmadingen merged into the municipality of Beringen. Switzerland's history and Beringen's as well is linked back to the Ice Stone Age. But, more beginning with The Helvetians, a celtic tribe, give their name to the Swiss territory: hence HELVETIA on Swiss flags and stamps, ch = Confoederatio Helvetica on cars and internet domains; this is where the story and timeline of not only Swiss history but that of Berginen begins, around 800 - 58 B. C. In the Eschheimer Valley near Beringen, a gravesite had been discovered, believed to reach back to the early Bronze Age. Several feet below the surface and covered by a layer of rocks, a skeleton was discovered, along with a bronze ax with a blade and dagger, as well as a decorative needle, a piece of wire, several bronze nails; this grave was typical for the burial customs of the early Bronze Age. There is good evidence that a "Hof" in the Lieblosen-Valley dates back to the time when the Romans governed the territory, as can be seen by an ancient supporting wall embracing the living quarters and two economy buildings.
"When the Celtic Helvetians attempted to move south from Switzerland to Southern France they were stopped by the Roman commander and subsequent emperor C. Julius Cesar in 58 B. C, they were forced to return to Switzerland. The Romans controlled Switzerland's territory until about A. D. 400. Roman military camps and forts were erected at the northern Rhine frontier..."A spectacular find was discovered when a military tile was unearthed showing the imprint of the 11th and 21st legion was well as the 26th cohort, indicating the presence of a corps of volunteers made up of Roman citizens. Similar tiles have been found in Windisch and Baden-Baden. Further indications of a Roman presence is a complex of walls found near the Aasheimer-Hof in Beringen. Beringen grew up along the creek; the water drove mills in Beringen, such as the flour mill, the gypsum mill, the so-called Oele. Water was needed for the dye-shops in the former Doktorhaus. Along the banks of the town creek, people washed everything, including pails and related objects.
The creek served as drinking water for livestock, was the only help in case of a fire. The first settlers established themselves close to the creek, one house next to the other. Two rows of houses formed the original village; when fire consumed one of the houses, it was not replaced. This made it possible that six or more households could be supplied with water instead of only one or two; the best and best-preserved example of this is a well-known restaurant. Others are the Huggehof, Kellerhof and Paradieserhof, the Winkel; the Chelhof stands far away from the creek, next to the well. Today, Beringen's creek is now covered over. Water is supplied through an extensive system of pipes, large blocks for apartments and businesses have been erected, new buildings with small industries, there are only a few agricultural buildings and outfits existing. There many notable old building that still exist in Beringen: The Church of BeringenOne does not know the Patron Saint of this church, for sure, it can be Saint George who appears in an ancient coat of arms of Beringen.
In a Chronicle of the historian, Rueger is a reference to a church in Beringen from the year 1061, but there is no official record until the year 1231. In 1580, an addition was built at the west end, in 1642 an addition was constructed at the east end. In 1645, a tower was added, including a clock. New bells replaced the four old bells in 1906 and five years an organ was installed. Two further renovations took place in 1965 and 1991. Residents continue to enjoy the sun clock; the Parsonage of BeringenThe old residence of the village parson, across the street from the Huenen Castle, continues to serve as the center of the church congregation. Extensive remodeling and restoration has taken place over the years; the once beautiful and historic Chestnut tree that used to adorned the premises was taken down in 1955, due to the realignment of the street. Castle of the Huenen of Beringen Family The Huenen of Beringen family were aristocrats who built the Castles during the 13th century, enlarged it in succeeding centuries.
There is a drawing with a "Legende" or legend which indicates various parts were built and added in the 13th, 16th, 17th, 18th, 19th, 20th centuries. Through the initiative of the Improvement Society for the castle of Beringen, the entire castle was extensively restored so that various rooms and facilities have been used for the Museum of Beringen for historical folklore purposes, since 1989; the collection consists of items from the regions of Beringen and Loehningen, is a popular attraction for the village. The Peradise-Estate The monastery "Paradice", intent on enlarging its possessions, purchased in 1289 several parcels of land in Beringen. On July 11, 1291, Heinrich Ritter, a citizen of Schaffhausen, sold a large estate, called the "Kehlhof", to the monastery. Five years on December 20, 1296, the Pastor of Zurzach and Merishausen and his brother, Ulrich of Schaffhausen sold another estate in Beringen, "The Bonstetten", to the same Monastery; the monastery was operated by nuns and within a few decades they managed to possess considerable acreage in Berin
Kindergarten is a preschool educational approach based on playing, practical activities such as drawing, social interaction as part of the transition from home to school. Such institutions were created in the late 18th century in Bavaria and Strasbourg to serve children whose parents both worked outside home; the term was coined by the German Friedrich Fröbel, whose approach globally influenced early-years education. Today, the term is used in many countries to describe a variety of educational institutions and learning spaces for children ranging from two to seven years of age, based on a variety of teaching methods. In 1779, Johann Friedrich Oberlin and Louise Scheppler founded in Strasbourg an early establishment for caring for and educating pre-school children whose parents were absent during the day. At about the same time, in 1780, similar infant establishments were established in Bavaria. In 1802, Princess Pauline zur Lippe established a preschool center in Detmold, the capital of the principality of Lippe, Germany.
In 1816, Robert Owen, a philosopher and pedagogue, opened the first British and globally the first infants school in New Lanark, Scotland. In conjunction with his venture for cooperative mills Owen wanted the children to be given a good moral education so that they would be fit for work, his system was successful in producing obedient children with basic numeracy. Samuel Wilderspin opened his first infant school in London in 1819, went on to establish hundreds more, he published many works on the subject, his work became the model for infant schools throughout England and further afield. Play was an important part of Wilderspin's system of education, he is credited with inventing the playground. In 1823, Wilderspin published based on the school, he began working for the Infant School Society the next year. He wrote The Infant System, for developing the physical and moral powers of all children from 1 to seven years of age. Countess Theresa Brunszvik, who had known and been influenced by Johann Heinrich Pestalozzi, was influenced by this example to open an Angyalkert on May 27, 1828, in her residence in Buda, the first of eleven care centers that she founded for young children.
In 1836 she established an institute for the foundation of preschool centers. The idea became popular among the nobility and the middle class and was copied throughout the Kingdom of Hungary. Friedrich Fröbel opened a "play and activity" institute in 1837 in the village of Bad Blankenburg in the principality of Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt, Thuringia, as an experimental social experience for children entering school, he renamed his institute Kindergarten on June 28, 1840, reflecting his belief that children should be nurtured and nourished "like plants in a garden". Women trained by Fröbel opened kindergartens around the world; the first kindergarten in the US was founded in Watertown, Wisconsin in 1856 and was conducted in German by Margaretha Meyer-Schurz. Elizabeth Peabody founded the first English-language kindergarten in the US in 1860; the first free kindergarten in the US was founded in 1870 by Conrad Poppenhusen, a German industrialist and philanthropist, who established the Poppenhusen Institute.
The first publicly financed kindergarten in the US was established in St. Louis in 1873 by Susan Blow. Canada's first private kindergarten was opened by the Wesleyan Methodist Church in Charlottetown, Prince Edward Island, in 1870. By the end of the decade, they were common in cities. In 1882, The country's first public-school kindergartens were established in Berlin, Ontario at the Central School. In 1885, the Toronto Normal School opened a department for kindergarten teaching. Elizabeth Harrison wrote extensively on the theory of early childhood education and worked to enhance educational standards for kindergarten teachers by establishing what became the National College of Education in 1886. In Afghanistan, children between the ages of 3 and 6 attend kindergartens. Although kindergartens in Afghanistan are not part of the school system, they are run by the government. Early Childhood Development programs were first introduced during the Soviet occupation with the establishment in 1980 of 27 urban preschools, or kodakistan.
The number of preschools grew during the 1980s, peaking in 1990 with more than 270 in Afghanistan. At this peak, there were 2,300 teachers caring for more than 21,000 children in the country; these facilities were an urban phenomenon in Kabul, were attached to schools, government offices, or factories. Based on the Soviet model, these Early Childhood Development programs provided nursery care and kindergarten for children from 3 months to 6 years of age under the direction of the Department of Labor and Social Welfare; the vast majority of Afghan families were never exposed to this system, many of these families were in opposition to these programs due to the belief that it diminishes the central role of the family and inculcates children with Soviet values. With the onset of civil war after the Soviet withdrawal, the number of kindergartens dropped rapidly. By 1995, only 88 functioning facilities serving 2,110 children survived, the Taliban restrictions on female employment eliminated all of the remaining centers in areas under their control.
In 2007, there were about 260 kindergarten/pre-school centers serving over 25,000 children. Though every government c
Coat of arms
A coat of arms is a heraldic visual design on an escutcheon, surcoat, or tabard. The coat of arms on an escutcheon forms the central element of the full heraldic achievement which in its whole consists of shield, supporters and motto. A coat of arms is traditionally unique to an individual person, state, organization or corporation; the Roll of Arms is a collection of many coats of arms, since the early Modern Age centuries it has been a source of information for public showing and tracing the membership of a noble family, therefore its genealogy across time. The ancient Greek hoplites used individual insignia on their shields; the ancient Romans used similar insignia on their shields. Heraldic designs came into general use among western nobility in the 12th century. Systematic, heritable heraldry had developed by the beginning of the 13th century. Who had a right to use arms, by law or social convention, varied to some degree between countries. Early heraldic designs were personal. Arms become hereditary by the end of the 12th century, in England by King Richard I during the Third Crusade.
Burgher arms are used in Northern Italy in the second half of the 13th century, in the Holy Roman Empire by the mid 14th century. In the late medieval period, use of arms spread to the clergy, to towns as civic identifiers, to royally chartered organizations such as universities and trading companies; the arts of vexillology and heraldry are related. The term coat of arms itself in origin refers to the surcoat with heraldic designs worn by combattants in the knightly tournament, in Old French cote a armer; the sense is transferred to the heraldic design itself in the mid-14th century. Despite no widespread regulation, heraldry has remained consistent across Europe, where tradition alone has governed the design and use of arms; some nations, like England and Scotland, still maintain the same heraldic authorities which have traditionally granted and regulated arms for centuries and continue to do so in the present day. In England, for example, the granting of arms has been controlled by the College of Arms.
Unlike seals and other general emblems, heraldic "achievements" have a formal description called a blazon, which uses vocabulary that allows for consistency in heraldic depictions. In the present day, coats of arms are still in use by a variety of institutions and individuals: for example, many European cities and universities have guidelines on how their coats of arms may be used, protect their use as trademarks. Many societies exist that aid in the design and registration of personal arms. Heraldry has been compared to modern corporate logos; the French system of heraldry influenced the British and Western European systems. Much of the terminology and classifications are taken from it. However, with the fall of the French monarchy there is not a Fons Honorum to enforce heraldic law; the French Republics that followed have either affirmed pre-existing titles and honors or vigorously opposed noble privilege. Coats of arms are considered an intellectual property of municipal body. Assumed arms are considered valid unless they can be proved in court to copy that of an earlier holder.
In the heraldic traditions of England and Scotland, an individual, rather than a family, had a coat of arms. In those traditions coats of arms are legal property transmitted from father to son. Undifferenced arms are used only by one person at any given time. Other descendants of the original bearer could bear the ancestral arms only with some difference: a colour change or the addition of a distinguishing charge. One such charge is the label, which in British usage is now always the mark of an heir apparent or an heir presumptive; because of their importance in identification in seals on legal documents, the use of arms was regulated. This has been carried out by heralds and the study of coats of arms is therefore called "heraldry". In time, the use of arms spread from military entities to educational institutes, other establishments. In Scotland, the Lord Lyon King of Arms has criminal jurisdiction to control the use of arms. In England, Northern Ireland and Wales the use of arms is a matter of civil law and regulated by the College of Arms and the High Court of Chivalry.
In reference to a dispute over the exercise of authority over the Officers of Arms in England, Arthur Annesley, 1st Earl of Anglesey, Lord Privy Seal, declared on 16 June 1673 that the powers of the Earl Marshal were "to order and determine all matters touching arms, ensigns of nobility and chivalry. It was further declared that no patents of arms or any ensigns of nobility should be granted and no augmentation, alteration, or addition should be made to arms without the consent of the Earl Marshal. In Ireland the usage and granting of coats of arms was regulated by the Ulster King of Arms from the office's creation in 1552. After Irish independence in 1922 the office was still working out of Dublin Castle; the last Ulster King of Arm
Löhningen is a municipality in the canton of Schaffhausen in Switzerland. Löhningen is first mentioned in 1112 as Loningen. An earlier reference, from about 778-781, to Loninga might refer to the village of Löhningen im Steinatal in Waldshut district in Germany; the blazon of the municipal coat of arms is Per fess Gules a Trefoil slipped Vert and Sable two bends sinister of the second. Löhningen has an area, as of 2006, of 6.9 km2. Of this area, 53.5% is used for agricultural purposes, while 38.1% is forested. Of the rest of the land, 8.3% is settled and the remainder is non-productive. The municipality is located in the Oberklettgau district. Löhningen shares a border with Beringen in the East, Guntmadingen in the South-East, Neunkirch in the South-West, Gächlingen in the West and Siblingen in the North-West. Children from Löhningen attend Secondary School in Beringen, Primary School and kindergarten in Löhningen itself; the municipality on the foot of the Randen range is surrounded by vineyards.
Löhningen has a population of 1,213. Of the foreign population, 40.4% are from Germany, 6.4% are from Italy, 2.8% are from Croatia, 12.8% are from Serbia, 37.6% are from another country. Over the last 10 years the population has grown at a rate of 4.5%. Most of the population speaks German, with Serbo-Croatian being second most common and French being third; the age distribution of the population is children and teenagers make up 23% of the population, while adults make up 61% and seniors make up 16%. In the 2007 federal election the most popular party was the SVP which received 48.2% of the vote. The next two most popular parties were the SP, the FDP; the entire Swiss population is well educated. In Löhningen about 85.2% of the population have completed either non-mandatory upper secondary education or additional higher education. In Löhningen, as of 2007, 2.4% of the population attend kindergarten or another pre-school, 7.21% attend a Primary School, 4.12% attend a lower level Secondary School, 3.52% attend a higher level Secondary School.
As of 2000, 16% of the population belonged to the Roman Catholic Church and 69.9% belonged to the Swiss Reformed Church. The historical population is given in the following table: Löhningen has an unemployment rate of 1.5%. As of 2005, there were 46 people employed in the primary economic sector and about 17 businesses involved in this sector. 80 people are employed in the secondary sector and there are 14 businesses in this sector. 69 people are employed in the tertiary sector, with 28 businesses in this sector. As of 2008 the mid year average unemployment rate was 1.6%. There were 46 non-agrarian businesses in the municipality and 52.7% of the population was involved in the secondary sector of the economy while 47.3% were involved in the third. At the same time, 67.7% of the working population was employed full-time, 32.3% was employed part-time. There were 167 residents of the municipality who were employed in some capacity, of which females made up 33.5% of the workforce. As of 2000 there were 131 residents who worked in the municipality, while 446 residents worked outside Löhningen and 74 people commuted into the municipality for work.
Municipal website Wine press building website
Historical Dictionary of Switzerland
The Historical Dictionary of Switzerland is an encyclopedia on the history of Switzerland that aims to take into account the results of modern historical research in a manner accessible to a broader audience. The encyclopedia is published by a foundation under the patronage of the Swiss Academy of Humanities and Social Sciences and the Swiss Historical Society and is financed by national research grants. Besides a staff of 35 at the central offices, the contributors include 100 academic advisors, 2500 historians and 100 translators; the encyclopedia is being edited in three national languages of Switzerland: German and Italian. The first of 13 volumes was published in 2002; the last volume was published in 2014. The 36,000 headings are grouped in: Biographies Articles on families and genealogy Articles on places Subject articles The on-line edition has been available since 1998, it makes accessible, for free, but no illustrations. It lists all 36,000 topics that are to be covered. Lexicon Istoric Retic is a two volume version with a selection of articles published in Romansh.
It includes articles not available in the other languages. The first volume was published in 2010, the second in 2012. An on-line version is available. Historisches Lexikon der Schweiz, Schwabe AG, Basel, ISBN 3-7965-1900-8 Dictionnaire historique de la Suisse, Editions Gilles Attinger, Hauterive, ISBN 2-88256-133-4 Dizionario storico della Svizzera, Armando Dadò editore, Locarno, ISBN 88-8281-100-X Lexicon Istoric Retic, Kommissionsverlag Desertina, Chur, ISBN 978-3-85637-390-0, ISBN 978-3-85637-391-7 Media related to Historical Dictionary of Switzerland at Wikimedia Commons DHS/HLS/DSS online edition in German and Italian Lexicon Istoric Retic online edition in Romansh
Oberhallau is a municipality in the canton of Schaffhausen in Switzerland. Both Hallau and Oberhallau are first mentioned in 1095 as Hallaugia inferiori; until the Peasants' War of 1653 it was part of Hallau. The blazon of the municipal coat of arms is Azure a Fleur-de-lis Argent and overall a Key Or in fess. Oberhallau has an area, as of 2006, of 6 km2. Of this area, 72.5% is used for agricultural purposes, while 20.5% is forested. Of the rest of the land, 6.8% is settled and the remainder is non-productive. The municipality is located in the Unterklettgau district on the foot of the Hallauerberg. Oberhallau has a population of 425. Of the foreign population, 30% are from Germany, 10% are from Italy, 60% are from another country. Over the last 10 years the population has decreased at a rate of 0%. Most of the population speaks German, with Serbo-Croatian being second most common and English being third; the age distribution of the population is children and teenagers make up 22.4% of the population, while adults make up 61.6% and seniors make up 16%.
In the 2007 federal election the most popular party was the SVP which received 61.5% of the vote. The next two most popular parties were the SP, the FDP. In Oberhallau about 84.3% of the population have completed either non-mandatory upper secondary education or additional higher education. In Oberhallau, as of 2007, 3.56% of the population attend kindergarten or another pre-school, 4.28% attend a Primary School, 4.75% attend a lower level Secondary School, 3.8% attend a higher level Secondary School. As of 2000, 13.6% of the population belonged to the Roman Catholic Church and 77.1% belonged to the Swiss Reformed Church. The historical population is given in the following table: Oberhallau has an unemployment rate, as of 2007, of 0.64%. As of 2005, there were 88 people employed in the primary economic sector and about 31 businesses involved in this sector. 18 people are employed in the secondary sector and there are 3 businesses in this sector. 25 people are employed in the tertiary sector, with 7 businesses in this sector.
As of 2008 the mid year average unemployment rate was 0.4%. There were 14 non-agrarian businesses in the municipality and 47.8% of the population was involved in the secondary sector of the economy while 52.2% were involved in the third. At the same time, 54.3% of the working population was employed full-time, 45.7% was employed part-time. There were 46 residents of the municipality who were employed in some capacity, of which females made up 58.7% of the workforce. As of 2000 there were 83 residents who worked in the municipality, while 128 residents worked outside Oberhallau and 18 people commuted into the municipality for work; as of 2008, there is 1 restaurant in the village and the hospitality industry in Oberhallau employs 2 people. The Stone Age gravesite at Überhürst is listed as a Swiss heritage site of national significance