Association football, more known as football or soccer, is a team sport played with a spherical ball between two teams of eleven players. It is played by 250 million players in over 200 countries and dependencies, making it the world's most popular sport; the game is played on a rectangular field called a pitch with a goal at each end. The object of the game is to score by moving the ball beyond the goal line into the opposing goal. Association football is one of a family of football codes, which emerged from various ball games played worldwide since antiquity; the modern game traces its origins to 1863 when the Laws of the Game were codified in England by The Football Association. Players are not allowed to touch the ball with hands or arms while it is in play, except for the goalkeepers within the penalty area. Other players use their feet to strike or pass the ball, but may use any other part of their body except the hands and the arms; the team that scores most goals by the end of the match wins.
If the score is level at the end of the game, either a draw is declared or the game goes into extra time or a penalty shootout depending on the format of the competition. Association football is governed internationally by the International Federation of Association Football, which organises World Cups for both men and women every four years; the rules of association football were codified in England by the Football Association in 1863 and the name association football was coined to distinguish the game from the other forms of football played at the time rugby football. The first written "reference to the inflated ball used in the game" was in the mid-14th century: "Þe heued fro þe body went, Als it were a foteballe"; the Online Etymology Dictionary states that the "rules of the game" were made in 1848, before the "split off in 1863". The term soccer comes from a slang or jocular abbreviation of the word "association", with the suffix "-er" appended to it; the word soccer was first recorded in 1889 in the earlier form of socca.
Within the English-speaking world, association football is now called "football" in the United Kingdom and "soccer" in Canada and the United States. People in countries where other codes of football are prevalent may use either term, although national associations in Australia and New Zealand now use "football" for the formal name. According to FIFA, the Chinese competitive game cuju is the earliest form of football for which there is evidence. Cuju players could use any part of the body apart from hands and the intent was kicking a ball through an opening into a net, it was remarkably similar to modern football. During the Han Dynasty, cuju games were standardised and rules were established. Phaininda and episkyros were Greek ball games. An image of an episkyros player depicted in low relief on a vase at the National Archaeological Museum of Athens appears on the UEFA European Championship Cup. Athenaeus, writing in 228 AD, referenced the Roman ball game harpastum. Phaininda and harpastum were played involving hands and violence.
They all appear to have resembled rugby football and volleyball more than what is recognizable as modern football. As with pre-codified "mob football", the antecedent of all modern football codes, these three games involved more handling the ball than kicking. Other games included kemari in chuk-guk in Korea. Association football in itself does not have a classical history. Notwithstanding any similarities to other ball games played around the world FIFA has recognised that no historical connection exists with any game played in antiquity outside Europe; the modern rules of association football are based on the mid-19th century efforts to standardise the varying forms of football played in the public schools of England. The history of football in England dates back to at least the eighth century AD; the Cambridge Rules, first drawn up at Cambridge University in 1848, were influential in the development of subsequent codes, including association football. The Cambridge Rules were written at Trinity College, Cambridge, at a meeting attended by representatives from Eton, Rugby and Shrewsbury schools.
They were not universally adopted. During the 1850s, many clubs unconnected to schools or universities were formed throughout the English-speaking world, to play various forms of football; some came up with their own distinct codes of rules, most notably the Sheffield Football Club, formed by former public school pupils in 1857, which led to formation of a Sheffield FA in 1867. In 1862, John Charles Thring of Uppingham School devised an influential set of rules; these ongoing efforts contributed to the formation of The Football Association in 1863, which first met on the morning of 26 October 1863 at the Freemasons' Tavern in Great Queen Street, London. The only school to be represented on this occasion was Charterhouse; the Freemason's Tavern was the setting for five more meetings between October and December, which produced the first comprehensive set of rules. At the final meeting, the first FA treasurer, the representative from Blackheath, withdrew his club from the FA over the removal of two draft rules at the previous meeting: the first allowed for running with the ball in hand.
Other English rugby clubs followed this lead and did not join the FA and instead in 1871 formed the Rugby Football Union. The eleven remaining clubs, under
Adanaspor is a professional Turkish football club based in Adana. Founded in 1954, Adanaspor are nicknamed Toros Kaplanları; the club colours are orange and white, the club play their home matches at Adana 5 Ocak Stadı. Domestically, they have won the now-defunct Ministry of Youth Cup once, their highest finishes in the top flight were third place, in 1981 and 1976 respectively. They have competed in the Balkans Cup once, they have won the 2. Lig once. Adanaspor was founded in 1954 by Mehmet Şanlıtürk, Mustafa Bekbaş, Erol Erk, Ali Gedikbaş and Dr. Muzaffer Eraslan; the clubs' original colours were navy. They competed in the amateur league until 1966. Adanaspor merged with Akinspor and Torosspor in order to become a professional club, they were admitted into the 2. Lig in their first season as a professional club. After the merge, they changed their colours to white; the club competed in the 2. Lig until they earned promotion to the 1. Lig at the conclusion of the 1970–71 season, they won their first cup, the Gençlik ve Spor Bakanlığı Kupası in 1973.
Adanaspor defeated İzmir Denizgücü 2–0 in the final, with Behçet Arkun and Orhan Yalçınkaya scoring the goals. They spent thirteen straight years in the 1. Lig, from 1971–84, competing in the UEFA Cup three times and the Balkans Cup once. Adanaspor finished fourth at the end of 1975–76 season, their highest finish in the top-flight at the time, they went on to best their record, finishing second in 1980–81. They were relegated for the first time in 1984, but earned promotion back in 1988 after winning the 2. Lig. However, due to financial troubles, the club could not keep up their level of performance and were relegated back to the 2. Lig at the end of the 1990–91 season; the club spent the next several years bouncing forth between leagues. The club spiraled out of control in the mid-2000s, declaring bankruptcy in 2005, they were relegated three times in a row, ending up in the 3. Lig in 2006. However, they earned double promotion in 2006–07 and 2007–08, they had been competing in the 1. Lig until 2016, narrowly missing out on promotion to the Süper Lig at the end of the 2009–10 season.
Adanaspor finished 6th 1st League in 2011 -- qualified to Promotion Play-offs. They defeated Çaykur Rizespor with a 4–1 aggregate but were beaten by Kasımpaşa a 3–2 score after extra time and missed return to top level. Adanaspor guaranteed to return Süper Lig after defeating Gaziantep BB as 3–2 at away match coming from 0–2 deficit in 24 April 2016; the current badge of Adanaspor features a cotton ball superimposed over an orange background. Adana, the city where Adanaspor is based, grows some of the largest crops of cotton and orange in Turkey; the badge features the foundation date, as well as the club name and the city name. Adanaspor play their home matches at Adana 5 Ocak Stadı, a multi-purpose stadium they share with Adana Demirspor; the stadium has a capacity of 14,085 seats, all-seated. The field is covered with grass; the stadium has floodlights. The main supporters group is called Turbeyler. Adanaspor are not known to have any political tendencies, however they were once owned by communications industry mogul Cem Uzan, who had links to the nationalist Youth Party.
Süper Lig: 1971–84, 1988–91, 1998–01, 2002–04, 2016– 1. Lig: 1966–71, 1984–88, 1991–98, 2001–02, 2004–05, 2008–16 2. Lig: 2005–06, 2007–08 3. Lig: 2006–07 Amateur League: 1954–66 As of 21 January 2019. Note: Flags indicate national team as defined under FIFA eligibility rules. Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality. Note: Flags indicate national team as defined under FIFA eligibility rules. Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality. Süper Lig Runners-up: 1980–81 Third Place: 1975–76 1. LigWinners:1970–71, 1987–88, 2015–16 2. Lig Runners-up: 2007–08 3. Lig Winners: 2006–07 UEFA Cup/Europa League: Official website
Fenerbahçe Spor Kulübü known as Fenerbahçe, are a major Turkish multi-sport club based in the Kadıköy district of Istanbul, Turkey. Fenerbahçe are parent to a number of different competitive departments including football, volleyball, table tennis, swimming, boxing, eSports, which have won numerous European and domestic titles over the club's history. Fenerbahçe are one of the oldest and most successful multi-sport clubs in Turkey, having won as much as 12 international titles, including 7 major European titles, 1 World Championship and 4 Balkan titles, in five sports, they have won European titles with four of their sports departments, being one of two sports clubs in Turkey and one of a few in Europe to have achieved this rare feat. The football department is the most notable one of the club and has won a record 91 domestic trophies in total, including a record 28 Turkish championship titles, among others; the club are leading the all-time table of the Turkish Super League. In international club football, Fenerbahçe have won the Balkans Cup in 1968, the first non-domestic trophy won by a Turkish football team.
The men's basketball team are the most successful in Turkey and is the only team in Turkish basketball history to have won the EuroLeague. They became European Champions in the 2016–17 season and runners-up in 2015–16 and 2017–18; the club has played in four consecutive EuroLeague Final Fours so far, a Turkish record. In volleyball, Fenerbahçe became the first Turkish club to be crowned World Champions in an Olympic team sport, by winning the FIVB Volleyball Women's Club World Championship undefeated in 2010, they were crowned European Champions by winning the CEV Champions League in the 2011–12 season, having reached the final before in 2010. Furthermore, they won the CEV Cup in 2014; the men's volleyball team won the CEV Challenge Cup in the 2013–14 season, thus writing volleyball history as the women's team won another continental title, the aforementioned CEV Cup, the same day. By achieving this unparalleled feat, Fenerbahçe became the only sports club in Turkey and one of few in Europe with European titles won in both the men's and women's volleyball departments.
They became Balkan Champions in 2009 and 2013. The table tennis department of Fenerbahçe are the best in Turkey and one of the best in Europe, with the women's team having won the ETTU Cup two times in a row, in the 2011–12 and 2012–13 seasons, a Turkish record, they became the only Turkish team that played in a European Champions League Final, they won the Champions League title in 2015 undefeated, thus achieving the only Triple Crown for a Turkish table tennis team. The men's team reached the final of the ETTU Cup in 2008, the best result for any Turkish team to date; the former tennis team won the Balkan Championship in 1932. Fenerbahçe are one of the most supported Turkish clubs with millions of fans inside Turkey and millions of others in the Turkish communities all over the world; the club has 309,026 paid members as of 16 September 2012. Fenerbahçe was founded as a football club in 1907 in Istanbul, Ottoman Empire, by Ziya Songülen, Ayetullah Bey and Necip Okaner; this group of individuals founded the club secretly in order to keep a low profile and not get into any trouble with the strict Ottoman rule.
So strict that the Sultan, Abdul Hamid II, forbade the Turkish youth to set up a club or engage in the game of football played by the English families, watched in envy. The club's name comes from a neighbourhood in Istanbul; the name means "lighthouse garden" in Turkish, referring to a historic lighthouse located at Fenerbahçe Cape. Ziya Songülen was elected the first President of the club, Ayetullah Bey became the first General Secretary, Enver Necip Okaner was given the post of the General Captain; the lighthouse situated on the Fenerbahçe Cape was a big influence on the design of the club's first crest, which sported the yellow and white colors of daffodils around the lighthouse. The kits were designed with yellow and white stripes; the crest and the colors of the club were changed in 1910 when Hikmet Topuzer redesigned the badge and Ziya Songülen changed the colors to yellow and navy, from on the iconic colors of the club. Fenerbahçe's activities were kept in secrecy until a legislation reform in 1908, under a new law, all football clubs had to register to exist legally.
Fenerbahçe joined the Istanbul League in 1909. The founding line-up included Ziya Songülen, Ayetullah Bey, Necip Okaner, Galip Kulaksızoğlu, Hassan Sami Kocamemi, Asaf Beşpınar, Enver Yetiker, Şevkati Hulusi Bey, Fuat Hüsnü Kayacan, Hamit Hüsnü Kayacan, Nasuhi Baydar. Fenerbahçe played against the staff of the Royal Navy that occupied Istanbul during the Turkish War of Independence; some British soldiers formed football teams that were named after the players' speciality, for example Essex Engineers, Irish Guards and Artillery. These teams played against local football teams in Istanbul. Fenerbahçe won many of these matches; the Turkish Football Federation founded a professional nationwide league in 1959, which continues today under the name of the Süper Lig. Fenerbahçe won the first tournament, beating Galatasaray 4–1 on aggregate
A midfielder is an association football position. Midfielders are positioned on the field between their team's defenders and forwards; some midfielders play a disciplined defensive role, breaking up attacks, are otherwise known as defensive midfielders. Others blur the boundaries, being more mobile and efficient in passing: they are referred to as deep-lying midfielders, play-makers, box-to-box, or holding midfielders; the number of midfielders on a team and their assigned roles depends on the team's formation. Most managers assign at least one midfielder to disrupt the opposing team's attacks, while others may be tasked with creating goals, or have equal responsibilities between attack and defence. Midfielders are the players who travel the greatest distance during a match; because midfielders arguably have the most possession during a game they are among the fittest players on the pitch. Central or centre midfielders are players whose role is divided equally between attack and defence and to dominate the play around the centre of the pitch.
These players will try to pass the ball to the team's attacking midfielders and forwards and may help their team's attacks by making runs into the opposition's penalty area and attempting shots on goal themselves. When the opposing team has the ball, a central midfielder may drop back to protect the goal or move forward and press the opposition ball-carrier to recover the ball. A centre midfielder defending their goal will move in front of their centre-backs in order to block long shots by the opposition and track opposition midfielders making runs towards the goal; the 4–3–3 and 4–5–1 formations each use three central midfielders. The 4−4−2 formation may use two central midfielders, in the 4–2–3–1 formation one of the two deeper midfielders may be a central midfielder; the term box-to-box midfielder refers to central midfielders who are hard-working and who have good all-round abilities, which makes them skilled at both defending and attacking. These players can therefore track back to their own box to make tackles and block shots and run to the opponents' box to try to score.
The change of trends and the deviation from the standard 4–4–2 formation to the 4–2–3–1 formation imposed restrictions on the typical box-to-box midfielders of the 80s, as teams' two midfield roles were now divided into "holders" or "creators". Notable examples of box-to-box midfielders are Bastian Schweinsteiger, Yaya Touré, Radja Nainggolan. Left and right midfielders have a role balanced between attack and defence, similar to that of central midfielders, but they are positioned closer to the touchlines of the pitch, they may be asked to cross the ball into the opponents' penalty area to make scoring chances for their teammates, when defending they may put pressure on opponents who are trying to cross. Common modern formations that include left and right midfielders are the 4−4−2, the 4−4−1−1, the 4–2–3–1 and the 4−5−1 formations. Jonathan Wilson describes the development of the 4−4−2 formation: "…the winger became a wide midfielder, a shuttler, somebody who might be expected to cross a ball but was meant to put in a defensive shift."
Notable examples of wide midfielders are Ryan Giggs. The historic position of wing-half was given to midfielders, it became obsolete as wide players with defensive duties have tended to become more a part of the defence as full-backs. Defensive midfielders are midfield players; these players may defend a zone in front of their team's defence, or man mark specific opposition attackers. Defensive midfielders may move to the full-back or centre-back positions if those players move forward to join in an attack. Sergio Busquets described his attitude: "The coach knows that I am an obedient player who likes to help out and if I have to run to the wing to cover someone's position, great." A good defensive midfielder needs good positional awareness, anticipation of opponent's play, tackling, interceptions and great stamina and strength. A holding or deep-lying midfielder stays close to their team's defence, while other midfielders may move forward to attack; the holding midfielder may have responsibilities when their team has the ball.
This player will make short and simple passes to more attacking members of their team but may try some more difficult passes depending on the team's strategy. Marcelo Bielsa is considered as a pioneer for the use of a holding midfielder in defence; this position may be seen in the 4 -- 2 -- 3 -- 4 -- 4 -- 2 diamond formations. A defensive midfielder, or "destroyer", a playmaker, or "creator", were fielded alongside each other as a team's two holding central midfielders; the destroyer was responsible for making tackles, regaining possession, distributing the ball to the creator, while the creator was responsible for retaining possession and keeping the ball moving with long passes out to the flanks, in the manner of a more old-fashioned deep-lying playmaker or "regista". Early examples of a destroyer are Nobby Stiles, Herbert Wimmer, Marco Tardelli, while examples include Claude Makélélé and Javier Mascherano, although several of these players possessed qualities of other types of midfielders, were therefore not confined to a single role.
Early examples of a creator would be Gérson, Glenn Hoddle, Sunday Oliseh, while more recent examples Xabi Alonso, Michael Carrick. The latest and third type of holding midfielder developed as a box-to-box midfielder, or "carrier", neither destructive nor creative, capable of winning b
Fenerbahçe S.K. (football)
Fenerbahçe S. K. known as Fenerbahçe, are a Turkish football club based in Istanbul, Turkey. The club's name comes from Fenerbahçe neighbourhood of Istanbul; the professional football department are the most notable one of Fenerbahçe SK, a major multi-sport club who compete in football, volleyball, swimming, rowing and table tennis, among others, with many major honours won in each department. Fenerbahçe are one of the most successful and best supported football teams in Turkey, having never been relegated to lower divisions, compete in the Turkish Super League and the Turkish Cup, they are nicknamed Sarı Kanaryalar and play their home games at Şükrü Saracoğlu Stadium, their own traditional home ground in Kadıköy, Istanbul. Fenerbahçe have won 6 Turkish Cups and 9 Turkish Super Cups, among others. With [[List of Turkish football champions| Fenerbahçe hold the record for most national championship titles won; the club are leading the all-time table of the Turkish Super League. In international club football, Fenerbahçe have won the Balkans Cup in 1968, marked as the first non-domestic trophy won by a Turkish football club.
In UEFA competitions, Fenerbahçe have reached the quarter-finals in the 1963–64 season of the UEFA Cup Winners' Cup and in the 2007–08 season of the UEFA Champions League. The club's semi-final performance in the 2012–13 season of the UEFA Europa League is marked as their greatest achievement in European competitions. Fenerbahçe are a member of the European Club Association. Fener are one of the best supported Turkish teams and have millions of fans inside Turkey as well as millions of others in the Turkish communities all over the world; the club have a long-standing rivalry with other major Istanbul clubs, namely with Beşiktaş and Galatasaray. The Intercontinental Derby between Fenerbahçe and Galatasaray is considered to be one of the fiercest and most intense derbies in the world. In September 2009, British Daily Mail ranked the Fenerbahçe – Galatasaray derby second among the ten greatest football rivalries of all-time, its name derives from the fact that the clubs are located on the Asian and European sides of the Bosphorus strait in Istanbul.
Fenerbahçe were founded in 1907 in Kadıköy, Istanbul, by local men Ziya Songülen, Ayetullah Bey, Necip Okaner. This group founded the club secretly in order to keep a low profile and not get into any trouble with the strict Ottoman rule, so strict that the Sultan Abdul Hamid II forbade the Turkish youth to set up a club or engage in the game of football played by the English families, watched in envy; the three men came together and concluded that Kadıköy was in desperate need of its own football club, where locals would get a chance to practise the game of football. Ziya Songülen was elected the first president of the club, Ayetullah Bey became the first general secretary and Necip Okaner was given the post of general captain; the lighthouse situated on the Fenerbahçe cape was a big influence on the design of the club's first crest, which sported the yellow and white colors of daffodils around the lighthouse. The kits were designed with yellow and white stripes; the crest of the club was changed in 1910 when Hikmet Topuzer redesigned the badge after Ziya Songülen had changed the colors to yellow and navy, still seen today.
Fenerbahçe's activities were kept in secrecy until a legislation reform in 1908, under a new law, all football clubs had to register to exist legally. The founding line-up included Ziya Songülen, Ayetullah Bey, Necip Okaner, Galip Kulaksızoğlu, Hassan Sami Kocamemi, Asaf Beşpınar, Enver Yetiker, Şevkati Hulusi Bey, Fuat Hüsnü Kayacan, Hamit Hüsnü Kayacan, Nasuhi Baydar. Struggling with financial difficulties, Fenerbahçe joined the Istanbul Football League in 1909, finishing fifth in their first year. Fenerbahçe won the 1911–12 season of the Istanbul Football League marking this championship as the first success in their long history. Mustafa Elkatipzade introduced other sports to the club realizing that football should not be the only sport being practised. Fenerbahçe played against the staff of the Royal Navy that occupied Istanbul during the Turkish War of Independence; some British soldiers formed football teams that were named after the players' speciality, for example Essex Engineers, Irish Guards and Artillery.
These teams played against local football teams in Istanbul. Fenerbahçe won many of these matches; the most known match played against the British was the match that would determine the winner of the General Harrington Cup. Fenerbahçe won the Istanbul Football League 16 times, the Turkish National Division 6 times, the former Turkish Football Championship 3 times, all of them records, profiling themselves as forerunners and dominating side in Turkish football before the introduction of the professional nationwide league in 1959; the Turkish Football Federation founded a professional national league in 1959, which continues today under the name of the Süper Lig. Fenerbahçe won the first tournament; the next year, Fenerbahçe participated in the European Cup for the first time. They qualified through a 4–3 win over Csepel SC, being the first Turkish club to advance to the next round by eliminating its opponent, they lost their first-round game to Nice 1–5 in a playoff game after drawing on aggregate.
Fenerbahçe reached the quarter-final of the 1963–64 European Cup Winners' Cup where it was eliminated by MTK Budapest. Fenerbahçe won four more league titles in the 1960s and were runners-up three time
The Fédération Internationale de Football Association is an organization which describes itself as an international governing body of association football, fútsal, beach soccer, eFootball. FIFA is responsible for the organization of football's major international tournaments, notably the World Cup which commenced in 1930 and the Women's World Cup which commenced in 1991. FIFA was founded in 1904 to oversee international competition among the national associations of Belgium, France, the Netherlands, Spain and Switzerland. Headquartered in Zürich, its membership now comprises 211 national associations. Member countries must each be members of one of the six regional confederations into which the world is divided: Africa, Europe, North & Central America and the Caribbean and South America. Although FIFA does not control the rules of football, that being the responsibility of the International Football Association Board, it is responsible for both the organization of a number of tournaments and their promotion, which generate revenue from sponsorship.
In 2017, FIFA had revenues of over US $734 million, for a net loss of $189 million, had cash reserves of over US$930 million. Reports by investigative journalists have linked FIFA leadership with corruption and vote-rigging related to the election of FIFA president Sepp Blatter and the organization's decision to award the 2018 and 2022 World Cups to Russia and Qatar, respectively; these allegations led to the indictments of nine high-ranking FIFA officials and five corporate executives by the U. S. Department of Justice on charges including racketeering, wire fraud, money laundering. On 27 May 2015, several of these officials were arrested by Swiss authorities, who were launching a simultaneous but separate criminal investigation into how the organization awarded the 2018 and 2022 World Cups; those among these officials who were indicted in the U. S. are expected to be extradited to face charges there as well. Many officials were suspended by FIFA's ethics committee including Michel Platini. In early 2017 reports became public about FIFA president Gianni Infantino attempting to prevent the re-elections of both chairmen of the ethics committee, Cornel Borbély and Hans-Joachim Eckert, during the FIFA congress in May 2017.
On May 9, 2017, following Infantino's proposal, FIFA Council decided not to renew the mandates of Borbély and Eckert. Together with the chairmen, 11 of 13 committee members were removed; the need for a single body to oversee association football became apparent at the beginning of the 20th century with the increasing popularity of international fixtures. The Fédération Internationale de Football Association was founded in the rear of the headquarters of the Union des Sociétés Françaises de Sports Athlétiques at the Rue Saint Honoré 229 in Paris on 21 May 1904; the French name and acronym are used outside French-speaking countries. The founding members were the national associations of Belgium, France, the Netherlands, Spain and Switzerland; that same day, the German Football Association declared its intention of affiliating through a telegram. The first president of FIFA was Robert Guérin. Guérin was replaced in 1906 by Daniel Burley Woolfall from England, by a member of the association; the first tournament FIFA staged, the association football competition for the 1908 Olympics in London was more successful than its Olympic predecessors, despite the presence of professional footballers, contrary to the founding principles of FIFA.
Membership of FIFA expanded beyond Europe with the application of South Africa in 1909, Argentina in 1912, Canada and Chile in 1913, the United States in 1914. During World War II, with many players sent off to war and the possibility of travel for international fixtures limited, the organization's survival was in doubt. Post-war, following the death of Woolfall, the organisation was run by Dutchman Carl Hirschmann, it was saved from extinction but at the cost of the withdrawal of the Home Nations, who cited an unwillingness to participate in international competitions with their recent World War enemies. The Home Nations resumed their membership; the FIFA collection is held by the National Football Museum at Urbis in England. The first World Cup was held in 1930 in Uruguay. FIFA is headquartered in Zürich, is an association established under the law of Switzerland. FIFA's supreme body is the FIFA Congress, an assembly made up of representatives from each affiliated member association; each national football association has one vote, regardless of footballing strength.
The Congress assembles in ordinary session once every year, extraordinary sessions have been held once a year since 1998. The congress makes decisions relating to FIFA's governing statutes and their method of implementation and application. Only the Congress can pass changes to FIFA's statutes; the congress approves the annual report, decides on the acceptance of new national associations and holds elections. Congress elects the President of FIFA, its general secretary, the other members of the FIFA Council in the year following the FIFA World Cup. FIFA Council — called the FIFA Executive Committee and chaired by the president — is the main decision-making body of the organisation in the intervals of congress; the council is composed of 37 people: the president. The Executive Committee is the body that decides w
Idrottsföreningen Kamraterna Norrköping, more known as IFK Norrköping or Norrköping, is a Swedish professional football club based in Norrköping. The club is play their home games at Östgötaporten; the club colours, reflected in their crest and kit, are blue. Formed on 29 May 1897, the club have won thirteen national championship titles and six national cup titles; the club plays in the highest Swedish tier, which they first won in 1943. IFK Norrköping were most successful during the 1940s, when they won five Swedish championships and two Svenska Cupen titles under the Hungarian coach Lajos Czeizler and with players like Gunnar Nordahl and Nils Liedholm. IFK Norrköping won the 2015 Allsvenskan, their first win since 1989, which gave them a spot in the second qualification round of 2016–17 UEFA Champions League. IFK Norrköping dominated Swedish football in the post war era and won the first division 11 times in 20 years, culminating in the league triumph of 1963, it took the club another 26 years before adding championship title number 12 to the trophy cabinet.
On 31 October 2015, IFK Norrköping won their 13th championship title after defeating the defending champions Malmö FF with 2–0 away in Swedbank Stadion in Malmö in the last round of 2015 Allsvenskan. This was the second time in a row. On 8 November IFK Norrköping won supercupen against Swedish cup winners IFK Göteborg; the result was 3–0 after a dominating performance from the reigning Swedish champions. The club used to have a fierce rivalry with IK Sleipner from Norrköping, before Sleipner's fall from the higher divisions. Another historic rivalry is that against Åtvidabergs FF from the province of Östergötland, tense in the 1970s and early 2010s; this rivalry has lost importance. IFK Norrköping maintains a rivalry with Malmö FF. Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality; as of 11 February 2019Note: Flags indicate national team. Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality. 12 – Fans of the club 1947: Gunnar Nordahl 1949: Knut Nordahl 1953: Bengt "Julle" Gustavsson 1957: Åke "Bajdoff" Johansson 1960: Torbjörn Jonsson 1961: Bengt "Zamora" Nyholm 1963: Harry Bild 1966: Ove Kindvall 1968: Björn Nordqvist 1990: Tomas Brolin 1992: Jan Eriksson Gunnar Nordahl 1944–45, 1945–46 och 1947–48 Harry Bild 1956–57 Henry "Putte" Källgren 1957–58 Ove Kindvall 1966 Jan Hellström 1989 Niclas Kindvall 1994 Imad Khalili 2013 Emir Kujović 2015 Kalle Holmberg 2017 Stefan Pettersson 1983 Bruno Santos 2005 Garðar Gunnlaugsson 2007 As of 4 January 2018 Swedish ChampionsWinners: 1942–43, 1944–45, 1945–46, 1946–47, 1947–48, 1951–52, 1955–56, 1956–57, 1960, 1962, 1963, 1989, 2015 Allsvenskan: Winners: 1942–43, 1944–45, 1945–46, 1946–47, 1947–48, 1951–52, 1955–56, 1956–57, 1960, 1962, 1963, 1989, 2015 Runners-up: 1952–53, 1957–58, 1959, 1961, 1966, 1987, 1989, 1990, 1993 Superettan: Winners: 2007 Runners-up: 2010 Mästerskapsserien: Runners-up: 1991, 1992 Svenska Cupen: Winners: 1943, 1945, 1968–69, 1987–88, 1990–91, 1993–94 Runners-up: 1944, 1953, 1967, 1971–72, 2016–17 Svenska Supercupen: Winners: 2015 Most played games: Åke "Bajdoff" Johansson, 321 games Most league goals: Henry "Putte" Källgren, 126 goals Most spectators:32 234 against Malmö FF, 7 June 1956Biggest victory:11–1 against Djurgårdens IF, 14 October 1945.
Biggest defeat:0 – 11 against Örgryte IS, 6 April 1928 and Helsingborgs IF, 22 September 1929Most expensive player:Midfielder Alexander Fransson, from FC Basel for 10 million SEK, 2018. Most expensive sale:Midfielder/Forward Arnór Ingvi Traustason, to SK Rapid Wien for 16 million SEK, 2016. List of IFK Norrköping managers 1905– IF Sylvia Husqvarna FF IFK Norrköping maintains departments for women's football, set up in 2009, orienteering and bandy; the bandy team played in Sweden's highest division in 1937. Part of the club was an ice hockey team which played in the seasons 1950/51 and 1955/56 in the highest Swedish division; the ice hockey teams of IFK and local rivals IK Sleipner were joined in 1967 to form IF IFK/IKS, known from 1973 forward as IK Vita Hästen which evolved into today's HC Vita Hästen. IFK Norrköping – official site Peking Fanz – official supporter club site IFK Norrköpings Supporter klubb – official supporter club site for seniors gopeking.net – IFK Norrköpings oldest supporter site Parkens vita hjältar – supporter site