Gödel Prize
The Gödel Prize is an annual prize for outstanding papers in the area of theoretical computer science, given jointly by European Association for Theoretical Computer Science (EATCS) and the Association for Computing Machinery Special Interest Group on Algorithms and Computational Theory (ACM SIGACT). The award is named in honor of Kurt Gödel. Gödel's connection to theoretical computer science is that he was the first to mention the "P versus NP" question, in a 1956 letter to John von Neumann in which Gödel asked whether a certain NP-complete problem could be solved in quadratic or linear time.^{[1]}
The Gödel Prize has been awarded since 1993; the prize is awarded either at STOC (ACM Symposium on Theory of Computing, one of the main North American conferences in theoretical computer science) or ICALP (International Colloquium on Automata, Languages and Programming, one of the main European conferences in the field). To be eligible for the prize, a paper must be published in a refereed journal within the last 14 (formerly 7) years; the prize includes a reward of US$5000.^{[2]}
The winner of the Prize is selected by a committee of six members; the EATCS President and the SIGACT Chair each appoint three members to the committee, to serve staggered three-year terms. The committee is chaired alternately by representatives of EATCS and SIGACT.
Contents
Recipients[edit]
Year | Name(s) | Notes | Publication year |
---|---|---|---|
1993 | László Babai, Shafi Goldwasser, Silvio Micali, Shlomo Moran, and Charles Rackoff | for the development of interactive proof systems | 1988,^{[paper 1]} 1989^{[paper 2]} |
1994 | Johan Håstad | for an exponential lower bound on the size of constant-depth Boolean circuits (for the parity function). | 1989^{[paper 3]} |
1995 | Neil Immerman and Róbert Szelepcsényi | for the Immerman–Szelepcsényi theorem regarding nondeterministic space complexity | 1988,^{[paper 4]} 1988^{[paper 5]} |
1996 | Mark Jerrum and Alistair Sinclair | for work on Markov chains and the approximation of the permanent of a matrix | 1989,^{[paper 6]} 1989^{[paper 7]} |
1997 | Joseph Halpern and Yoram Moses | for defining a formal notion of "knowledge" in distributed environments | 1990^{[paper 8]} |
1998 | Seinosuke Toda | for Toda's theorem which showed a connection between counting solutions (PP) and alternation of quantifiers (PH) | 1991^{[paper 9]} |
1999 | Peter Shor | for Shor's algorithm for factoring numbers in polynomial time on a quantum computer | 1997^{[paper 10]} |
2000 | Moshe Y. Vardi and Pierre Wolper | for work on temporal logic with finite automata | 1994^{[paper 11]} |
2001 | Sanjeev Arora, Uriel Feige, Shafi Goldwasser, Carsten Lund, László Lovász, Rajeev Motwani, Shmuel Safra, Madhu Sudan, and Mario Szegedy | for the PCP theorem and its applications to hardness of approximation | 1996,^{[paper 12]} 1998,^{[paper 13]} 1998^{[paper 14]} |
2002 | Géraud Sénizergues | for proving that equivalence of deterministic pushdown automata is decidable | 2001^{[paper 15]} |
2003 | Yoav Freund and Robert Schapire | for the AdaBoost algorithm in machine learning | 1997^{[paper 16]} |
2004 | Maurice Herlihy, Michael Saks, Nir Shavit and Fotios Zaharoglou | for applications of topology to the theory of distributed computing | 1999,^{[paper 17]} 2000^{[paper 18]} |
2005 | Noga Alon, Yossi Matias and Mario Szegedy | for their foundational contribution to streaming algorithms | 1999^{[paper 19]} |
2006 | Manindra Agrawal, Neeraj Kayal, Nitin Saxena | for the AKS primality test | 2004^{[paper 20]} |
2007 | Alexander Razborov, Steven Rudich | for natural proofs | 1997^{[paper 21]} |
2008 | Daniel Spielman, Shanghua Teng | for smoothed analysis of algorithms | 2004^{[paper 22]} |
2009 | Omer Reingold, Salil Vadhan, Avi Wigderson | for zig-zag product of graphs and undirected connectivity in log space | 2002,^{[paper 23]} 2008^{[paper 24]} |
2010 | Sanjeev Arora, Joseph S. B. Mitchell | for their concurrent discovery of a polynomial-time approximation scheme (PTAS) for the Euclidean Travelling Salesman Problem (ETSP) | 1998,^{[paper 25]}
1999^{[paper 26]} |
2011 | Johan Håstad | for proving optimal inapproximability result for various combinatorial problems | 2001^{[paper 27]} |
2012 | Elias Koutsoupias, Christos Papadimitriou, Noam Nisan, Amir Ronen , Tim Roughgarden and Éva Tardos | for laying the foundations of algorithmic game theory^{[3]} | 2009,^{[paper 28]} 2002,^{[paper 29]} 2001^{[paper 30]} |
2013 | Dan Boneh, Matthew K. Franklin, and Antoine Joux | for multi-party Diffie–Hellman key exchange and the Boneh–Franklin scheme in cryptography^{[4]} | 2003,^{[paper 31]}
2004^{[paper 32]} |
2014 | Ronald Fagin, Amnon Lotem , and Moni Naor | for Optimal Aggregation Algorithms for Middleware^{[5]} | 2003,^{[paper 33]} |
2015 | Daniel Spielman, Shanghua Teng | for their series of papers on nearly-linear-time Laplacian solvers^{[6]} |
2011^{[paper 34]} 2013^{[paper 35]} 2014^{[paper 36]} |
2016 | Stephen Brookes and Peter W. O'Hearn | for their invention of Concurrent Separation Logic | 2007^{[paper 37]}, 2007^{[paper 38]} |
2017^{[2]} | Cynthia Dwork, Frank McSherry , Kobbi Nissim, and Adam D. Smith | for the invention of differential privacy | 2006^{[paper 39]} |
2018^{[7]} | Oded Regev | for introducing the Learning with errors problem | 2009^{[paper 40]} |
2019^{[8]} | Irit Dinur | for her new proof of the PCP theorem by gap amplification | 2007^{[paper 41]} |
Winning papers[edit]
- ^ Babai, László; Moran, Shlomo (1988), "Arthur-Merlin games: a randomized proof system, and a hierarchy of complexity class" (PDF), Journal of Computer and System Sciences, 36 (2): 254–276, doi:10.1016/0022-0000(88)90028-1, ISSN 0022-0000
- ^ Goldwasser, S.; Micali, S.; Rackoff, C. (1989), "The knowledge complexity of interactive proof systems" (PDF), SIAM Journal on Computing, 18 (1): 186–208, CiteSeerX 10.1.1.397.4002, doi:10.1137/0218012, ISSN 1095-7111
- ^ Håstad, Johan (1989), "Almost Optimal Lower Bounds for Small Depth Circuits" (PDF), in Micali, Silvio (ed.), Randomness and Computation, Advances in Computing Research, 5, JAI Press, pp. 6–20, ISBN 978-0-89232-896-3, archived from the original (PDF) on 2012-02-22
- ^ Immerman, Neil (1988), "Nondeterministic space is closed under complementation" (PDF), SIAM Journal on Computing, 17 (5): 935–938, CiteSeerX 10.1.1.54.5941, doi:10.1137/0217058, ISSN 1095-7111
- ^ Szelepcsényi, R. (1988), "The method of forced enumeration for nondeterministic automata" (PDF), Acta Informatica, 26 (3): 279–284, doi:10.1007/BF00299636, hdl:10338.dmlcz/120489
- ^ Sinclair, A.; Jerrum, M. (1989), "Approximate counting, uniform generation and rapidly mixing Markov chains", Information and Computation, 82 (1): 93–133, doi:10.1016/0890-5401(89)90067-9, ISSN 0890-5401
- ^ Jerrum, M.; Sinclair, Alistair (1989), "Approximating the permanent", SIAM Journal on Computing, 18 (6): 1149–1178, CiteSeerX 10.1.1.431.4190, doi:10.1137/0218077, ISSN 1095-7111
- ^ Halpern, Joseph; Moses, Yoram (1990), "Knowledge and common knowledge in a distributed environment" (PDF), Journal of the ACM, 37 (3): 549–587, arXiv:cs/0006009, doi:10.1145/79147.79161
- ^ Toda, Seinosuke (1991), "PP is as hard as the polynomial-time hierarchy" (PDF), SIAM Journal on Computing, 20 (5): 865–877, CiteSeerX 10.1.1.121.1246, doi:10.1137/0220053, ISSN 1095-7111
- ^ Shor, Peter W. (1997), "Polynomial-Time Algorithms for Prime Factorization and Discrete Logarithms on a Quantum Computer" (PDF), SIAM Journal on Computing, 26 (5): 1484–1509, arXiv:quant-ph/9508027, doi:10.1137/S0097539795293172, ISSN 1095-7111^{[permanent dead link]}
- ^ Vardi, Moshe Y.; Wolper, Pierre (1994), "Reasoning about infinite computations" (PDF), Information and Computation, 115 (1): 1–37, doi:10.1006/inco.1994.1092, ISSN 0890-5401, archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-08-25
- ^ Feige, Uriel; Goldwasser, Shafi; Lovász, Laszlo; Safra, Shmuel; Szegedy, Mario (1996), "Interactive proofs and the hardness of approximating cliques" (PDF), Journal of the ACM, 43 (2): 268–292, doi:10.1145/226643.226652, ISSN 0004-5411
- ^ Arora, Sanjeev; Safra, Shmuel (1998), "Probabilistic checking of proofs: a new characterization of NP" (PDF), Journal of the ACM, 45 (1): 70–122, doi:10.1145/273865.273901, ISSN 0004-5411, archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-06-10
- ^ Arora, Sanjeev; Lund, Carsten; Motwani, Rajeev; Sudan, Madhu; Szegedy, Mario (1998), "Proof verification and the hardness of approximation problems" (PDF), Journal of the ACM, 45 (3): 501–555, CiteSeerX 10.1.1.145.4652, doi:10.1145/278298.278306, ISSN 0004-5411, archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-06-10
- ^ Sénizergues, Géraud (2001), "L(A) = L(B)? decidability results from complete formal systems", Theor. Comput. Sci., 251 (1): 1–166, doi:10.1016/S0304-3975(00)00285-1, ISSN 0304-3975
- ^ Freund, Y.; Schapire, R.E. (1997), "A decision-theoretic generalization of on-line learning and an application to boosting" (PDF), Journal of Computer and System Sciences, 55 (1): 119–139, doi:10.1006/jcss.1997.1504, ISSN 1090-2724
- ^ Herlihy, Maurice; Shavit, Nir (1999), "The topological structure of asynchronous computability" (PDF), Journal of the ACM, 46 (6): 858–923, CiteSeerX 10.1.1.78.1455, doi:10.1145/331524.331529. Gödel prize lecture
- ^ Saks, Michael; Zaharoglou, Fotios (2000), "Wait-free k-set agreement is impossible: The topology of public knowledge", SIAM Journal on Computing, 29 (5): 1449–1483, doi:10.1137/S0097539796307698
- ^ Alon, Noga; Matias, Yossi; Szegedy, Mario (1999), "The space complexity of approximating the frequency moments" (PDF), Journal of Computer and System Sciences, 58 (1): 137–147, doi:10.1006/jcss.1997.1545. First presented at the Symposium on Theory of Computing (STOC) in 1996.
- ^ Agrawal, M.; Kayal, N.; Saxena, N. (2004), "PRIMES is in P" (PDF), Annals of Mathematics, 160 (2): 781–793, doi:10.4007/annals.2004.160.781, ISSN 0003-486X, archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-06-07
- ^ Razborov, Alexander A.; Rudich, Steven (1997), "Natural proofs", Journal of Computer and System Sciences, 55 (1): 24–35, doi:10.1006/jcss.1997.1494, ISSN 0022-0000, ECCC TR94-010
- ^ Spielman, Daniel A.; Teng, Shang-Hua (2004), "Smoothed analysis of algorithms: Why the simplex algorithm usually takes polynomial time" (PDF), J. ACM, 51 (3): 385–463, arXiv:math/0212413, doi:10.1145/990308.990310, ISSN 0004-5411^{[permanent dead link]}
- ^ Reingold, Omer; Vadhan, Salil; Wigderson, Avi (2002), "Entropy waves, the zig-zag graph product, and new constant-degree expanders" (PDF), Annals of Mathematics, 155 (1): 157–187, CiteSeerX 10.1.1.236.8669, doi:10.2307/3062153, ISSN 0003-486X, JSTOR 3062153, MR 1888797^{[permanent dead link]}
- ^ Reingold, Omer (2008), "Undirected connectivity in log-space", J. ACM, 55 (4): 1–24, doi:10.1145/1391289.1391291, ISSN 0004-5411^{[permanent dead link]}
- ^ Arora, Sanjeev (1998), "Polynomial time approximation schemes for Euclidean traveling salesman and other geometric problems", Journal of the ACM, 45 (5): 753–782, CiteSeerX 10.1.1.23.6765, doi:10.1145/290179.290180, ISSN 0004-5411
- ^ Mitchell, Joseph S. B. (1999), "Guillotine Subdivisions Approximate Polygonal Subdivisions: A Simple Polynomial-Time Approximation Scheme for Geometric TSP, k-MST, and Related Problems", SIAM Journal on Computing, 28 (4): 1298–1309, doi:10.1137/S0097539796309764, ISSN 1095-7111
- ^ Håstad, Johan (2001), "Some optimal inapproximability results" (PDF), Journal of the ACM, 48 (4): 798–859, CiteSeerX 10.1.1.638.2808, doi:10.1145/502090.502098, ISSN 0004-5411
- ^ Koutsoupias, Elias; Papadimitriou, Christos (2009). "Worst-case equilibria". Computer Science Review. 3 (2): 65–69. doi:10.1016/j.cosrev.2009.04.003.
- ^ Roughgarden, Tim; Tardos, Éva (2002). "How bad is selfish routing?". Journal of the ACM. 49 (2): 236–259. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.147.1081. doi:10.1145/506147.506153.
- ^ Nisan, Noam; Ronen, Amir (2001). "Algorithmic Mechanism Design". Games and Economic Behavior. 35 (1–2): 166–196. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.21.1731. doi:10.1006/game.1999.0790.
- ^ Boneh, Dan; Franklin, Matthew (2003). "Identity-based encryption from the Weil pairing". SIAM Journal on Computing. 32 (3): 586–615. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.66.1131. doi:10.1137/S0097539701398521. MR 2001745.
- ^ Joux, Antoine (2004). "A one round protocol for tripartite Diffie-Hellman". Journal of Cryptology. 17 (4): 263–276. doi:10.1007/s00145-004-0312-y. MR 2090557.
- ^ Fagin, Ronald; Lotem, Amnon; Naor, Moni (2003). "Optimal aggregation algorithms for middleware". Journal of Computer and System Sciences. 66 (4): 614–656. arXiv:cs/0204046. doi:10.1016/S0022-0000(03)00026-6.
- ^ Spielman, Daniel A.; Teng, Shang-Hua (2011). "Spectral Sparsification of Graphs". SIAM Journal on Computing. 40 (4): 981–1025. arXiv:0808.4134. doi:10.1137/08074489X. ISSN 0097-5397.
- ^ Spielman, Daniel A.; Teng, Shang-Hua (2013). "A Local Clustering Algorithm for Massive Graphs and Its Application to Nearly Linear Time Graph Partitioning". SIAM Journal on Computing. 42 (1): 1–26. arXiv:0809.3232. doi:10.1137/080744888. ISSN 0097-5397.
- ^ Spielman, Daniel A.; Teng, Shang-Hua (2014). "Nearly Linear Time Algorithms for Preconditioning and Solving Symmetric, Diagonally Dominant Linear Systems". SIAM Journal on Matrix Analysis and Applications. 35 (3): 835–885. arXiv:cs/0607105. doi:10.1137/090771430. ISSN 0895-4798.
- ^ Brookes, Stephen (2007). "A Semantics for Concurrent Separation Logic" (PDF). Theoretical Computer Science. 375 (1–3): 227–270. doi:10.1016/j.tcs.2006.12.034.
- ^ O'Hearn, Peter (2007). "Resources, Concurrency and Local Reasoning" (PDF). Theoretical Computer Science. 375 (1–3): 271–307. doi:10.1016/j.tcs.2006.12.035.
- ^ Dwork, Cynthia; McSherry, Frank; Nissim, Kobbi; Smith, Adam (2006). Halevi, Shai; Rabin, Tal (eds.). Calibrating Noise to Sensitivity in Private Data Analysis. Theory of Cryptography (TCC). Lecture Notes in Computer Science. 3876. Springer-Verlag. pp. 265–284. doi:10.1007/11681878_14. ISBN 978-3-540-32731-8.
- ^ Regev, Oded (2009). "On lattices, learning with errors, random linear codes, and cryptography". Journal of the ACM. 56 (6): 1–40. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.215.3543. doi:10.1145/1568318.1568324.
- ^ Dinur, Irit (2007). "The PCP theorem by gap amplification". Journal of the ACM. 54 (3): 12–es. doi:10.1145/1236457.1236459.
Notes[edit]
- ^ "The Gödel Letter". 2009-02-12.
- ^ ^{a} ^{b} "2017 Gödel Prize". European Association for Theoretical Computer Science. EATCS. Retrieved 29 March 2017.
- ^ "Three Papers Cited for Laying Foundation of Growth in Algorithmic Game Theory". 16 May 2012. Archived from the original on 18 July 2013. Retrieved 16 May 2012.
- ^ ACM Group Presents Gödel Prize for Advances in Cryptography: Three Computer Scientists Cited for Innovations that Improve Security Archived 2013-06-01 at the Wayback Machine, Association for Computing Machinery, May 29, 2013.
- ^ Recipients Achieved Groundbreaking Results for Aggregating Data from Multiple Sources, Association for Computing Machinery, April 30, 2014.
- ^ 2015 Gödel Prize announcement Archived 2017-12-09 at the Wayback Machine by Association for Computing Machinery.
- ^ "2018 Gödel Prize citation".
- ^ "2019 Gödel Prize citation".