Sweden Democrats or Swedish Democrats is a social conservative and right-wing populist political party in Sweden, founded in 1988. The party describes itself as social conservative with a nationalist foundation; the party has been characterized by others as far-right, national-conservative, anti-immigration. Jimmie Åkesson has been party leader since 2005; the party has its roots in Swedish fascism and was a white nationalist movement through the early-1990s, when it first began distancing itself from its past. Today, the Sweden Democrats reject both fascism and Nazism; the Sweden Democrats crossed the 4% threshold necessary for parliamentary representation for the first time in the 2010 general election, polling 5.7% and gaining 20 seats in the Riksdag. This increase in popularity has been compared by international media to other similar anti-immigration movements in Europe; the party received increased support in the 2018 Swedish general election, when it polled 17.5% and secured 62 seats in parliament, becoming the third largest party in Sweden.
The Sweden Democrats remained isolated in the Riksdag for a long time because the other parties staunchly maintained a policy of refusing cooperation with them. However, in March 2019 Christian Democratic leader Ebba Busch Thor announced that her party was ready to start negotiations with the Sweden Democrats in the Riksdag; the Sweden Democrats are a member of European Conservatives and Reformists group in the European Parliament. The party was against the European Union, supported a Swedish exit from the EU until January 2019; the Sweden Democrats party was founded in 1988 as a direct successor to the Sweden Party, which in turn had been formed in 1986 by the merger of Bevara Sverige Svenskt and a faction of the Swedish Progress Party. SD claims 6 February 1988 as the date of its foundation, although observers tend to see the party's foundation as part of a complex decade-long series of events, with some calling into question whether a meeting took place on 6 February; the party has its roots in Swedish fascism and was a white nationalist movement through the early-1990s, when it first began distancing itself from its past.
The SD's logo from the 1990s until 2006 was a version of the torch used by the UK National Front. While opinions on the early SD vary, it is agreed that SD has never been a Nazi party, although various connections have existed through some of its former members; the party sponsored music of the nationalist Viking rock band Ultima Thule, various party officials today acknowledge that being fans of Ultima Thule's music factored prominently in their decision to become politically engaged. Among the founding officials of the party were several people that had expressed strong support for the ideology of Nazi Germany; the party's first auditor, Gustaf Ekström, was a Waffen-SS veteran and had been a member of the national socialist party Svensk Socialistisk Samling in the 1940s. In 1989, Ekström was a member of the Sweden Democrats' national board. SD's first chairman Anders. Early on, the party recommended international connections to its members such as the National Democratic Party of Germany, the American National Association for the Advancement of White People and publications like the Nazi Nation Europa and Nouvelle École, a newspaper that advocates racial biology.
From 1995 onwards the party's new leader, Mikael Jansson, strove to make the party more respectable and, after photographs surfaced of some members posing in Nazi uniforms at party meetings, the wearing of any kind of uniform was formally banned in 1996. During the 1990s, the party became more influenced by the French National Front, as well as the Freedom Party of Austria, the Danish People's Party, German The Republicans and Italian National Alliance. SD received economic support for the 1998 election from the French National Front, was active in Le Pen's Euronat from the same time. SD, however, in 1999 left its membership in Euronat to its youth organisation. In 2001 the most extreme faction was expelled from the party, leading to the formation of the more radical National Democrats. During the 2000s the so-called "Scania gang", or "Gang of Four" – Jimmie Åkesson, Björn Söder, Mattias Karlsson and Richard Jomshof – continued and expanded the moderation policy, which included ousting extremist members.
Before the 2002 election, former Moderate Party MP Sten Christer Andersson defected to SD, citing that the party had gotten rid of its extreme-right elements. In 2003 the party declared the Universal Declaration of Human Rights to be a cornerstone of its policies. In 2006 the party changed its logo from the torch to one featuring an Anemone hepatica, reminiscent of the party's first, but short-lived, logo. In the 2010 general election, SD won representation in the Swedish Riksdag for the first time, with 5.7% of the vote and 20 MPs. Sweden Democrat MP William Petzäll was persuaded to leave the party on 26 September 2011 while still retaining his parliamentary seat; this was done because of Petzäll's substance abuse and the problems this might cause for SD's public image. Petzäll died of an overdose and his seat was turned over to Stellan Bojerud in September 2012. In November 2012, videos from August 2010 were released, in segments, over the course of three days by Swedish newspaper Expressen.
This came to be known as the Iron pipe scandal, although t
The Liberals is a liberal and social-liberal political party in Sweden. It was a part of the Alliance centre-right coalition government led by Prime Minister Fredrik Reinfeldt from 2006 to 2014; the party is the seventh-largest party in the Swedish Riksdag. Until 22 November 2015 it was known as the Liberal People's Party; the party is a member of the Liberal International and Alliance of Liberals and Democrats for Europe. While the party was positioned in the centre of the Swedish political landscape, willing to cooperate with both the political left and the right, it has since the leaderships of Lars Leijonborg and Jan Björklund in the 2000s positioned itself more towards the right; the party's policies include action toward a free market economy and pushing for Sweden to join NATO and the Eurozone, as well as investing in nuclear power. 1809: The first liberal party is formed after a coup d'état ends 20 years of royal autocracy under the Union and Security Act. 1902: The Free-minded National Association is formed as the first liberal party with a national grassroots organisation.
It is reliant on the "free religious" church movement. 1910: After women become eligible to be elected to municipal councils in Sweden, suffragette Valborg Olander is elected to the Falun city council for the Liberal Party. 1923: The Free-minded National Association splits over alcohol prohibition. The Free-minded would come to lead several governments during the coming years. 1934: The parties reconcile and form the People's Party, i.e. the party in its present form. 1939–45: It takes part in a wartime coalition government comprising all parties except the communists. Sweden remains neutral during the Second World War. 1976: It enters a three-party government ending 44 years of Social Democratic Party rule. 1978: The People's Party forms a short-lived minority government by itself, with chairperson Ola Ullsten as prime minister. Hans Blix to become famous before the Iraq War, is foreign minister. 1979: A new attempt at a three-party coalition is made. 1980–82: It forms a two-party coalition government with the Centre party.
1990: It adds Liberal to its name to become the Liberal People's Party. 1991–94: It forms part of a four-party centre-right coalition government under Moderate Party leader Carl Bildt. 2002: It more than doubles its vote share and comes close to being the second-largest party in Riksdag elections. 2006–14: It forms part of the Alliance four-party centre-right coalition government under Moderate Party leader Fredrik Reinfeldt. 2015: It changes its name from the Liberal People's Party to the Liberals. 2018: It, together with the Centre Party, voted down a proposed Moderate-Christian Democrat government led by Ulf Kristersson after concerns that such a government would be dependent on the Sweden Democrats for support. 2019: It, together with the Centre Party, voted to tolerate a Social Democratic-Green government led by Stefan Lofven after coming up with a 73-point agreement. Jan Bjorklund announced he will step down as party leader and will not stand in the party's autumn leadership contest; the official party ideology has been social liberalism, which translates as a strong ideological commitment to a mixed economy, with support for comprehensive but market-based welfare state programs.
While allied with the Swedish Social Democratic Party in the struggle for democracy and social reform, the People's Party came to be part of the opposition from the thirties and onwards, opposing Social Democrat demands for nationalization of private businesses. It has stayed opposed to the Social Democrats since as the largest or second-largest party of the opposition block, but equally critical towards parties on the right. Over time, this has shifted towards a more clear-cut rightwing role. In the mid-nineties the party seemed to have ruled out the alternative of co-operation with the Social Democrats, focusing instead on bringing them down by strengthening the opposition. Foreign aid and women's equality were important issues for the party in the past, today the party advocates liberal feminism and giving a full percent of the gross national income as foreign aid. Foreign policy is another high-profile issue. Always oriented towards the United States and the United Kingdom, the party was a strong opponent of Communism and Nazism during the 20th century.
While it was part of and supported the Swedish coalition government and its position of neutrality during World War II, the party advocated an active stance against the Soviet Union during the Cold War. The party supported the struggle of the Baltic peoples against the Soviet regime, whereas Social Democrats were wary of irritating the Soviets; as a consequence, it suffered several worded rebukes from the often-ruling Social Democrats for endangering Swedish relations with the Soviet Union. It criticised what it perceived as Social Democrat tolerance of left-wing dictatorships in the third world, supported the United States in the Vietnam War. After the end of the Cold War it became the first Swedish party to call for abandoning the country's traditional neutrality in favor of joining NATO. Among issue
Dalarna County is a county or län in middle Sweden. It borders the counties of Jämtland, Gävleborg, Västmanland, Örebro and Värmland, it is bordered by the Norwegian counties of Hedmark and Trøndelag in the west. The term Dalarna County is used for administrative purposes, being further subdivided into municipalities. Dalarna County encompasses the historical province Dalarna, that deals with history and culture of the area. In older times, Dalarna was periodically part of the territory ruled by the governor of Västerås Castle; the 1634 Instrument of Government led to the creation of a county covering Dalarna with its own County Governor. The Kopparbergs län was created by royal decree in 1647. In 1997, the name of the county was changed to Dalarna County; the main aim of the County Administrative Board is to fulfil the goals set in national politics by the Riksdag and the Government, to coordinate the interests and promote the development of the county, to establish regional goals and safeguard the due process of law in the handling of each case.
The County Administrative Board is a Government Agency headed by a Governor. See List of Dalarna Governors; the County Council of Dalarna or Landstinget Dalarna handles health care and public transportation. After the Swedish general election in 2014, the Dalarna County council are represented by the following political parties: Main article: Municipalities of Dalarna County In Dalarna Province: Älvdalen Avesta Borlänge Falun Gagnef Hedemora Leksand Ludvika Malung-Sälen Mora Orsa Rättvik Säter Smedjebacken Vansbro The Dalarna County inherited its coat of arms from the province of Dalarna; when it is shown with a royal crown it represents the County Administrative Board. Duke of Dalarna, a title for members of the royal family University College of Dalarna Dalecarlian horse Ecomuseum Bergslagen Scandinavian Mountains Airport County Administrative Board of Dalarna County Council of Dalarna Regional Association of Dalarna
Centre Party (Sweden)
The Centre Party is a liberal and nordic agrarian political party in Sweden. Traditionally part of the Nordic agrarian family, the party has shifted its focus towards free market economics, environmental protection, gender equality and decentralisation of governmental authority; the party's major issues are national economy and integration and it is represented in all of the Riksdags parliamentary committees. The party was founded in 1913 as the Farmers' League. In 1922 it merged with the National Farmers' Union to become the Farmers' League; the party adopted its current name in 1957. At that time it had been the closest ally of the Swedish Social Democratic Party for 25 years, its coalition partners between 1936 and 1945 as well as between 1951 and 1957, but it has since revised this strategy in order to establish a closer long-term alliance between the centre-right parties, that achieved power between 1976 and 1982 and between 1991 and 1994. Thorbjörn Fälldin was the leader of the Centre Party and Prime Minister from 1976 until 1982, except a short interregnum in 1978–1979 by Liberal People's Party leader Ola Ullsten.
The Centre Party again joined a centre-right government following the 1991 election led by Moderate Party leader Carl Bildt. During the leaderships of Maud Olofsson and Annie Lööf in the 2000s the party has positioned itself on the political right as a small business-friendly party, leaning towards neoliberal and libertarian policies and viewing the Social Democrats as its main opponent. In 2005 the Centre Party sold its ownership of the newspaper group Centertidningar AB for 1.8 billion SEK, thus making it – at the time – the richest political party in the world. The 2006 Swedish election was a success for the Centre Party, its support had been increasing through recent elections. In the 2006 elections 7.88% of the vote went to the Centre Party, entitling them to 29 of the 349 seats in the Swedish Riksdag. Furthermore, their alliance with the other parties in the Alliance for Sweden, a coalition which won a majority of parliament seats in this election, meant that the Centre Party shared the ministry posts with their Alliance for Sweden allies: the Moderate Party, the Liberal People's Party and the Christian Democrats.
The strong victory by C in the 2006 election has been studied by political scientist Dr. Lina M. Eriksson. Who in her dissertation from the Department of Government at Uppsala University, entitled "Natural Disasters and National Election", performs a rigorous statistical analysis of election data combined with interviews with Maud Olofsson, Eskil Erlandsson, Ulrica Messing and Mona Sahlin. Dr, Eriksson's research finds that both the Indian Ocean's 2004 Boxing Day Tsunami and 2005 Storm Gudrun, which struck only two weeks following the tsunami, are major events that impacted government popularity in the 2006 election and contributed to the redistribution of voter support and across party-blocs, with interesting results for C. "The core findings from this thesis show that the Social Democratic government’s poor crisis response to Gudrun, the hitherto most costly natural disaster in Swedish history, alone has an estimated effect of a magnitude that contributed to the 2006 historic regime shift, while the tsunami seems to have mattered.
The tsunami is interesting, as S’s poor international crisis response to the event constitutes the first natural disaster situation to knowingly have affected an election on the other side of the planet. Moreover, to some degree voters recognized the active opposition by C as effective representation and rewarded the party for its strong stance on the poor handling of both events by S. In fact, the active voice of C concerning these disasters helped move the party from the periphery of party politics to becoming the third-largest party in Swedish politics". Part of the dissertation has been published in Electoral Studies, to be considered the leading scientific journal in election research. In the article long-term effects are found over the 2010 and 2014 election, which implies that the Storm, in particular, triggered long-lasting changes in voter support from the left to the right side of the political spectrum. A comprehensive summary of the dissertation is available for download via Uppsala University.
Centerpartiet has in both liberal and conservative medias been described as one of Sweden's most market liberal parties. However, the party describes themselves as a party with a green and earthy liberalism; the party leadership has many times taken distance from libertarianism. The party advocates lower taxes reduced employer contributions, a freer market and an increased RUT-deductioned; the party is a big advocator for small-business and entrepreneurs. They want to invest in the infrastructure and transportation so employees could work in bigger cities but still live in the rural areas. On economic policy, they've described their opponents to be the Swedish Social Democratic Party and the Sweden Democrats. Centerpartiet is a liberal immigration party, who stands that they want to combine a generous immigration policy with an more restrictive contribution policy to the immigrants. After the big immigration wave in autumn 2015, the party proposed to replace the existing establishment grants with establishment loans, similar to the Swedish student loans.
The party is clear with the responsibility of Sweden to receiving refugees but the responsibility of the immigran
The Moderate Party is a liberal-conservative political party in Sweden. The party supports tax cuts, the free market, civil liberties and economic liberalism. Internationally, it is a full member of the International Democrat Union and European People's Party; the party was founded in 1904 as the General Electoral League by a group of conservatives in the Riksdag, the Swedish parliament. The party was known as The Right and Right Wing Party. After holding minor posts in centre-right governments, the Moderates became the leading opposition party to the Swedish Social Democratic Party and since those two parties have dominated Swedish politics. After the 1991 general election, party leader Carl Bildt formed a minority government, the first administration since 1930 to be headed by a member of the party, which lasted three years; the party was returned in government, under party leader and Prime Minister Fredrik Reinfeld, after the 2006 and 2010 general elections. In 2010 the party, the leading member of the centre-right Alliance coalition, obtained its best result ever.
The current chairman of the party, Ulf Kristersson, was elected at a special party congress on 1 October 2017, following Anna Kinberg Batra's sudden resignation. Kinberg Batra had replaced Reinfeldt, Prime Minister from 2006 to 2014. Under Reinfeldt's leadership, the party moved more towards the centre in Swedish politics; the party was founded on 17 October 1904 in a restaurant called Runan in Stockholm. The intention was to start a campaign organization in support of the group of Conservatives which had emerged in the Riksdag. During the 19th century conservatives had organised themselves in the Riksdag but there was no party to support them; the Swedish right were threatened by the rise of the Swedish Social Democratic Party and the Liberals. The party was called the General Electoral League. At first the party was nationalist and staunchly conservative; the importance of a strong defense was underlined and other societal institutions embraced by the party were the monarchy and the state of law.
The party held a protectionist view towards the economy. In the defence policy crisis in 1914, which overturned the parliamentary Liberal government, the party sided with King Gustav but stopped short of accepting a right-wing government by royal appointment, instead opting for an independent-conservative "war cabinet" under Hjalmar Hammarskjöld, overturned in favor of a Liberal-Social Democratic majority coalition government and thus the breakthrough of parliamentary rule, albeit reluctantly embraced by the right. Arvid Lindman became influential in the party and served two terms as Prime Minister of Sweden and after the enactment of universal suffrage. In 1907 he proposed universal male suffrage to the parliament and in 1912 he was formally elected leader, but the party voted against universal suffrage and the party again voted against women's right to vote. It was only because the party was in minority that Sweden was able to grant the right to vote for all, pushed through by the Liberals and the Social Democrats, against the objections of the right.
Although not one of the founders of the party and not a prominent ideologist and his achievements as a leader are appreciated as being of great importance for the new party. His leadership was marked by a consolidation of the Swedish right, by transforming the party into a modern, political movement. Lindman was a pragmatic politician, but without losing his principles, he was peace-broker. For this he was respected by his fiercest political opponents and when he resigned and left the parliament in 1935, the leader of the Social Democrats, Per Albin Hansson, expressed his "honest thanks over the battle lines". From the beginning of the 20th century social democracy and the labour movement rose to replace liberalism as the major political force for radical reforms; the Moderate Party intensified its opposition to socialism during the leadership of Lindman—the importance of continuance and strengthening national business were cornerstones. But at the same time, recent social issues gained significant political attention.
During the governments led by Lindman, several reforms for social progress were made, it was his first government that initiated the public state pension. In the 1920s the Swedish right started to move towards a classical liberal view on economic issues under the influence of the liberal economist Gustav Cassel, but the economic downturn following the Great Depression frustrated the possible liberal transition of their economic policy. Before that occurred the party gained its greatest success yet with 29.4% in the general election of 1928 called the Cossack Election, on a anti-socialist programme. The government formed by the party did not accept the concept of the market economy, but continued the protectionist policy by generous financial aid; the government began complete regulation of agriculture. Production associations, with the objective to administer the regulations and to run monopolies on imports, were established du
Sandviken Municipality is a municipality in Gävleborg County, in east central Sweden. The seat is the town Sandviken; the present municipality was created in 1971 through the amalgamation of the City of Sandviken with a number of surrounding rural municipalities. The coat of arms was granted to the City of Sandviken upon its institution in 1943; the device in the middle is a steam hammer. After the municipality reform of 1971 the arms was taken over by the new, entity. Note: As Sandviken means the sandy bay there are numerous other places of that name throughout Scandinavia. Sandviken Municipality will be one of the co-arrangers of the 2017 Bandy World Championship, which will be held in Göransson Arena, a municipality owned bandy arena in Sandviken. Sandvik, University College of Gävle Sandviken - Official site
The Baltic Sea is a marginal sea of the Atlantic Ocean, enclosed by Denmark, Finland, Lithuania, northeast Germany, Poland and the North and Central European Plain. The sea stretches from 53 ° N from 10 ° E to 30 ° E longitude. A mediterranean sea of the Atlantic, with limited water exchange between the two bodies, the Baltic Sea drains through the Danish islands into the Kattegat by way of the straits of Øresund, the Great Belt, the Little Belt, it includes the Gulf of Bothnia, the Bay of Bothnia, the Gulf of Finland, the Gulf of Riga, the Bay of Gdańsk. The Baltic Proper is bordered on its northern edge, at the latitude 60°N, by the Åland islands and the Gulf of Bothnia, on its northeastern edge by the Gulf of Finland, on its eastern edge by the Gulf of Riga, in the west by the Swedish part of the southern Scandinavian Peninsula; the Baltic Sea is connected by artificial waterways to the White Sea via the White Sea Canal and to the German Bight of the North Sea via the Kiel Canal. Administration The Helsinki Convention on the Protection of the Marine Environment of the Baltic Sea Area includes the Baltic Sea and the Kattegat, without calling Kattegat a part of the Baltic Sea, "For the purposes of this Convention the'Baltic Sea Area' shall be the Baltic Sea and the Entrance to the Baltic Sea, bounded by the parallel of the Skaw in the Skagerrak at 57°44.43'N."Traffic history Historically, the Kingdom of Denmark collected Sound Dues from ships at the border between the ocean and the land-locked Baltic Sea, in tandem: in the Øresund at Kronborg castle near Helsingør.
The narrowest part of Little Belt is the "Middelfart Sund" near Middelfart. Oceanography Geographers agree that the preferred physical border of the Baltic is a line drawn through the southern Danish islands, Drogden-Sill and Langeland; the Drogden Sill is situated north of Køge Bugt and connects Dragør in the south of Copenhagen to Malmö. By this definition, the Danish Straits are part of the entrance, but the Bay of Mecklenburg and the Bay of Kiel are parts of the Baltic Sea. Another usual border is the line between Falsterbo and Stevns Klint, Denmark, as this is the southern border of Øresund. It's the border between the shallow southern Øresund and notably deeper water. Hydrography and biology Drogden Sill sets a limit to Øresund and Darss Sill, a limit to the Belt Sea; the shallow sills are obstacles to the flow of heavy salt water from the Kattegat into the basins around Bornholm and Gotland. The Kattegat and the southwestern Baltic Sea have a rich biology; the remainder of the Sea is poor in oxygen and in species.
Thus, the more of the entrance, included in its definition, the healthier the Baltic appears. Tacitus called it Mare Suebicum after the Germanic people of the Suebi, Ptolemy Sarmatian Ocean after the Sarmatians, but the first to name it the Baltic Sea was the eleventh-century German chronicler Adam of Bremen; the origin of the latter name is speculative and it was adopted into Slavic and Finnic languages spoken around the sea likely due to the role of Medieval Latin in cartography. It might be connected to the Germanic word belt, a name used for two of the Danish straits, the Belts, while others claim it to be directly derived from the source of the Germanic word, Latin balteus "belt". Adam of Bremen himself compared the sea with a belt, stating that it is so named because it stretches through the land as a belt, he might have been influenced by the name of a legendary island mentioned in the Natural History of Pliny the Elder. Pliny mentions an island named Baltia with reference to accounts of Xenophon.
It is possible. Baltia might be derived from belt and mean "near belt of sea, strait." Meanwhile, others have suggested that the name of the island originates from the Proto-Indo-European root *bhel meaning "white, fair". This root and its basic meaning were retained in both Latvian. On this basis, a related hypothesis holds that the name originated from this Indo-European root via a Baltic language such as Lithuanian. Another explanation is that, while derived from the aforementioned root, the name of the sea is related to names for various forms of water and related substances in several European languages, that might have been associated with colors found in swamps, yet another explanation is that the name meant "enclosed sea, bay" as opposed to open sea. Some Swedish historians believe. In the Middle Ages the sea was known by a variety of names; the name Baltic Sea became dominant only after 1600. Usage of Baltic and similar terms to denote the region east of the sea started only in 19th century.
The Baltic Sea was known in ancient Latin language sources as Mare Suebicum or Mare Germanicum. Older native names in languages that used to be spoken on the shores of the sea or near it indicate the geographical location of the sea, or its size in relation to smaller gulfs, or tribes associated with it. In modern lang