The Rhône is one of the major rivers of Europe and has twice the average discharge of the Loire, rising in the Rhône Glacier in the Swiss Alps at the far eastern end of the Swiss canton of Valais, passing through Lake Geneva and running through southeastern France. At Arles, near its mouth on the Mediterranean Sea, the river divides into two branches, known as the Great Rhône and the Little Rhône; the resulting delta constitutes the Camargue region. The name Rhone continues the name Latin: Rhodanus in Greco-Roman geography; the Gaulish name of the river was *Rodonos or *Rotonos. The Greco-Roman as well as the reconstructed Gaulish name is masculine; this form survives in the Spanish/Portuguese and Italian namesakes, el/o Ródano and il Rodano, respectively. German has adopted the French name but given it the feminine gender; the original German adoption of the Latin name was masculine, der Rotten. In French, the adjective derived from the river is rhodanien, as in le sillon rhodanien, the name of the long, straight Saône and Rhône river valleys, a deep cleft running due south to the Mediterranean and separating the Alps from the Massif Central.
Before railroads and highways were developed, the Rhône was an important inland trade and transportation route, connecting the cities of Arles, Valence and Lyon to the Mediterranean ports of Fos-sur-Mer, Marseille and Sète. Travelling down the Rhône by barge would take three weeks. By motorized vessel, the trip now takes only three days; the Rhône is classified as a Class V waterway for the 325 km long section from the mouth of the Saône at Lyon to the sea at Port-Saint-Louis-du-Rhône. Upstream from Lyon, a 149 km section of the Rhône was made navigable for small ships up to Seyssel; as of 2017, the part between Lyon and Sault-Brénaz is closed for navigation. The Saône, canalized, connects the Rhône ports to the cities of Villefranche-sur-Saône, Mâcon and Chalon-sur-Saône. Smaller vessels can travel further northwest and northeast via the Centre-Loire-Briare and Loing Canals to the Seine, via the Canal de la Marne à la Saône to the Marne, via the Canal des Vosges to the Moselle and via the Canal du Rhône au Rhin to the Rhine.
The Rhône is infamous for its strong current when the river carries large quantities of water: current speeds up to 10 kilometres per hour are sometimes reached in the stretch below the last lock at Vallabrègues and in the narrow first diversion canal south of Lyon. The 12 locks are operated daily from 5:00 a.m. until 9:00 p.m. All operation is centrally controlled from one control centre at Châteauneuf. Commercial barges may navigate during the night hours by authorisation; the Rhône rises as an effluent of the Rhône Glacier in the Valais, in the Swiss Alps, at an altitude of 2,208 metres. From there it flows south through Gletsch and the Goms, the uppermost, valley region of the Valais before Brig. Shortly before reaching Brig, it receives the waters of the Massa from the Aletsch Glacier, it flows onward through the valley which bears its name and runs in a westerly direction about thirty kilometers to Leuk southwest about fifty kilometers to Martigny. Down as far as Brig, the Rhône is a torrent.
Between Brig and Martigny, it collects waters from the valleys of the Pennine Alps to the south, whose rivers originate from the large glaciers of the massifs of Monte Rosa and Grand Combin. At Martigny, where it receives the waters of the Drance on its left bank, the Rhône makes a strong turn towards the north. Heading toward Lake Geneva, the valley narrows, a feature that has long given the Rhône valley strategic importance for the control of the Alpine passes; the Rhône marks the boundary between the cantons of Valais and Vaud, separating the Valais Chablais and Chablais Vaudois. It enters Lake Geneva near Le Bouveret. On a portion of its extent Lake Geneva marks the border between Switzerland. On the left bank of Lake Geneva the river receives the river Morge; this river marks the border between Switzerland. The Morge enters Lake Geneva at a village on both sides of the border. Between Évian-les-Bains and Thonon-les-Bains the Dranse enters the lakewhere it left a quite large delta. On the right bank of the lake the Rhône receives the Veveyse, the Venoge, the Aubonne and the Morges besides others.
Lake Geneva ends in Geneva. The average discharge from Lake Geneva is 251 cubic metres per second. In Geneva, the Rhône receives the waters of the Arve from the Mont Blanc. After a course of 290 kilometres the Rhône leaves Switzerland and enters the southern Jura Mountains, it turns toward the south past the Bourget Lake which it is connected by the Savières channel. At Lyon, the biggest city along its course, the Rhône meets its biggest tributary, the Saône; the Saône carries 400 cubic metres per the Rhône itself 600 cubic metres per second. From the confluence, the Rhône follows the southbound
France the French Republic, is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. The metropolitan area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean, it is bordered by Belgium and Germany to the northeast and Italy to the east, Andorra and Spain to the south. The overseas territories include French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic and Indian oceans; the country's 18 integral regions span a combined area of 643,801 square kilometres and a total population of 67.3 million. France, a sovereign state, is a unitary semi-presidential republic with its capital in Paris, the country's largest city and main cultural and commercial centre. Other major urban areas include Lyon, Toulouse, Bordeaux and Nice. During the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by a Celtic people. Rome annexed the area in 51 BC, holding it until the arrival of Germanic Franks in 476, who formed the Kingdom of Francia.
The Treaty of Verdun of 843 partitioned Francia into Middle Francia and West Francia. West Francia which became the Kingdom of France in 987 emerged as a major European power in the Late Middle Ages following its victory in the Hundred Years' War. During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a global colonial empire was established, which by the 20th century would become the second largest in the world; the 16th century was dominated by religious civil wars between Protestants. France became Europe's dominant cultural and military power in the 17th century under Louis XIV. In the late 18th century, the French Revolution overthrew the absolute monarchy, established one of modern history's earliest republics, saw the drafting of the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, which expresses the nation's ideals to this day. In the 19th century, Napoleon established the First French Empire, his subsequent Napoleonic Wars shaped the course of continental Europe. Following the collapse of the Empire, France endured a tumultuous succession of governments culminating with the establishment of the French Third Republic in 1870.
France was a major participant in World War I, from which it emerged victorious, was one of the Allies in World War II, but came under occupation by the Axis powers in 1940. Following liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was established and dissolved in the course of the Algerian War; the Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, remains today. Algeria and nearly all the other colonies became independent in the 1960s and retained close economic and military connections with France. France has long been a global centre of art and philosophy, it hosts the world's fourth-largest number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites and is the leading tourist destination, receiving around 83 million foreign visitors annually. France is a developed country with the world's sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP, tenth-largest by purchasing power parity. In terms of aggregate household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs well in international rankings of education, health care, life expectancy, human development.
France is considered a great power in global affairs, being one of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council with the power to veto and an official nuclear-weapon state. It is a leading member state of the European Union and the Eurozone, a member of the Group of 7, North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the World Trade Organization, La Francophonie. Applied to the whole Frankish Empire, the name "France" comes from the Latin "Francia", or "country of the Franks". Modern France is still named today "Francia" in Italian and Spanish, "Frankreich" in German and "Frankrijk" in Dutch, all of which have more or less the same historical meaning. There are various theories as to the origin of the name Frank. Following the precedents of Edward Gibbon and Jacob Grimm, the name of the Franks has been linked with the word frank in English, it has been suggested that the meaning of "free" was adopted because, after the conquest of Gaul, only Franks were free of taxation.
Another theory is that it is derived from the Proto-Germanic word frankon, which translates as javelin or lance as the throwing axe of the Franks was known as a francisca. However, it has been determined that these weapons were named because of their use by the Franks, not the other way around; the oldest traces of human life in what is now France date from 1.8 million years ago. Over the ensuing millennia, Humans were confronted by a harsh and variable climate, marked by several glacial eras. Early hominids led a nomadic hunter-gatherer life. France has a large number of decorated caves from the upper Palaeolithic era, including one of the most famous and best preserved, Lascaux. At the end of the last glacial period, the climate became milder. After strong demographic and agricultural development between the 4th and 3rd millennia, metallurgy appeared at the end of the 3rd millennium working gold and bronze, iron. France has numerous megalithic sites from the Neolithic period, including the exceptiona
Chalon-sur-Saône is a commune in the Saône-et-Loire department in the region of Bourgogne-Franche-Comté in eastern France. It is a sub-prefecture of the department, it is the largest city in the department. Chalon-sur-Saône lies in the south of the Bourgogne-Franche-Comté region of France, it is located on the Saône river, was once a busy port, acting as a distribution point for local wines which were sent up and down the Saône river and the Canal du Centre, opened in 1792. Though the site was a capital of the Aedui and objects of La Tène culture have been retrieved from the bed of the river here, the first mention of Cavillonum is found in Commentarii de Bello Gallico; the Roman city served as a river port and hub of road communications, of the Via Agrippa and side routes. In 354 AD the Roman Emperor, Constantius II stationed the Roman 7th Army in Chalon for an invasion against the brother kings and Vadomarius of the Alamanni. However, not having received supplies, the Roman troops revolted, were pacified by the grand chamberlain Eusebius with money.
In Late Antiquity the city had dwindled so much. Saint Marcellus of Chalons is said to have been martyred here in 179 AD. Chalon became one of the de facto capitals of the kingdom of Burgundy under Guntram, king from 561 to 592, who died here. Guntram promoted the cult of Saint Marcellus; the bishopric of Chalon-sur-Saône, a suffragan of the Archdiocese of Lyon, was established here in the same century, a Church Council was held here from 644–655. The see. Chalon in the 19th century is best known as the birthplace of photography, its most famous resident, Nicéphore Niépce has a lycée named after him. There is a museum which contains some early photography relics, located on the Quai des Messageries in the town, containing more than two million photographs and many old artefacts such as cameras and other equipment for old and modern photography. On display are Niépce's 1807 Pyréolophore, the world's first internal combustion engine, plus his 1818 implementation of a dandy horse, for which he coined the word vélocipède.
Another famous resident is Dominique Vivant Denon, involved in the creation of the Louvre museum, converting the former royal palace into a museum after the French Revolution. St. Vincent's Cathedral on the Place Saint-Vincent, which has some elements dating from the eighth century and a neo-gothic nineteenth century façade; this city square has a number of cafés and a busy market on Fridays and Sundays. The primary industries are nuclear, plastics and mechanics; the Chamber of Commerce of Saône-et-Loire manages the École de Gestion et de Commerce de Chalon-sur-Saône, as well as the river port on the Saône. There are 2472 businesses: 764 stores, 454 retail services, 409 schools and health and social services, 378 wholesale services, 122 construction companies, 69 agricultural and alimentary businesses, 64 real estate businesses, 60 transportation business, 49 industries de biens intermédiaires, 35 industries de biens de consommations, 34 entreprises d'énergie, 33 industries de biens d'équipements et 1 industrie automobile.
The most important companies are Areva, Saint-Gobain, Cartonnerie Laurent, Carrefour 2000, Géant Casino, Comptoirs des Fers, Amazon and Le journal de Saône-et-Loire. Until the early 2000s, Kodak was the largest employer in town, their production site became the campus of Le Grand Chalon en Bourgogne in 2005. The Gare de Chalon-sur-Saône railway station offers connections with Paris, Dijon and several regional destinations; the station is located along the PLM mainline from Paris Gare de Lyon to Marseille-Saint-Charles, at kilometre post 382.150 from Paris. The primary national roads serving Chalon are the A6 autoroute from Paris to Lyon, the route nationale 73, from Chalon to Besançon and the route nationale 80, from Chalon to Montchanin; the city is located on the pan-European bicycle route the EuroVelo 6, which stretches from Saint-Nazaire on the Atlantic Ocean near Nantes to Constanta on the Black Sea. The closest major commercial airport is Lyon-Saint-Exupéry, located about 120 kilometres away.
The public transportation company STAC offers a bus network ZOOM, including a free bus in the center, lines to surrounding communities, services for handicapped riders. There exists a bike sharing scheme Réflex. An institute of research of the engineering school Arts et Métiers ParisTech was established in Chalon in 1997; this institute offers graduate and doctoral programs in the domain of virtual reality and image engineering. Every year in July, Chalon-sur-Saône hosts an international street artists festival, called Chalon dans la Rue. Over four days, artists from across Europe and beyond come to the streets of Chalon to perform for free, in music, acrobatics, etc. A program is made available by the town, so people know of the main groups performing, several newspapers report what performances are must-see and where and when to find them. Notable people associated with the city include: Joseph Touchemoulin, composer Dominique Vivant Denon, involved in creating the Louvre Roger Grosjean, double agent in World War II and a noted archaeologist in Corsica Nicéphore Niépce, pioneer of photography, took the earliest surviving photograph Jean Baptiste Félix Descuret and writer Omer Letorey, composer The Arboretum de Pézanin, one of the richest forest collect
University of Lyon
The University of Lyon, located in Lyon and Saint-Étienne, France, is a center for higher education and research comprising 16 institutions of higher education. The three main universities in this center are: Claude Bernard University Lyon 1, which focuses upon health and science studies and has 27,000 students; the other member institutions are: École Normale Supérieure de Lyon École centrale de Lyon INSA Lyon Ecole Nationale Supérieure d'Architecture de Saint-Etienne Ecole Nationale Supérieure d'Architecture de Lyon Institut d'Administration des Entreprises de Lyon Ecole Nationale Superieure des Sciences de l'information et des Bibliotheques École vétérinaire de Lyon Université catholique de Lyon Jean Monnet University École nationale d'ingénieurs de Saint-Étienne, École Nationale Supérieure des Mines de Saint-Étienne École supérieure de commerce et management École de management de Lyon Institut polytechnique de Lyon Institut d'études politiques de Lyon École nationale des travaux publics de l'État CROUS University of Lyon
Emmanuel Jean-Michel Frédéric Macron is a French politician serving as President of the French Republic and ex officio Co-Prince of Andorra since 2017. He was Minister of the Economy and Digital Affairs from 2014 to 2016. Macron was born in Amiens and studied philosophy at Paris Nanterre University, completed a Master's of Public Affairs at Sciences Po and graduated from the École nationale d'administration in 2004, he worked as a senior civil servant at the Inspectorate General of Finances and became an investment banker at Rothschild & Cie Banque. Macron was appointed Deputy Secretary General to the President by François Hollande in May 2012, he was appointed Minister of Economy and Digital Affairs in August 2014 under the Second Valls government, where he pushed through business-friendly reforms. He resigned in August 2016 to launch a bid in the 2017 presidential election. After being a member of the Socialist Party from 2006 to 2009, Macron ran in the election under the banner of a centrist political movement he founded in April 2016, En Marche!.
He won the election on 7 May 2017 with 66.1% of the vote in the second round. At age 39, Macron became the youngest President of France in history and appointed Édouard Philippe to be Prime Minister. In the June 2017 legislative elections, Macron's party, renamed "La République en marche", together with its ally the Democratic Movement, secured a majority in the National Assembly. Born in Amiens, Emmanuel Jean-Michel Frédéric Macron is the son of Françoise, a physician, Jean-Michel Macron, professor of neurology at the University of Picardy; the couple were divorced in 2010. Macron has two siblings, born in 1979 and Estelle, born in 1982. Françoise and Jean-Michel's first child was born stillborn. Raised in a non-religious family, he was baptized a Roman Catholic at his own request at age 12, although he is agnostic today; the Macron family legacy is traced back to the village of Authie in Hauts-de-France. One of Macron's paternal great-grandfathers, George William Robertson, was English, was born in Bristol, United Kingdom.
His maternal grandparents and Germaine Noguès, are from the Pyrenean town of Bagnères-de-Bigorre, Gascony. Macron visited Bagnères-de-Bigorre to visit his grandmother Germaine, whom he called "Manette". Macron associates his enjoyment of reading and his left-ward political leanings to Germaine, after coming from a modest upbringing of a stationmaster father and a housekeeping mother, became a teacher a principal, died in 2013. Macron was educated at the Jesuit Lycée la Providence in Amiens before his parents sent him to finish his last year of school at the elite Lycée Henri-IV in Paris, where he completed the high school curriculum and the undergraduate program with a "Bac S, Mention Très bien". At the same time he was nominated for the "Concours Général" in French literature and received his diploma for his piano studies at Amiens Conservatory, his parents sent him off to Paris due to their alarm at the bond he had formed with Brigitte Auzière, a married teacher with three children at Jésuites de la Providence, who became his wife.
In Paris, he failed to gain entry to the École normale supérieure twice. He instead studied Philosophy at the University of Paris-Ouest Nanterre La Défense, obtaining a DEA degree. Around 1999 Macron worked as an editorial assistant to Paul Ricoeur, the French Protestant philosopher, writing his last major work, La Mémoire, l'Histoire, l'Oubli. Macron worked on the notes and bibliography. Macron became a member of the editorial board of the literary magazine Esprit. Macron did not perform national service. Born in December 1977, he belonged to the last year. Macron obtained a master's degree in public affairs at the Sciences Po, majoring in "Public Guidance and Economy" before training for a senior civil service career at the selective École nationale d'administration, training at an embassy in Nigeria and in an office in Oise before graduating in 2004. After graduating from ENA in 2004, Macron became an Inspector in the Inspection générale des finances, a branch of the Finance Ministry. Macron was mentored by Jean-Pierre Jouyet, the then-head of the IGF.
During his time as an Inspector of Finances, Macron gave lectures during the summer at the "prep'ENA" at IPESUP, an elite private school specializing in preparation for the entrance examinations of the Grandes écoles, such as HEC or Sciences Po. In 2006, Laurence Parisot offered him the job of managing director for Mouvement des Entreprises de France, the largest employer federation in France, but he declined. In August 2007, Macron was appointed deputy rapporteur for Jacques Attali's "Commission to Unleash French Growth". In 2008, Macron paid €50,000 to buy himself out of his government contract, he became an investment banker in a highly-paid position at Rothschild & Cie Banque. In March 2010, he was appointed to the Attali Commission as a member. In September 2008, Macron left his job as an Inspector of Finances and took a position at Rothschild & Cie Banque. Macron was inspired to leave the government due to the election of Nicolas Sarkozy to the presidency, he was offered the job by François Henrot.
His first responsibility at Rothschild & Cie Banque was assisting with the acquisition of Cofidis by Crédit Mutuel Nord Europe. Macron formed a relationship with a businessman on the supervisory board of Le Monde. In 2010, Macron
Minister of the Interior (France)
The Minister of the Interior is an important position in the Government of France. The office is equivalent to the Interior Minister of other countries, like the Home Secretary of the United Kingdom, or similar to a combination of the Attorney General and Secretary of Homeland Security in the United States; the Minister of the Interior is responsible for the following: The general interior security of the country, with respect to criminal acts or natural catastrophes including the major law-enforcement forces the French National Police the French Gendarmerie for its police operations General directorate for civil defence and crisis management the directorate of Firefighters the granting of identity documents and driving licenses through the network of préfectures relations between the central government and local governments logistics and organization of political elections, at the national and prefectoral levels regulation of immigration and preventing illegal immigration integration of legal immigrants all départemental préfets and sub-prefects are subordinate to the Minister of the InteriorThe Minister of the Interior takes on the role of the former Ministre des cultes and is formally consulted in the process of appointment of Catholic diocesan bishops.
The Minister of Worship used to be a fully-fledged minister, but this position no longer exists since 1912. While the Ministry of the Interior supervises police forces, it does not supervise criminal enquiries; those enquiries are conducted under the supervision of the judiciary. The Ministry's headquarters are located on the place Beauvau. "Place Beauvau" is used as a metonym for the ministry. The current Minister of the Interior is Christophe Castaner. List of Interior Ministers of France Official website
Matthias Fekl is a French politician, the Minister of the Interior in the government of Prime Minister Bernard Cazeneuve. He served as a member of the National Assembly from June 20, 2012 to April 10, 2014, representing Lot-et-Garonne. Fekl was born on 4 October 1977 in West Germany, his father is a German university professor and his mother is a French teacher. He grew up in West Berlin before moving to Paris, where he graduated from the Lycée Henri-IV, he studied at various universities. From 2010 to 2011, Fekl served as chief of staff to Jean-Pierre Bel president of the Socialist group in the Senate; when Bel became chairman of the Senate, Fekl was his special adviser. Fekl was elected member of the National Assembly in the 2012 elections. During his time in parliament, he was a member of the Committee on Legal Affairs. In 2012, Interior Minister Manuel Valls mandated Fekl with a report on immigration, submitted to Prime Minister Jean-Marc Ayrault. Fekl served as the Trade Secretary in the French Ministry of Foreign Affairs and International Development under the leadership of minister successive ministers Laurent Fabius and Jean-Marc Ayrault from September 4, 2014, succeeding Thomas Thévenoud.
During his time in office, France opened a trade office in Tehran in September 2015, leading the charge of European countries angling for a share of the Iranian market after the Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action. In October 2016, Fekl launched his own political movement, «Mouvement pour la vie des idées et des alternatives», he briefly belonged to the campaign team of Benoît Hamon for the 2017 presidential elections. Fekl was appointed as Minister of the Interior on 21 March 2017, succeeding Bruno Le Roux, forced to resign after it was revealed that he had employed his two daughters, at the age of 15, as parliamentary assistants. In response to the March 2017 social unrest in French Guiana and fellow cabinet member Ericka Bareigts were dispatched to the overseas French department by Prime Minister Cazeneuve