Nord's 10th constituency
Nord's tenth constituency is a French legislative constituency in the Nord département. It is one of twenty-one in that département, covers two cantons, which together constitute part of the town of Tourcoing. Following repeated homophobic statements by incumbent MP Christian Vanneste, the Union for a Popular Movement once more withdrew its endorsement of him, but this time stood a candidate against him. Vanneste stood as the candidate of the Rally for France, a minor party of which he was the president since March 2012. Vanneste was eliminated in the first round of the vote, finishing fourth with 13.18%. The Socialist and UMP candidates were qualified for the runoff, receiving 30.69% and 25.06% of the vote. Christian Vanneste, the incumbent MP for the Union for a Popular Movement, lost the endorsement of his party after making repeated homophobic remarks, he had said in particular that homosexuality was an "acquired habit" which could be lost through "reeducation". The UMP did not allow him to stand as its candidate.
Vanneste stood as the candidate of the National Centre of Independents and Peasants, an associate party of the UMP. After his successful reelection, he was reintegrated into the UMP, sat as one of its members in Parliament. Official results of French elections from 1998: "Résultats électoraux officiels en France"
Reuters is an international news organization. It has nearly 200 locations around the world; until 2008, the Reuters news agency formed part of an independent company, Reuters Group plc, a provider of financial market data. Since the acquisition of Reuters Group by the Thomson Corporation in 2008, the Reuters news agency has been a part of Thomson Reuters, making up the media division. Reuters transmits news in English, German, Spanish, Russian, Arabic, Japanese and Chinese, it was established in 1851. The Reuter agency was established in 1851 by Paul Julius Reuter in Britain at the London Royal Exchange. Paul Reuter worked at a book-publishing firm in Berlin and was involved in distributing radical pamphlets at the beginning of the Revolutions in 1848; these publications brought much attention to Reuter, who in 1850 developed a prototype news service in Aachen using homing pigeons and electric telegraphy from 1851 on in order to transmit messages between Brussels and Aachen, in what today is Aachen's Reuters House.
Upon moving to England, he founded Reuter's Telegram Company in 1851. Headquartered in London, the company covered commercial news, serving banks, brokerage houses, business firms; the first newspaper client to subscribe was the London Morning Advertiser in 1858. Afterwards more newspapers signed up, with Britannica Encyclopedia writing that "the value of Reuters to newspapers lay not only in the financial news it provided but in its ability to be the first to report on stories of international importance." Reuter's agency built a reputation in Europe and the rest of the world as the first to report news scoops from abroad. Reuters was the first to report Abraham Lincoln's assassination in Europe, for instance, in 1865. In 1872, Reuters expanded into the far east, followed by South America in 1874. Both expansions were made possible by advances in overland telegraphs and undersea cables. In 1883, Reuters began transmitting messages electrically to London newspapers. In 1923, Reuters began using radio to transmit a pioneering act.
In 1925, The Press Association of Great Britain acquired a majority interest in Reuters, full ownership some years later. During the world wars, The Guardian reported that Reuters "came under pressure from the British government to serve national interests. In 1941 Reuters deflected the pressure by restructuring itself as a private company." The new owners formed the Reuters Trust. In 1941, the PA sold half of Reuters to the Newspaper Proprietors' Association, co-ownership was expanded in 1947 to associations that represented daily newspapers in New Zealand and Australia; the Reuters Trust Principles were put in place to maintain the company's independence. At that point, Reuters had become "one of the world's major news agencies, supplying both text and images to newspapers, other news agencies, radio and television broadcasters." At that point, it directly or through national news agencies provided service "to most countries, reaching all the world's leading newspapers and many thousands of smaller ones," according to Britannica.
In 1961, Reuters scooped news of the erection of the Berlin Wall. Reuters was one of the first news agencies to transmit financial data over oceans via computers in the 1960s. In 1973, Reuters "began making computer-terminal displays of foreign-exchange rates available to clients." In 1981, Reuters began making electronic transactions on its computer network and afterwards developed a number of electronic brokerage and trading services. Reuters was floated as a public company in 1984, when Reuters Trust was listed on the stock exchanges such as the London Stock Exchange and NASDAQ. Reuters published the first story of the Berlin Wall being breached in 1989; the share price grew during the dotcom boom fell after the banking troubles in 2001. In 2002, Brittanica wrote that most news throughout the world came from three major agencies: the Associated Press and Agence France-Presse. Reuters merged with Thomson Corporation in Canada in 2008. In 2009, Thomson Reuters withdrew from the LSE and the NASDAQ, instead listing its shares on the Toronto Stock Exchange and the New York Stock Exchange.
The last surviving member of the Reuters family founders, Baroness de Reuter, died at age 96 on 25 January 2009. The parent company Thomson Reuters is headquartered in Toronto, provides financial information to clients while maintaining its traditional news-agency business. In 2012, Thomson Reuters appointed Jim Smith as CEO; every major news outlet in the world subscribed to Reuters as of 2014. Reuters operated in more than 200 cities in 94 countries in about 20 languages as of 2014. In July 2016, Thomson Reuters agreed to sell its intellectual property and science operation for $3.55 billion to private equity firms. In October 2016, Thomson Reuters announced relocations to Toronto; as part of cuts and restructuring, in November 2016, Thomson Reuters Corp. eliminated 2,000 worldwide jobs out of its around 50,000 employees. Reuters employs 600 photojournalists in about 200 locations worldwide. Reuters journalists use the Reuters Handbook of Journalism as a guide for fair presentation and disclosure of relevant interests, to maintain the values of integrity and freedom upon which their reputation for reliability, accuracy and exclusivity relies.
In May 2000, Kurt Schork, an American reporter, was killed in an ambush while on assignment in Sierra Leone. In April and August 2003, news cameramen Taras Protsyuk and Mazen Dana were killed in separate incidents by U. S. troops in Iraq. In July 2007, Namir Noor-Eldeen and Saeed Chmagh were killed when they w
A jurist is someone who researches and studies jurisprudence. Such a person can work as an legal writer or law lecturer. In the United Kingdom, New Zealand, South Africa, in many other Commonwealth countries, the word jurist sometimes refers to a barrister, whereas in the United States of America and Canada it refers to a judge, thus a jurist, someone who studies and comments on law, stands in contrast with a lawyer, someone who applies law on behalf of clients and thinks about it in practical terms. There is a fundamental difference between that of a jurist. Many legal scholars and authors have explained that a person may be both a lawyer and a jurist, but a jurist is not a lawyer, nor a lawyer a jurist. Both must possess an acquaintance with the term "law"; the work of the jurist is the study and arrangement of the law—work which can be done wholly in the seclusion of the library. The work of the lawyer is the satisfaction of the wishes of particular human beings for legal assistance—work which requires dealing to some extent therefore with people in the office, in the court room, or in the market-place.
The term jurist has another sense, wider, synonymous with legal professional, i.e. anyone professionally involved with law and justice. In some other European languages, a word resembling jurist is used in this major sense; this is a sequential classification of some notable jurists. History of the legal profession History of the American legal profession Law professor Legal profession List of jurists Paralegal Media related to Jurists at Wikimedia Commons
Annick Girardin is a French government minister and a former member of the National Assembly of France. She represented the islands of Saint-Pierre and Miquelon, from 2007 to 2014 before being appointed Junior Minister for Development and Francophonie in April 2014 in the Valls Cabinet. Following the election of President Emmanuel Macron in May 2017, she was appointed Minister of Overseas France in the new Philippe Government. High-niece of the councilor of Saint-Pierre and senator Henri Claireaux, she is the eldest of a sibship of four children, she lived. She becomes a mother at the age of sixteen of a girl, future weather presenter and host of a cooking show on the local TV channel, his companion is Jean-François Vigneau, territorial advisor of Saint Pierre and Miquelon who succeeds in 2016 to the advisory commission of local public services. She holds the diploma of socio-cultural animator. In March 2016, journalists Sylvie Koffi and Shaman Dolpi devoted a 52-minute documentary film, "Annick, the pirate of hope", a co-production France Télévisions and AYA Reportage, with the participation of TV5Monde.
The film, which looks back on its journey, took six months of filming, from Saint-Malo to Saint Pierre and Miquelon via Mali and Tunisia. Annick Girardin is a member of the Radical Party of the Left, she is a member of the PRG's Executive Board since 2012. Annick Girardin has been a member of Territorial Council of Saint Pierre and Miquelon from March 2000 to April 2016, she was a Municipal councillor of Saint-Pierre from 18 March 2001 to 15 February 2002. During the French Socialist Party presidential primary of 2017, she supports Sylvia Pinel. In the presidential election of 2017, she supports the candidate of En Marche!, Emmanuel Macron. In the French legislative elections that took place on 9 June and 16 June 2002 to elect the 12th National Assembly of the Fifth Republic, Annick Girardin was the candidate for the Radical Party of the Left in the Saint-Pierre-et-Miquelon constituency. Obtaining 14.8% of the vote on 9 June, she was eliminated from the second round. Five years in the 2007 French legislative elections, she obtained 31.1% in the first round, only 132 votes behind the incumbent.
In the second round, one week she got 51.27% of the vote and was elected Member of Parliament for the Radical Party of the Left. In the 2012 French legislative elections, she was re-elected in the first round with 65.53%. Her substitute was Catherine Pen. In the 2017 French legislative elections, she was re-elected with 51.87%. Her substitute was Stéphane Claireaux. On 9 April 2014, Annick Girardin was appointed Secretary of State Development and Francophonie in the Valls Cabinet. Catherine Pen, her substitute, therefore became the MP but resigned on the same day due to health problems. A by-election was organised and Annick Girardin was again a candidate for the National Assembly, she won on the first electoral round on 29 June 2014. She retained the position of Secretary of State and her substitute Stéphane Claireaux became the MP on 30 July 2014. On 27 June 2014, she was appointed president François Hollande's "personal representative" to the Organisation internationale de la Francophonie, she is appointed Minister of Public Service in the Second Valls government, replacing Marylise Lebranchu, during the reshuffle of February 11, 2016.
On December 9, 2016, Émile Zuccarelli presented him with the "Laïcité and public service" report containing twenty proposals. The minister undertakes to implement six priority: mandatory training of officials to secularism, a secular referent in each administration, the creation of an Internet portal on the subject, a day of exchange on secularism and a brochure given to public officials when they take office. On May 17, 2017, Annick Girardin was appointed Minister of Overseas Territories in the Édouard Philippe government. Candidate in the 2017 legislative election of Saint Pierre and Miquelon, she is reelected in the second round with 51.87% of the vote. She sits for a month in the National Assembly, where she is a member of the La République en marche group, she keeps her ministry. In September 2017, she manages the file of the destruction caused by hurricane Irma in Saint-Martin and Saint-Barthélemy. In March 2018, she is confronted with the management of a social unrest in Mayotte, the inhabitants protesting against illegal immigration and delinquency.
She goes on the spot on March 12. On May 15, 2018, Annick Girardin presents her catch-up plan for the department of Mayotte, it is broken down into six chapters, 53 commitments and 125 actions for a total cost of 1.3 billion euros out of national education staff
Algeria the People's Democratic Republic of Algeria, is a country in the Maghreb region of North Africa. The capital and most populous city is Algiers, located in the far north of the country on the Mediterranean coast. With an area of 2,381,741 square kilometres, Algeria is the tenth-largest country in the world, the world's largest Arab country, the largest in Africa. Algeria is bordered to the northeast by Tunisia, to the east by Libya, to the west by Morocco, to the southwest by the Western Saharan territory and Mali, to the southeast by Niger, to the north by the Mediterranean Sea; the country is a semi-presidential republic consisting of 1,541 communes. It has the highest human development index of all non-island African countries. Ancient Algeria has known many empires and dynasties, including ancient Numidians, Carthaginians, Vandals, Umayyads, Idrisid, Rustamid, Zirid, Almoravids, Spaniards and the French colonial empire. Berbers are the indigenous inhabitants of Algeria. Algeria is a middle power.
It supplies large amounts of natural gas to Europe, energy exports are the backbone of the economy. According to OPEC Algeria has the 16th largest oil reserves in the world and the second largest in Africa, while it has the 9th largest reserves of natural gas. Sonatrach, the national oil company, is the largest company in Africa. Algeria has one of the largest defence budget on the continent. Algeria is a member of the African Union, the Arab League, OPEC, the United Nations and is a founding member of the Arab Maghreb Union. On 2 April 2019, president Abdelaziz Bouteflika resigned after nearly 20 years in power, following pressure from the country’s army after mass protests against Bouteflika's campaign for a fifth term; the country's name derives from the city of Algiers. The city's name in turn derives from the Arabic al-Jazā'ir, a truncated form of the older Jazā'ir Banī Mazghanna, employed by medieval geographers such as al-Idrisi. In the region of Ain Hanech, early remnants of hominid occupation in North Africa were found.
Neanderthal tool makers produced hand axes in the Levalloisian and Mousterian styles similar to those in the Levant. Algeria was the site of the highest state of development of Middle Paleolithic Flake tool techniques. Tools of this era, starting about 30,000 BC, are called Aterian; the earliest blade industries in North Africa are called Iberomaurusian. This industry appears to have spread throughout the coastal regions of the Maghreb between 15,000 and 10,000 BC. Neolithic civilization developed in the Saharan and Mediterranean Maghreb as early as 11,000 BC or as late as between 6000 and 2000 BC; this life, richly depicted in the Tassili n'Ajjer paintings, predominated in Algeria until the classical period. The mixture of peoples of North Africa coalesced into a distinct native population that came to be called Berbers, who are the indigenous peoples of northern Africa. From their principal center of power at Carthage, the Carthaginians expanded and established small settlements along the North African coast.
These settlements served as market towns as well as anchorages. As Carthaginian power grew, its impact on the indigenous population increased dramatically. Berber civilization was at a stage in which agriculture, manufacturing and political organization supported several states. Trade links between Carthage and the Berbers in the interior grew, but territorial expansion resulted in the enslavement or military recruitment of some Berbers and in the extraction of tribute from others. By the early 4th century BC, Berbers formed the single largest element of the Carthaginian army. In the Revolt of the Mercenaries, Berber soldiers rebelled from 241 to 238 BC after being unpaid following the defeat of Carthage in the First Punic War, they succeeded in obtaining control of much of Carthage's North African territory, they minted coins bearing the name Libyan, used in Greek to describe natives of North Africa. The Carthaginian state declined because of successive defeats by the Romans in the Punic Wars.
In 146 BC the city of Carthage was destroyed. As Carthaginian power waned, the influence of Berber leaders in the hinterland grew. By the 2nd century BC, several large but loosely administered Berber kingdoms had emerged. Two of them were established behind the coastal areas controlled by Carthage. West of Numidia lay Mauretania, which extended across the Moulouya River in modern-day Morocco to the Atlantic Ocean; the high point of Berber civilization, unequaled until the coming of the Almohads and Almoravids more than a millennium was reached during the reign of Masinissa in the 2nd century BC. After Masinissa's death in 148 BC, the Berber kingdoms were reunited several times. Masinissa's line survived until 24 AD, when the remaining Berber territory was annexed to the Roman Empire. For several centuries Algeria was ruled by the Romans. Like the rest of No
Integrated Authority File
The Integrated Authority File or GND is an international authority file for the organisation of personal names, subject headings and corporate bodies from catalogues. It is used for documentation in libraries and also by archives and museums; the GND is managed by the German National Library in cooperation with various regional library networks in German-speaking Europe and other partners. The GND falls under the Creative Commons Zero licence; the GND specification provides a hierarchy of high-level entities and sub-classes, useful in library classification, an approach to unambiguous identification of single elements. It comprises an ontology intended for knowledge representation in the semantic web, available in the RDF format; the Integrated Authority File became operational in April 2012 and integrates the content of the following authority files, which have since been discontinued: Name Authority File Corporate Bodies Authority File Subject Headings Authority File Uniform Title File of the Deutsches Musikarchiv At the time of its introduction on 5 April 2012, the GND held 9,493,860 files, including 2,650,000 personalised names.
There are seven main types of GND entities: LIBRIS Virtual International Authority File Information pages about the GND from the German National Library Search via OGND Bereitstellung des ersten GND-Grundbestandes DNB, 19 April 2012 From Authority Control to Linked Authority Data Presentation given by Reinhold Heuvelmann to the ALA MARC Formats Interest Group, June 2012
Édouard Charles Philippe is a French politician serving as Prime Minister of France since 15 May 2017 under President Emmanuel Macron. A lawyer by occupation, Philippe is a former member of the Union for a Popular Movement, which became The Republicans, he served as a member of the National Assembly representing the 7th constituency of Seine-Maritime from 2012 to 2017, as well as Mayor of Le Havre and President of the Agglomeration community of Le Havre from 2010 to 2017. In 2017 President Macron appointed him Prime Minister. Édouard Philippe, the son of French teachers, was born in Rouen in 1970 and grew up in a left-wing household. He has a sister, he comes from a family of dockworkers, a profession in which members of his family are still employed. He grew up in a suburban neighbourhood in Rouen, he was at first a pupil at the Michelet School in Rouen before moving to Grand-Quevilly where he attended Jean-Texier College and attending Lycée les Bruyères in Sotteville-lès-Rouen. He obtained his baccalauréat at the École de Gaulle-Adenauer in Bonn, after a year in hypokhâgne, he studied at Sciences Po for three years and graduated in 1992, studied at the École nationale d'administration from 1995 to 1997.
Philippe served as an artillery officer during his national service in 1994. He continued to serve in the operational reserve for several years afterwards. In his years at Sciences Po, he supported Michel Rocard and was influenced by him, identifying with the Rocardian and social democratic wings of the Socialist Party, his brief flirtation with the Socialists ended after Rocard was toppled from the leadership of the Socialist Party. After leaving the ÉNA in 1997, he went on to work at the Council of State, specializing in public procurement law. In 2001, Philippe joined Antoine Rufenacht as Deputy Mayor of Le Havre charged with legal affairs. Recognising the ideological proximity between Michel Rocard and Alain Juppé, Philippe supported the latter at the time of the creation of the Union for a Popular Movement in 2002, marking the end of his left-wing activism, he served under Juppé as director general of services of the UMP until 2004, when the mayor of Bordeaux was convicted as a result of the fictitious jobs case implicating the Rally for the Republic.
He took a job in the private sector, working with the American law firm Debevoise & Plimpton LLP, was elected to the regional council of Upper Normandy the same year. In the wake of Nicolas Sarkozy's victory in the 2007 presidential election, Philippe returned to political life working for Alain Juppé, when Juppé served as Minister of Ecology, Sustainable Development and Energy, before being appointed Director of Public Affairs at Areva, where he worked from 2007 to 2010, he was substitute to Jean-Yves Besselat, who served as the member of the National Assembly for Seine-Maritime's 7th constituency from 2007 to 2012. In 2008, he was elected to the general council of Seine-Maritime in the canton of Le Havre-5, in 2010 was elected mayor of Le Havre after the resignation of Rufenacht, his mentor, became President of the Agglomeration community of Le Havre the same year. After Besselat's death in 2012 following a long illness, Philippe took his seat holding it in the subsequent legislative elections.
He was reelected as Mayor of Le Havre in the 2014 municipal elections in the first round, with an absolute majority of 52.04% of expressed votes. Following his resignation on 20 May 2017 as Le Havre Mayor, he retains a seat in the municipal council, he worked for the campaign of Alain Juppé in the primary of the right and centre in 2016, serving as a spokesperson alongside Benoist Apparu. Though Philippe and Apparu, as well as Christophe Béchu joined the campaign of François Fillon for the 2017 presidential election after his victory in the primary, the three parliamentarians – close to Juppé – quit on 2 March 2017 after the candidate was summoned to appear before judges amidst the Fillon affair, he said he would not seek to retain his seat in the legislative elections in June to avoid breaching the law limiting the accumulation of mandates. Following the victory of Emmanuel Macron in the presidential election, there was speculation that Philippe was a potential choice for Prime Minister, representing three essential aspects: political renewal, affiliation with the moderate right, familiarity with the political terrain.
On 15 May 2017, Philippe was appointed as Prime Minister by Emmanuel Macron after speculation he was a contender for the office alongside former Ecology Minister Jean-Louis Borloo, MoDem Leader François Bayrou and IMF Managing Director Christine Lagarde. In the June 2017 legislative elections, Macron's party, renamed "La République En Marche!", together with its ally the Democratic Movement, secured a comfortable majority, winning 350 seats out of 577, with his party alone winning an outright majority of 308 seats. Philippe is a member of The Republicans though he campaigned for La République En Marche! due to the party supporting his role as Prime Minister. He formed the Second Philippe government on 21 May, 2017 following a series of resignations after scandal embroiled Ministers François Bayrou, Sylvie Goulard, Marielle de Sarnez and Richard Ferrand; this diminished Democratic Movement's representation in the government significantly. Philippe secured a vote of confidence and was allowed to govern with a majority government on 4 July 201