G.723.1 is an audio codec for voice that compresses voice audio in 30 ms frames. An algorithmic look-ahead of 7.5 ms duration means that total algorithmic delay is 37.5 ms. Its official name is Dual rate speech coder for multimedia communications transmitting at 5.3 and 6.3 kbit/s. It is sometimes associated with a Truespeech trademark in coprocessors produced by DSP Group; this is a different codec from G.723. There are two bit rates at which G.723.1 can operate: 6.3 kbit/s using a MPC-MLQ algorithm 5.3 kbit/s using an ACELP algorithm G.723.1 is used in Voice over IP applications due to its low bandwidth requirement. Music or tones such as DTMF or fax tones cannot be transported reliably with this codec, thus some other method such as G.711 or out-of-band methods should be used to transport these signals. The complexity of the algorithm is below 16 MIPS. 2.2 kilobytes of RAM is needed for codebooks. G.723.1 is a required audio codec in the H.324 ITU-T recommendation for H.324 terminals offering audio communication.

In 3GPP 3G-324M specification support for G. 723.1 recommended. Sampling frequency 8 kHz/16-bit Fixed bit rate Fixed frame size for each rate Algorithmic delay is 37.5 ms per frame, with 7.5 ms look-ahead delay G.723.1 is a hybrid speech coder, with high bit rate using multi-pulse maximum likelihood quantization and low bit rate using algebraic code-excited linear prediction The complexity of the algorithm is rated at 25, using a relative scale where G.711 is 1 and G.729a is 15. G.723.1 Annex A defines 4 byte silence insertion descriptor frame for Comfort Noise Generation PSQM testing under ideal conditions yields mean opinion scores of 4.08 for G.723.1, compared to 4.45 for G.711 PSQM testing under network stress yields mean opinion scores of 3.57 for G.723.1, compared to 4.13 for G.711 As of January 1, 2017, the patent terms of most patents applying to G.723.1 have expired. With regard to the unexpired licensed patents of their G.723.1 patent license agreement, the licensors of G.723.1 patents, namely AudioCodes, Orange SA, Université de Sherbrooke have agreed to license their patents under the existing terms on a royalty-free basis starting January 1, 2017.

The authorized intellectual property rights licensing administrator for G.723.1 technology is Sipro Lab Telecom. Members of the G.723.1 patent pool are AudioCodes, France Telecom, Université de Sherbrooke, Nippon Telegraph and Telephone Corporation and Nokia. List of codecs Comparison of audio coding formats RTP audio video profile ITU-T Recommendation G.723.1 - technical specification Intellectual Property Rights page on ITU website

Portrait of Iseppo da Porto and his son Adriano

Portrait of Iseppo da Porto and his son Adriano is a c.1555 oil on canvas painting by Paolo Veronese, now in the Contini Bonacossi collection, on long-term loan to the Uffizi in Florence. Veronese decorated Porto's palazzo Porto in Vicenza, designed by Andrea Palladio and completed in 1552, it is a pendant to a portrait of Iseppo's wife Livia or Lucia Thien, who he married in 1545, one of their daughters. It was acquired in Paris from the Sedelmeyer collection by Alessandro Contini Bonacossi, though its female pendant was by in a private collection in Vicenza, from which it passed to the Walters Art Museum in Baltimore


Marine Fighting Squadron 236 was a fighter squadron in the United States Marine Corps. The squadron known as the “Black Panthers”, was part of the Marine Forces Reserve for a short time following World War II and were based at Naval Air Station Denver, Colorado until their disestablishment. Established during World War II, they fought in the Pacific War most notably during the Bougainville Campaign and the campaign to liberate the Philippines; the squadron conducted the first dive bombing attack against Bougainville and was credited with downing 4 Japanese aircraft during the course of the war. VMSB-236 was disestablished on August 1, 1945 at Mindanao, Philippines two weeks before the surrender of Japan They were reactivated as part of the Reserves but were again deactivated in the late 1960s and remain in an inactive status today; the squadron was formed on 1 January 1943 at Marine Corps Air Station Mojave, California as Marine Scout Bombing Squadron 236 flying the SBD Dauntless. In April 1943 they moved to Marine Corps Air Station Ewa, Hawaii for follow on training and joined the war landing at Guadalcanal on 4 September 1943.

From there the squadron took part in the first dive bombing strikes against Bougainville in preparation for the allied landing there on 1 November 1943. During the next year and a half the squadron would move with its ground and air echelons being based in such places as Munda in the Solomon Islands, Torokina on Bougainville, Green Island in Papua New Guinea and Efate in what was New Hebrides. In January 1945 the squadron moved to Luzon in the Philippines and became part of Marine Aircraft Group 24 at an airfield in Mangaldan near the Lingayen Gulf. On they moved to Moret Field on Mindanao; the squadron stayed in the Philippines for the remainder of the war flying close air support missions in support of the Sixth United States Army and Eighth United States Army. VMSB-236 was deactivated on 1 August 1945 at Mindanao, Philippines two weeks before the surrender of Japan. United States Marine Corps Aviation List of active United States Marine Corps aircraft squadrons List of inactive United States Marine Corps aircraft squadrons Bibliography Web