The United Nations Educational and Cultural Organization is a specialized agency of the United Nations based in Paris. Its declared purpose is to contribute to peace and security by promoting international collaboration through educational and cultural reforms in order to increase universal respect for justice, the rule of law, human rights along with fundamental freedom proclaimed in the United Nations Charter, it is the successor of the League of Nations' International Committee on Intellectual Cooperation. UNESCO has 11 associate members. Most of its field offices are "cluster" offices covering three or more countries. UNESCO pursues its objectives through five major programs: education, natural sciences, social/human sciences and communication/information. Projects sponsored by UNESCO include literacy and teacher-training programs, international science programs, the promotion of independent media and freedom of the press and cultural history projects, the promotion of cultural diversity, translations of world literature, international cooperation agreements to secure the world's cultural and natural heritage and to preserve human rights, attempts to bridge the worldwide digital divide.
It is a member of the United Nations Development Group. UNESCO's aim is "to contribute to the building of peace, the eradication of poverty, sustainable development and intercultural dialogue through education, the sciences, culture and information". Other priorities of the organization include attaining quality Education For All and lifelong learning, addressing emerging social and ethical challenges, fostering cultural diversity, a culture of peace and building inclusive knowledge societies through information and communication; the broad goals and objectives of the international community—as set out in the internationally agreed development goals, including the Millennium Development Goals —underpin all UNESCO strategies and activities. UNESCO and its mandate for international cooperation can be traced back to a League of Nations resolution on 21 September 1921, to elect a Commission to study feasibility; this new body, the International Committee on Intellectual Cooperation was indeed created in 1922.
On 18 December 1925, the International Bureau of Education began work as a non-governmental organization in the service of international educational development. However, the onset of World War II interrupted the work of these predecessor organizations. After the signing of the Atlantic Charter and the Declaration of the United Nations, the Conference of Allied Ministers of Education began meetings in London which continued from 16 November 1942 to 5 December 1945. On 30 October 1943, the necessity for an international organization was expressed in the Moscow Declaration, agreed upon by China, the United Kingdom, the United States and the USSR; this was followed by the Dumbarton Oaks Conference proposals of 9 October 1944. Upon the proposal of CAME and in accordance with the recommendations of the United Nations Conference on International Organization, held in San Francisco in April–June 1945, a United Nations Conference for the establishment of an educational and cultural organization was convened in London 1–16 November 1945 with 44 governments represented.
The idea of UNESCO was developed by Rab Butler, the Minister of Education for the United Kingdom, who had a great deal of influence in its development. At the ECO/CONF, the Constitution of UNESCO was introduced and signed by 37 countries, a Preparatory Commission was established; the Preparatory Commission operated between 16 November 1945, 4 November 1946—the date when UNESCO's Constitution came into force with the deposit of the twentieth ratification by a member state. The first General Conference took place from 19 November to 10 December 1946, elected Dr. Julian Huxley to Director-General; the Constitution was amended in November 1954 when the General Conference resolved that members of the Executive Board would be representatives of the governments of the States of which they are nationals and would not, as before, act in their personal capacity. This change in governance distinguished UNESCO from its predecessor, the ICIC, in how member states would work together in the organization's fields of competence.
As member states worked together over time to realize UNESCO's mandate and historical factors have shaped the organization's operations in particular during the Cold War, the decolonization process, the dissolution of the USSR. Among the major achievements of the organization is its work against racism, for example through influential statements on race starting with a declaration of anthropologists and other scientists in 1950 and concluding with the 1978 Declaration on Race and Racial Prejudice. In 1956, the Republic of South Africa withdrew from UNESCO saying that some of the organization's publications amounted to "interference" in the country's "racial problems." South Africa rejoined the organization in 1994 under the leadership of Nelson Mandela. UNESCO's early work in the field of education included the pilot project on fundamental education in the Marbial Valley, started in 1947; this project was followed by expert missions to other countries, for example, a mission to Afghanistan in 1949.
In 1948, UNESCO recommended that Member States should make free primary education compulsory and universal. In 1990, the World Conference on Education for All, in Jomtien, launched a global movement to provide basic education for a
An anchorite or anchoret is someone who, for religious reasons, withdraws from secular society so as to be able to lead an intensely prayer-oriented, ascetic, or Eucharist-focused life. Whilst anchorites are considered to be a type of religious hermit, unlike hermits they were required to take a vow of stability of place, opting instead for permanent enclosure in cells attached to churches. Unlike hermits, anchorites were subject to a religious rite of consecration that resembled the funeral rite, following which they would be considered dead to the world, a type of living saint. Anchorites had a certain autonomy, as they did not answer to any ecclesiastical authority other than the bishop; the anchoritic life is one of the earliest forms of Christian monasticism. In the Catholic Church today, it is one of the "Other Forms of Consecrated Life" and governed by the same norms as the consecrated eremitic life. In England, the earliest recorded anchorites existed in the 11th century, their highest number—around 200 anchorites—were recorded in the 13th century.
From the 12th to the 16th centuries, female anchorites outnumbered their male counterparts, sometimes by as many as four to one, dropping to two to one. The sex of a high number of anchorites, however, is not recorded for these periods; the anchoritic life became widespread during the high Middle Ages. Examples of the dwellings of anchorites and anchoresses survive, a large number of which are in England, they tended to be a simple cell, built against one of the walls of the local village church. In Germanic-speaking areas, from at least the 10th century, it was customary for the bishop to say The Office of the Dead as the anchorite entered his cell, to signify the anchorite's death to the world and rebirth to a spiritual life of solitary communion with God and the angels. Sometimes, if the anchorite were walled up inside the cell, the bishop would put his seal upon the wall to stamp it with his authority; some anchorites, however moved between their cell and the adjoining church. Most anchoritic strongholds were small no more than 3.7 to 4.6 m square, with three windows.
Viewing the altar, hearing Mass, receiving the Eucharist was possible through one small, shuttered window in the common wall facing the sanctuary, called a "hagioscope" or "squint". Anchorites provided spiritual advice and counsel to visitors through this window, gaining a reputation for wisdom. Another small window allowed access to those. A third window facing the street but covered with translucent cloth, allowed light into the cell. Anchorites committed to a life of uncompromising enclosure; those who attempted to escape were returned by force and their souls damned to Hell. Some were burned in their cells, which they refused to leave when pirates or looters were pillaging their towns, they ate frugal meals, spending their days both in contemplative prayer and interceding on behalf of others. Their bodily waste was managed by means of a chamber pot; some anchorholds attached gardens. Servants tended to their basic needs, removing waste. Julian of Norwich, for example, is known to have had several maidservants, among them Sara and Alice.
Aelred of Rievaulx, who wrote De Institutione—the "Rule" for anchoresses—suggested having two maids: an older, sober woman and a younger one. In addition to being the physical location wherein the anchorite could embark on the journey towards union with God, the anchorhold provided a spiritual and geographic focus for people from the wider society who came to ask for advice and spiritual guidance. Although set apart from the community at large by stone walls and specific spiritual precepts, the anchorite lay at the centre of the community; the anchorhold has been called a communal'womb' from which would emerge an idealized sense of a community's own reborn potential, both as Christians and as human subjects. An idea of their daily routine can be gleaned from an anchoritic rule; the most known today is the early 13th century text known as Ancrene Wisse. Another, less known, example is the rule known as De Institutione Inclusarum written in the 12th century, around 1160–62, by Aelred of Rievaulx for his sister.
It is estimated that the daily set devotions detailed in Ancrene Wisse would take some four hours, on top of which anchoresses would listen to services in the church and engage in their own private prayers and devotional reading. Richard Rolle, an English hermit and mystic, wrote one of the most influential guide books regarding the life of an anchoress, his book, The Form of Living, was addressed to a young anchoress named Margaret Kirkby, responsible for preserving his texts. Her connection to the town of Hampole has been associated with Rolle. Rolle’s book is based on the principles of mysticism and divided into twelve chapters: Chapter One: Rolle discusses the three weaknesses of humans: "lack of spiritual vigor, putting bodily desires into practice exchanging a permanent good for a transitory pleasure." Chapter Two: Rolle tells Mary that while her body may be sacrificing, her heart and soul will feel the ultimate pleasure of religious devotion. Chapter Three: Public display of piety does not promise holiness, but people who "follow Jesus Christ in voluntary poverty, in humility, in love and
Kayseri is a large industrialised city in Central Anatolia, Turkey. It is the seat of Kayseri Province; the city of Kayseri, as defined by the boundaries of Kayseri Metropolitan Municipality, is structurally composed of five metropolitan districts, the two core districts of Kocasinan and Melikgazi, since 2004 Hacılar, İncesu and Talas. Kayseri is located at the foot of the extinct volcano Mount Erciyes that towers 3,916 metres over the city; the city is cited in the first ranks among Turkey's cities that fit the definition of Anatolian Tigers. The city retains a number including several from the Seljuk period. While it is visited en route to the international tourist attractions of Cappadocia, Kayseri has many attractions in its own right: Seljuk and Ottoman era monuments in and around the city centre, Mount Erciyes as a trekking and alpinism centre, Zamantı River as a rafting centre, the historic sites of Kültepe, Ağırnas and Develi. Kayseri is home to Erciyes University. According to the Turkish Statistical Institute, as of 2011 the city of Kayseri had a population of 844,656.
Kayseri was called Mazaka or Mazaca by the Hattians and was known as such to Strabo, during whose time it was the capital of the Roman province of Cilicia, known as Eusebia at the Argaeus, after Ariarathes V Eusebes, King of Cappadocia. The name was changed again by Archelaus, last King of Cappadocia and a Roman vassal, to "Caesarea in Cappadocia" in honour of Caesar Augustus, upon his death in 14 AD; when the Muslim Arabs arrived, they adapted the pronunciation to their writing resulting in Kaisariyah, this became Kayseri when the Seljuk Turks took control of the city in circa 1080, remaining as such since. The city has been continuously inhabited since c. 3000 BC with the establishment of the ancient trading colony at Kültepe, associated with the Hittites. The city has always been a vital trade centre as it is located on major trade routes along what was called the Great Silk Road. Kültepe, one of the oldest cities in Asia Minor, lies 20 km away; as Mazaca, the city served as the residence of the kings of Cappadocia.
In ancient times, it was on the crossroads of the trade routes from Sinope to the Euphrates and from the Persian Royal Road that extended from Sardis to Susa during the over 200 years of Achaemenid Persian rule. In Roman times, a similar route from Ephesus to the East crossed the city; the city stood on a low spur on the north side of Mount Erciyes. Only a few traces of the ancient site survive in the old town; the city was the centre of a satrapy under Persian rule until it was conquered by Perdikkas, one of the generals of Alexander the Great when it became the seat of a transient satrapy by another of Alexander's former generals, Eumenes of Cardia. The city was subsequently passed to the Seleucid empire after the battle of Ipsus but became once again the centre of an autonomous Greater Cappadocian kingdom under Ariarathes III of Cappadocia in around 250 BC. In the ensuing period, the city came under the sway of Hellenistic influence, was given the Greek name of Eusebia in honor of the Cappadocian king Ariarathes V Eusebes Philopator of Cappadocia.
The new name of Caesarea, by which it has since been known, was given to it by the last Cappadocian King Archelaus or by Tiberius. The city passed under formal Roman rule in 17 AD. Caesarea was destroyed by the Sassanid king Shapur I after his victory over the Emperor Valerian I in AD 260. At the time it was recorded to have around 400,000 inhabitants; the city recovered, became home to several early Christian saints: saints Dorothea and Theophilus the martyrs, Gregory of Nazianzus, Gregory of Nyssa and Basil of Caesarea. In the 4th century, bishop Basil established an ecclesiastic centre on the plain, about one mile to the northeast, which supplanted the old town, it included a system of almshouses, an orphanage, old peoples' homes, a leprosarium. The city's bishop, attended the Second Council of Ephesus and was suspended from the Council of Chalcedon A Notitia Episcopatuum composed during the reign of Byzantine Emperor Heraclius in about 640 lists 5 suffragan dioceses of the metropolitan see of Caesarea.
A 10th-century list gives it 15 suffragans. In all the Notitiae Caesarea is given the second place among the metropolitan sees of the patriarchate of Constantinople, preceded only by Constantinople itself, its archbishops were given the title of protothronos, meaning "of the first see". More than 50 first-millennium archbishops of the see are known by name, the see itself continued to be a residential see of the Eastern Orthodox Church until 1923, when by order of the Treaty of Lausanne all members of that Churchwere deported from what is now Turkey. Caesarea was the seat of an Armenian diocese. No longer a residential bishopric, Caesarea in Cappadocia is today listed by the Catholic Church as a titular see of the Armenian Catholic Church and the Melkite Catholic Church. A portion of Basil's new city was surrounded with strong walls, it was turned into a fortress by Justinian. Caesarea in the 9th century became a Byzantine administrative centre as the capital of the Byzantine Theme of Charsianon.
The 1500-year-old Kayseri Castle, built init
Diyarbakır Fortress, is a historical fortress in Sur, Diyarbakır, Turkey. It consists of an outer fortress; the main gates of the fortress are: Urfa Gate, Mardin Gate and Yeni Gate. The walls come from the old Roman city of Amida and were constructed in their present form in the mid-fourth century AD by the emperor Constantius II, they are the widest and longest complete defensive walls in the world after only the Great Wall of China UNESCO added the building to their tentative list on 2000, listed it as a World Heritage Site in 2015 along with Hevsel Gardens. Though the walls and fortress itself were once compared to the Great Wall of China, this started to change as wars broke out during 2015; as the war continued, the government of Turkey and UNESCO jointly began a reconstruction and preservation effort, intending to complete it within two years, starting with the demolition of part of the city. On the 4 July 2015, the UNESCO added the fortress and Hevsel Gardens Cultural Landscape to UNESCO's World Heritage List.
UNESCO's main focus was to protect the environment of the land itself, more than the heritage of the land. And the Prime Minister spoke of plans to reconstruct the city walls as a great tourist attraction intended to resemble Paris. Diyarbakir fortress is constructed with stone, black basalt, adobe, has gone through countless renovations. Diyarbakir fortress is among the best surviving examples of a castle or fort built with a natural feature like a cliffside or body of water on one side as a boundary; the walls have a symbolic function as well as a defensive purpose, with inscriptions on the inner city's walls that testify to the city of Diyarbakir's history. Today, Diyarbakir Fortress can be divided into the bailey and the citadel. In the northeast, the citadel contains the first settlement inside Diyarbakir, those walls stretch 598 meters long; the bailey houses a tower and the city walls, surrounding the much more urban walled city region of Diyarbakir. Most of these walls are constructed with traditional construction styles.
The castle plans reveal the dominance of two different building forms and tetragonal. The walls were divided into five groups, four of which contained the towers around the four main gates, while the fifth contained the citadel towers, it has been found that 65 of the original 82 towers still remain on the outside of the city's walls and 18 of the citadel's towers remain today. Due to cultural differences, the fort has undergone some modifications; the fort was repaired and or heightened over time. However, the overall typology has remained constant in the fort's renovations. Diyarbakir fortress was first built in 297 AD by Romans. In 349 AD the walls got expanded under the order of emperor Constantius II. Over the next 1500+ years, these walls were expanded and fortified using volcanic rock from the surrounding region. There are 82 watch towers on the walls; the Diyarbakir city walls have an ancient history dating back to the Romans. The towers at Diyarbakir were built by the Romans and reconstructed by the Ottomans when they took over the city in the 15th and 16th centuries.
During the defeat of the Safavids at Diyarbakir, the Ottomans destroyed the walls with the use of cannons and therefore had to be rebuilt. Today, the walls are intact, form a ring around the old city, over 3 miles in circumference; the walls are about 10-16 feet thick. In 1930 a part of the wall got demolished, they are the longest complete defensive walls in the world after the Great Wall of China. Diyarbakir Fortress was built and rebuilt during the Roman and Ottoman periods, including the Diyarbakir city walls that measure up to 53 meters long. There are both outer walls. Included on the walls are about 63 inscriptions from various historical periods including remains from the Hurrians, Romans, Byzantines, Marwanids and Ottomans; the city is considered to be a “multi-cultural, multi-lingual, multi-culture character" Recently, the war between the Turkish army and Kurdish guerillas has resulted in damage to the fortress and surrounding monuments, disrupting government plans to conserve the historical fortress in hopes of attracting tourists to the Diyarbakir cultural area.
About one-third of the historic Old Town was deliberaitely destroyed by the Turkish state after the clashes ended, damaging the ancient city irreversibly. Sur Tour Guide – Sur Government web site Van Berchem, Max, & Josef Strzygowski. Amida: Materiaux pour l'épigraphie et l'histoire Musulmanes du Diyar-Bekr
Troy was a city in the far northwest of the region known in late Classical antiquity as Asia Minor, now known as Anatolia in modern Turkey, just south of the southwest mouth of the Dardanelles strait and northwest of Mount Ida. The present-day location is known as Hisarlik, it was the setting of the Trojan War described in the Greek Epic Cycle, in particular in the Iliad, one of the two epic poems attributed to Homer. Metrical evidence from the Iliad and the Odyssey suggests that the name Ἴλιον began with a digamma: Ϝίλιον. A new capital called, it flourished until the establishment of Constantinople, became a bishopric and declined in the Byzantine era, but is now a Latin Catholic titular see. In 1865, English archaeologist Frank Calvert excavated trial trenches in a field he had bought from a local farmer at Hisarlik, in 1868, Heinrich Schliemann, a wealthy German businessman and archaeologist began excavating in the area after a chance meeting with Calvert in Çanakkale; these excavations revealed several cities built in succession.
Schliemann was at first skeptical about the identification of Hisarlik with Troy, but was persuaded by Calvert and took over Calvert's excavations on the eastern half of the Hisarlik site, on Calvert's property. Troy VII has been identified with the city called Wilusa by the Hittites and is identified with Homeric Troy. Today, the hill at Hisarlik has given its name to a small village near the ruins, which supports the tourist trade visiting the Troia archaeological site, it lies within the province of Çanakkale, some 30 km south-west of the provincial capital called Çanakkale. The nearest village is Tevfikiye; the map here shows the adapted Scamander estuary with Ilium a little way inland across the Homeric plain. Due to Troy's location near the Aegean Sea, the Sea of Marmara, the Black Sea, it was a central hub for the military and trade. Troy was added to the UNESCO World Heritage list in 1998. Ancient Greek historians variously placed the Trojan War in the 12th, 13th, or 14th centuries BC: Eratosthenes to 1184 BC, Herodotus to 1250 BC, Duris of Samos to 1334 BC.
Modern archaeologists associate Homeric Troy with archaeological Troy VII. In the Iliad, the Achaeans set up their camp near the mouth of the River Scamander, where they beached their ships; the city of Troy itself stood on a hill, across the plain of Scamander, where the battles of the Trojan War took place. The site of the ancient city is some 5 km from the coast today, but 3,000 years ago the mouths of Scamander were much closer to the city, discharging into a large bay that formed a natural harbor, which has since been filled with alluvial material. Recent geological findings have permitted the identification of the ancient Trojan coastline, the results confirm the accuracy of the Homeric geography of Troy. In November 2001, the geologist John C. Kraft from the University of Delaware and the classicist John V. Luce from Trinity College, presented the results of investigations, begun in 1977, into the geology of the region, they compared the present geology with the landscapes and coastal features described in the Iliad and other classical sources, notably Strabo's Geographia, concluded that there is a regular consistency between the location of Schliemann's Troy and other locations such as the Greek camp, the geological evidence, descriptions of the topography and accounts of the battle in the Iliad.
Besides the Iliad, there are references to Troy in the other major work attributed to Homer, the Odyssey, as well as in other ancient Greek literature. The Homeric legend of Troy was elaborated by the Roman poet Virgil in his Aeneid; the Greeks and Romans took for a fact the historicity of the Trojan War and the identity of Homeric Troy with the site in Anatolia. Alexander the Great, for example, visited the site in 334 BC and there made sacrifices at tombs associated with the Homeric heroes Achilles and Patroclus. After the 1995 find of a Luwian biconvex seal at Troy VII, there has been a heated discussion over the language, spoken in Homeric Troy. Frank Starke of the University of Tübingen demonstrated that the name of Priam, king of Troy at the time of the Trojan War, is connected to the Luwian compound Priimuua, which means "exceptionally courageous". "The certainty is growing that Wilusa/Troy belonged to the greater Luwian-speaking community," although it is not clear whether Luwian was the official language or in daily colloquial use.
With the rise of critical history and the Trojan War were, for a long time, consigned to the realms of legend. However, the true location of ancient Troy had from classical times remained the subject of interest and speculation; the Troad peninsula was anticipated to be the location. Early modern travellers in the 16th and 17th centuries, including Pierre Belon and Pietro Della Valle, had identified Troy with Alexandria Troas, a ruined town 20 km south of the accepted location. In the late 18th century, Jean Baptiste LeChevalier had identified a location near the village of Pınarbaşı, Ezine as the site of Troy, a mound 5 km south of the accepted location. LeChavalier's location, published in his Voyage de la Troade, was the most accepted theory for a century. In 1822, the Scottis
Çatalhöyük was a large Neolithic and Chalcolithic proto-city settlement in southern Anatolia, which existed from 7500 BC to 5700 BC, flourished around 7000 BC. In July 2012, it was inscribed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site.Çatalhöyük is located overlooking the Konya Plain, southeast of the present-day city of Konya in Turkey 140 km from the twin-coned volcano of Mount Hasan. The eastern settlement forms a mound which would have risen about 20 m above the plain at the time of the latest Neolithic occupation. There is a smaller settlement mound to the west and a Byzantine settlement a few hundred meters to the east; the prehistoric mound settlements were abandoned before the Bronze Age. A channel of the Çarşamba River once flowed between the two mounds, the settlement was built on alluvial clay which may have been favorable for early agriculture; the site was first excavated by James Mellaart in 1958. He led a team which further excavated there for four seasons between 1961 and 1965; these excavations revealed this section of Anatolia as a centre of advanced culture in the Neolithic period.
Excavation revealed 18 successive layers of buildings signifying various stages of the settlement and eras of history. The bottom layer of buildings can be dated as early as 7100 BC while the top layer is of 5600 BC. Mellaart was banned from Turkey for his involvement in the Dorak affair in which he published drawings of important Bronze Age artifacts that went missing. After this scandal, the site lay idle until 1993, when investigations began under the leadership of Ian Hodder at the University of Cambridge; these investigations are among the most ambitious excavation projects in progress according to archaeologist Colin Renfrew, among others. In addition to extensive use of archaeological science and artistic interpretations of the symbolism of the wall paintings have been employed. Hodder, a former student of Mellaart, chose the site as the first "real world" test of his then-controversial theory of post-processual archaeology; the site has always had a strong research emphasis upon engagement with digital methodologies, driven by the project's experimental and reflexive methodological framework.
Sponsors and collaborators of the current dig include Yapi Kredi, University of York, Selçuk University, British Institute at Ankara, Cardiff University, Stanford University, Turkish Cultural Foundation, University at Buffalo. Çatalhöyük was composed of domestic buildings, with no obvious public buildings. While some of the larger ones have rather ornate murals, the purpose of some rooms remains unclear; the population of the eastern mound has been estimated to be, at maximum, 10,000 people, but the population varied over the community’s history. An average population of between 5,000 and 7,000 is a reasonable estimate; the sites were set up as large numbers of buildings clustered together. Households looked to their neighbors for help and possible marriage for their children; the inhabitants lived in mudbrick houses. No footpaths or streets were used between the dwellings, which were clustered in a honeycomb-like maze. Most were accessed by holes in the ceiling and doors on the side of the houses, with doors reached by ladders and stairs.
The rooftops were streets. The ceiling openings served as the only source of ventilation, allowing smoke from the houses' open hearths and ovens to escape. Houses had plaster interiors characterized by steep stairs; these were on the south wall of the room, as were cooking hearths and ovens. The main rooms contained raised platforms that may have been used for a range of domestic activities. Typical houses contained two rooms for everyday activity, such as crafting. All interior walls and platforms were plastered to a smooth finish. Ancillary rooms were used as storage, were accessed through low openings from main rooms. All rooms were kept scrupulously clean. Archaeologists identified little rubbish in the buildings, finding middens outside the ruins, with sewage and food waste, as well as significant amounts of wood ash. In good weather, many daily activities may have taken place on the rooftops, which may have formed a plaza. In periods, large communal ovens appear to have been built on these rooftops.
Over time, houses were renewed by partial demolition and rebuilding on a foundation of rubble, how the mound was built up. As many as eighteen levels of settlement have been uncovered; as a part of ritual life, the people of Çatalhöyük buried their dead within the village. Human remains have been found in pits beneath the floors and beneath hearths, the platforms within the main rooms, under beds. Bodies were flexed before burial and were placed in baskets or wound and wrapped in reed mats. Disarticulated bones in some graves suggest that bodies may have been exposed in the open air for a time before the bones were gathered and buried. In some cases, graves were disturbed, the individual’s head removed from the skeleton; these heads may have been used in rituals. In a woman's grave spinning whorls were in a man's grave, stone axes; some skulls were plastered and painted with ochre to recreate faces, a custom more characteristic of Neolithic sites in Syria and at Neolithic Jericho than at sites closer by.
Vivid murals and figurines are found on interior and exterior walls. Distinctive clay figurines of wome
Tuff known as volcanic tuff, is a type of rock made of volcanic ash ejected from a vent during a volcanic eruption. Following ejection and deposition, the ash is compacted into a solid rock in a process called consolidation. Tuff is sometimes erroneously called "tufa" when used as construction material, but properly speaking, tufa is a limestone precipitated from groundwater. Rock that contains greater than 50% tuff is considered tuffaceous. Tuff is a soft rock, so it has been used for construction since ancient times. Since it is common in Italy, the Romans used it for construction; the Rapa Nui people used it to make most of the moai statues in Easter Island. Tuff can be classified as either sedimentary or igneous rock, they are studied in the context of igneous petrology, although they are sometimes described using sedimentological terms. The material, expelled in a volcanic eruption can be classified into three types: Volcanic gases, a mixture made of steam, carbon dioxide, a sulfur compound Lava, the name of magma when it emerges and flows over the surface Tephra, chunks of solid material of all shapes and sizes ejected and thrown through the airTephra is made when magma inside the volcano is blown apart by the rapid expansion of hot volcanic gases.
Magma explodes as the gas dissolved in it comes out of solution as the pressure decreases when it flows to the surface. These violent explosions produce solid chunks of material that can fly from the volcano. Chunks smaller than 2 mm in diameter are called volcanic ash. Among the loose beds of ash that cover the slopes of many volcanoes, three classes of materials are represented. In addition to true ashes of the kind described above, lumps of the old lavas and tuffs form the walls of the crater, which have been torn away by the violent outbursts of steam, pieces of sedimentary rocks from the deeper parts of the volcano that were dislodged by the rising lava and are intensely baked and recrystallized by the heat to which they have been subjected. In some great volcanic explosions, nothing but lumps of the old lavas and tuffs forming the walls of the crater etc. were emitted, as at Mount Bandai in Japan in 1888. Many eruptions have occurred in which the quantity of broken sedimentary rocks that mingled with the ash is great.
In the Scottish coalfields, some old volcanoes are plugged with masses consisting of sedimentary debris. These accessory or adventitious materials, however, as distinguished from the true ashes, tend to occur in angular fragments, when they form a large part of the mass, the rock is more properly a "volcanic breccia" than a tuff; the ashes vary in size from large blocks 20 ft or more in diameter to the minutest impalpable dust. The large masses are called "volcanic bombs". Many of them have ribbed or nodular surfaces, sometimes they have a crust intersected by many cracks like the surface of a loaf of bread. Any ash in which they are abundant is called an agglomerate. In those layers and beds of tuff that have been spread out over considerable tracts of land and which are most encountered among the sedimentary rocks, smaller fragments preponderate and bombs more than a few inches in diameter may be absent altogether. A tuff of recent origin is loose and incoherent, but the older tuffs have been, in most cases, cemented together by pressure and the action of infiltrating water, making rocks which, while not hard, are strong enough to be extensively used for building purposes.
If they have accumulated subaerially, like the ash beds found on Mt. Etna or Vesuvius at the present day, tuffs consist wholly of volcanic materials of different degrees of fineness with pieces of wood and vegetable matter, land shells, etc. but many volcanoes stand near the sea, the ashes cast out by them are mingled with the sediments that are gathering at the bottom of the waters. In this way, ashy muds, sands, or in some cases ashy limestones are being formed. Most of the tuffs found in the older formations contain admixtures of clay and sometimes fossil shells, which prove that they were beds spread out under water. During some volcanic eruptions, a layer of ashes several feet in thickness is deposited over a considerable area, but such beds thin out as the distance from the crater increases, ash deposits covering many square miles are very thin; the showers of ashes follow one another after longer or shorter intervals, hence thick masses of tuff, whether of subaerial or of marine origin, have a stratified character.
The coarsest materials or agglomerates show this least distinctly. Apart from adventitious material, such as fragments of the older rocks, pieces of trees, etc. the contents of an ash deposit may be described as consisting of more or less crystalline igneous rocks. If the lava within the crater has been at such a temperature that solidification has commenced, crystals are present, they may be of considerable size like the grey, rounded leucite crystals found on the sides of Vesuvius. Many of these are perfect and rich in faces because they grew in a medium, liquid and not viscous. Good crystals of augite and olivi