Tommy Atkins is slang for a common soldier in the British Army. It was well established during the nineteenth century, but is associated with World War I, it can be used as a form of address. German soldiers would call out to "Tommy" across no man's land if they wished to speak to a British soldier. French and Commonwealth troops would call British soldiers "Tommies". In more recent times, the term Tommy Atkins has been used less although the name "Tom" is still heard. Tommy Atkins or Thomas Atkins has been used as a generic name for a common British soldier for many years; the origin of the term is a subject of debate, but it is known to have been used as early as 1743. A letter sent from Jamaica about a mutiny amongst the troops says "except for those from N. America ye Marines and Tommy Atkins behaved splendidly". A common belief is that the name was chosen by Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington after having been inspired by the bravery of a soldier at the Battle of Boxtel in 1794 during the Flanders Campaign.
After a fierce engagement, the Duke, in command of the 33rd Regiment of Foot, spotted the best man-at-arms in the regiment, Private Thomas Atkins wounded. The private said "It's all right, sir. It's all in a day's work" and died shortly after. According to the Imperial War Museum, this theory has Wellington choosing the name in 1843. According to J. H. Leslie, writing in Notes and Queries in 1912, "Tommy Atkins" was chosen as a generic name by the War Office in 1815, in every sample infantry form in the Soldiers Account Book, signing with a mark; the Cavalry form had Trumpeter William Jones and Sergeant John Thomas, though they did not use a mark. Leslie observes the same name in the 1837 Kings Regulations, pages 204 and 210, editions. Leslie comments that this disproves the anecdote about the Duke of Wellington selecting the name in 1843. Richard Holmes, in the prologue to his 2005 book, states that: Atkins became a sergeant in the 1837 version, was now able to sign his name rather than make his mark.
The Oxford English Dictionary states its origin as "arising out of the casual use of this name in the specimen forms given in the official regulations from 1815 onward". The name is used for an exemplary infantry soldier. Thomas Atkins continued to be used in the Soldier's Account Book until the early 20th century. A further suggestion was given in 1900 by an army chaplain named Reverend E. J. Hardy, he wrote of an incident during the Sepoy Rebellion in 1857. When most of the Europeans in Lucknow were fleeing to the British Residency for protection, a private of the 32nd Regiment of Foot remained on duty at an outpost. Despite the pleas of his comrades, he insisted, he was killed at his post, the Reverend Hardy wrote that "His name happened to be Tommy Atkins and so, throughout the Mutiny Campaign, when a daring deed was done, the doer was said to be'a regular Tommy Atkins'". Rudyard Kipling published the poem "Tommy" in 1892. In reply, William McGonagall wrote "Lines in Praise of Tommy Atkins" in 1898, an attack on what McGonagall saw as the disparaging portrayal of Tommy in Kipling's poem.
In 1893, for the musical play A Gaiety Girl, Henry Hamilton and Samuel Potter wrote the song Private Tommy Atkins for the baritone C. Hayden Coffin, it was published by Willcocks & Co. Ltd. in London and published by T. B. Harms & Co. in New York the next year. The song was reintroduced into performances of San Toy for Hayden Coffin, he recalled singing it on Ladysmith Night where "the audience were roused to such a pitch of enthusiasm, that they rose to their feet, commenced to shower money on to the stage". Following the British defeat by the Boers at the Battle of Magersfontein in December 1899, Private Smith of the Black Watch wrote the following poem: Robert Graves, in his autobiography Goodbye to All That, states that: "The original'Thomas Atkins' was a Royal Welch Fusilier in the American Revolutionary War". Graves, an officer in the Royal Welch in 1915, mentions this among other regimental history but does not cite his reference. In the same volume, Graves quotes a German soldier addressing the British: "Ach, hast du den deutsch gelernt?"
"Tommy cooker" was a nickname for a British soldier's portable stove, fuelled by something referred to as solidified alcohol, making it smokeless but inefficient. More the 2013–present BBC television show Peaky Blinders centers on the return of a British tunneler from the Great War in France named Tommy Shelby. Present day English soldiers are referred to as'Toms' or just'Tom'. Outside the services soldiers are known as'Squaddies' by the British popular press; the British Army magazine Soldier has a regular cartoon strip,'Tom', featuring the everyday life of a British soldier. Junior officers in the army are known as'Ruperts' by the other ranks; this nickname is believed to be derived from the children's comic book character Rupert Bear who epitomises traditional public school values The term'Pongo' or'Perce' is used by Sailors and Royal Marines to refer to soldiers. It is not considered complimentary. On 25 July 2009, the death of the last "Tommy" from World War I, Harry Patch (at 111 t
American Forces Network
The American Forces Network is the broadcast service operated by the United States Armed Forces' American Forces Radio and Television Service for its entertainment and command internal information networks worldwide. The AFN worldwide radio and television broadcast network serves American servicemembers, Department of Defense and other U. S. government civilians and their families stationed at bases overseas, as well as U. S. Navy ships at sea. AFN broadcasts popular American radio and television programs from the major U. S. networks. It is sometimes referred to as the Armed Forces Network. AFRTS, American Forces Network and AFN are registered trademarks of the U. S. Department of Defense, it is part of the Defense Media Activity. The American Forces Network is the operational arm of the American Forces Radio and Television Service, an office of the Defense Media Activity. AFN falls under the operational control of the Office of the Assistant Secretary of Defense for Public Affairs. Editorial control is by the Department of Defense, whereas the British Forces Broadcasting Service, for example, is independent of the Ministry of Defence and the British armed forces.
AFN employs military broadcasters as well as Department of Defense contractors. Service personnel hold broadcasting occupational specialties for their military branch. Since 1997, all of AFN's military personnel receive primary training at the Defense Information School at Fort George G. Meade in Maryland. Before 1997, DINFOS was located at Fort Benjamin Harrison in Indiana. In 1997, Fort Benjamin Harrison was closed as a function of the 1991 Base Closure and Realignment Commission. Additional/Advanced training is available at Fort George G. Meade. In the 1960s, DINFOS was located at Fort Slocum, NY on a small island just off the harbor at New Rochelle. At its peak in 1965, the Army Chaplain school was located here. In 1963 this campus operated in a "university" setting with a relaxed military environment; the Army ran the Information School although training was offered to members of all military branches. Radio types took a rather severe audition written by CBS for their network announcers; those who survived the audition became "Broadcast Specialists" with a 703 MOS and went on to an AFRTS assignment.
Some of AFN's broadcasters have previous commercial broadcasting experience before enlisting in the military, but it is not a prerequisite for enlistment in the military as a broadcaster. During their training, the broadcasters are taught to use state-of-the-art audio and visual editing equipment similar to their civilian counterparts. AFN management is located at DMA headquarters at Fort Meade. Day-to-day AFN broadcast operations are conducted at the AFN Broadcast Center/Defense Media Center in Riverside, from where all global radio and television satellite feeds emanate; the American Forces Network can trace its origins to May 26, 1942, when the War Department established the Armed Forces Radio Service. A television service was first introduced in 1954 with a pilot station at Limestone Air Force Base, Maine. In 1954, the television mission of AFRS was recognized and AFRS became AFRTS. All of the Armed Forces broadcasting affiliates worldwide merged under the AFN banner on January 1, 1998. On November 21, 2000, the American Forces Information Service directed a change of the AFRTS organizational title from Armed Forces Radio and Television Service back to American Forces Radio and Television Service.
A timeline of the history of AFN is available online. KODK began broadcasting from the U. S. Army base Fort Greely at Kodiak, before the inception of the AFRS. Fort Greeley was built to defend and was an integral part of the Kodiak Naval Air Station, sometimes called Naval Operating Base. Construction of both was under way in 1940; the naval station and AFRS radio remained in operation, but Fort Greely closed at the end of World War II. Years the name Fort Greely was resurrected for the Big Delta Army base; the small town of Kodiak, located six miles away, had no radio station, while Anchorage and Fairbanks, where Army and Army Air Force bases soon would be established, had civilian radio stations. Thus KODK had a primary role to bring radio to the armed civilians in the Kodiak area; the sign-off at KODK was the memorable "Goodnight, Sweetheart" set to a stirring melody from Liszt's Les Preludes. The station lived on to bring the first television to Kodiak; the first radio station began in Delta Junction, Alaska, on what was known as Fort Greely.
It was operated by on base personnel. In the years just before World War II, there were several radio stations based in American military bases, but none were recognized until 1942; the success of these individual radio stations helped pave the way for the AFN. As such, there was no single station. About two months before formal establishment of AFN, however, a station called "PCAN" began regular broadcast information service in the Panama Canal Zone for troops on jungle bivouac; the station, located at Fort Clayton, was to become part of AFRS, first as "Armed Forces Network" located at Albrook Field. The U. S. Army began broadcasting from London during World War II, using equipment and studio facilities borrowed from the British Broadcasting Corporation; the first transmission to U. S. troops began at 5:45 p.m. July 4, 1943, included less than five hours of recorded shows, a BBC news and sports broadcast; that day, Corporal Syl Bink
G. I. Joe is a line of action figures owned by the toy company Hasbro; the initial product offering represented four of the branches of the U. S. armed forces with the Action Soldier, Action Sailor, Action Pilot, Action Marine and on, the Action Nurse. The name derived from the usage of "G. I. Joe" for the generic U. S. soldier, itself derived from the more general term "G. I.". The development of G. I. Joe led to the coining of the term "action figure". G. I. Joe's appeal to children has made it an American icon among toys; the G. I. Joe trademark has been used by Hasbro for several different toy lines, although only two have been successful; the original 12-inch line introduced on February 2, 1964 centered on realistic action figures. In the United Kingdom, this line was known as Action Man. In 1982 the line was relaunched in a 3.75-inch scale complete with vehicles, a complex background story involving an ongoing struggle between the G. I. Joe Team and the evil Cobra Command which seeks to take over the Free World through terrorism.
As the American line evolved into the Real American Hero series, Action Man changed, by using the same molds and being renamed as Action Force. Although the members of the G. I. Joe team are not superheroes, they all had expertise in areas such as martial arts and explosives. G. I. Joe was inducted into the National Toy Hall of Fame at The Strong in Rochester, New York, in 2003; the original idea for the action figure that would become G. I. Joe was developed in 1963 by a Manhattan licensing agent. Weston made rudimentary prototypes of the figure and basic marketing materials that showed the sales potential of a military action figure; when he showed these materials to Donald Levine, a Hasbro executive, Levine told Weston "You will make a fortune with these." Weston subsequently licensed the entire concept to Hasbro for US$100,000. The conventional marketing wisdom of the early 1960s was that boys would not play with dolls and parents would not buy their sons dolls which have been traditionally a girl’s toy.
I. Joe. "Action figure" was the only acceptable term, has since become the generic description for any poseable doll intended for boys. "America's movable fighting man" is a registered trademark of Hasbro, was prominently displayed on every boxed figure package. The Hasbro prototypes were named "Rocky" "Skip" and "Ace", before the more universal name G. I. Joe was adopted. One of the prototypes would sell in a Heritage auction in 2003 for $200,001. Aside from the obvious trademarking on the right buttock, other aspects of the figure were copyrighted features that allowed Hasbro to pursue cases against producers of cheap imitations, since the human figure itself cannot be copyrighted or trademarked; the scar on the right cheek was one. Early trademarking, with "G. I. Joe™", was used through some point in 1965. I. Joe was a registered trademark. I. Joe®" now appears on the first line. Subsequently, the stamped trademarking was altered after the patent was granted, assigned a number. Figures with this marking would have entered the retail market during 1967.
By the late 1960s, in the wake of the Vietnam War, Hasbro sought to downplay the war theme that had defined "G. I. Joe"; the line became known as "The Adventures of G. I. Joe". In 1970, Hasbro settled on the name "Adventure Team". Highlights of the line included: To coincide with the new direction, "Life-Like" flocked hair and beard, an innovation developed in England by Palitoy for their licensed version of Joe, Action Man, is introduced in 1970. A retooled African American Adventurer was introduced, which came in two versions as did the others in the series, bearded or shaven. In 1974, named after the popular martial art, Hasbro introduced "Kung-Fu Grip" to the G. I. Joe line; this was another innovation, developed in the UK for Action Man. The hands were molded in a softer plastic that allowed the fingers to grip objects in a more lifelike fashion. In 1976, G. I. Joe was given eagle eye vision; this would be the last major innovation for the original line of 12-inch figures. A shift in play patternsFor its first ten years, G.
I. Joe was a generic soldier/adventurer with only the slightest hints of a team concept existing. In 1975, after a failed bid to purchase the toy rights to the Six Million Dollar Man, Hasbro issued a bionic warrior figure: Mike Power, Atomic Man. One million units were sold. Added to the Adventure Team was a superhero, Bullet Man; this character had The Intruders -- Strongmen from Another World. Comics included with figures at the time featured "Eagle Eye" Joe, Atomic Man, Bullet Man operating together; the original 12-inch G. I. Joe line ended in America in 1976. At this time, Hasbro released a line of inexpensive, rotationally molded mannequins in the G. I. Joe style called The Defenders. From 1966 through 1984, Palitoy Ltd. produced a British version of the 12-inch G. I. Joe line, under the Action Man name for the UK market; these were the same designs as the American figures, at first the same military theme which included figures from World War II. The line expanded the line to include all men of action, like footbal
World War I
World War I known as the First World War or the Great War, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918. Contemporaneously described as "the war to end all wars", it led to the mobilisation of more than 70 million military personnel, including 60 million Europeans, making it one of the largest wars in history, it is one of the deadliest conflicts in history, with an estimated nine million combatants and seven million civilian deaths as a direct result of the war, while resulting genocides and the 1918 influenza pandemic caused another 50 to 100 million deaths worldwide. On 28 June 1914, Gavrilo Princip, a Bosnian Serb Yugoslav nationalist, assassinated the Austro-Hungarian heir Archduke Franz Ferdinand in Sarajevo, leading to the July Crisis. In response, on 23 July Austria-Hungary issued an ultimatum to Serbia. Serbia's reply failed to satisfy the Austrians, the two moved to a war footing. A network of interlocking alliances enlarged the crisis from a bilateral issue in the Balkans to one involving most of Europe.
By July 1914, the great powers of Europe were divided into two coalitions: the Triple Entente—consisting of France and Britain—and the Triple Alliance of Germany, Austria-Hungary and Italy. Russia felt it necessary to back Serbia and, after Austria-Hungary shelled the Serbian capital of Belgrade on the 28th, partial mobilisation was approved. General Russian mobilisation was announced on the evening of 30 July; when Russia failed to comply, Germany declared war on 1 August in support of Austria-Hungary, with Austria-Hungary following suit on 6th. German strategy for a war on two fronts against France and Russia was to concentrate the bulk of its army in the West to defeat France within four weeks shift forces to the East before Russia could mobilise. On 2 August, Germany demanded free passage through Belgium, an essential element in achieving a quick victory over France; when this was refused, German forces invaded Belgium on 3 August and declared war on France the same day. On 12 August and France declared war on Austria-Hungary.
In November 1914, the Ottoman Empire entered the war on the side of the Alliance, opening fronts in the Caucasus and the Sinai Peninsula. The war was fought in and drew upon each power's colonial empire as well, spreading the conflict to Africa and across the globe; the Entente and its allies would become known as the Allied Powers, while the grouping of Austria-Hungary and their allies would become known as the Central Powers. The German advance into France was halted at the Battle of the Marne and by the end of 1914, the Western Front settled into a battle of attrition, marked by a long series of trench lines that changed little until 1917. In 1915, Italy opened a front in the Alps. Bulgaria joined the Central Powers in 1915 and Greece joined the Allies in 1917, expanding the war in the Balkans; the United States remained neutral, although by doing nothing to prevent the Allies from procuring American supplies whilst the Allied blockade prevented the Germans from doing the same the U. S. became an important supplier of war material to the Allies.
After the sinking of American merchant ships by German submarines, the revelation that the Germans were trying to incite Mexico to make war on the United States, the U. S. declared war on Germany on 6 April 1917. Trained American forces would not begin arriving at the front in large numbers until mid-1918, but the American Expeditionary Force would reach some two million troops. Though Serbia was defeated in 1915, Romania joined the Allied Powers in 1916 only to be defeated in 1917, none of the great powers were knocked out of the war until 1918; the 1917 February Revolution in Russia replaced the Tsarist autocracy with the Provisional Government, but continuing discontent at the cost of the war led to the October Revolution, the creation of the Soviet Socialist Republic, the signing of the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk by the new government in March 1918, ending Russia's involvement in the war. This allowed the transfer of large numbers of German troops from the East to the Western Front, resulting in the German March 1918 Offensive.
This offensive was successful, but the Allies rallied and drove the Germans back in their Hundred Days Offensive. Bulgaria was the first Central Power to sign an armistice—the Armistice of Salonica on 29 September 1918. On 30 October, the Ottoman Empire capitulated. On 4 November, the Austro-Hungarian empire agreed to the Armistice of Villa Giusti after being decisively defeated by Italy in the Battle of Vittorio Veneto. With its allies defeated, revolution at home, the military no longer willing to fight, Kaiser Wilhelm abdicated on 9 November and Germany signed an armistice on 11 November 1918. World War I was a significant turning point in the political, cultural and social climate of the world; the war and its immediate aftermath sparked numerous uprisings. The Big Four (Britain, the United States, It
G-Man is an American slang term for special agents of the United States Government. It is used as a term for a Federal Bureau of Investigation agent. G-Man is a term used for members of G Division a British anti-rebel police unit operating out of Dublin Castle prior to Irish Independence in 1922. Colonel Ned Broy uses the term in his official testimony for the Irish Army's Bureau of Military History in their archive of the Easter Rising and the Irish War of Independence. In the Three Stooges short film "A Pain in the Pullman" Curly Howards refers to himself as a G-Man. According to the Merriam-Webster Dictionary, its first known use in America was in 1928; the earliest citation in the Oxford English Dictionary for the American usage is 1930 from a book on Al Capone by FD Pasley. In FBI mythology, the nickname is held to have originated during the arrest of gangster George "Machine Gun" Kelly by agents of the Bureau of Investigation, a forerunner of the FBI, in September 1933. Finding himself unarmed, Kelly shouted, "Don't shoot, G-Men!
Don't shoot, G-Men!" This event is dramatized in the 1959 film The FBI Story and this dramatization is referenced in the 2011 film J. Edgar; the encounter with Kelly is dramatized in the 1973 film Dillinger. In the video game franchise Half-Life, one of the main characters is a "sinister interdimensional bureaucrat" called the G-Man, who speaks in a cryptic manner and places the main character Gordon Freeman into stasis at the end of the first game. In X-Men: First Class, Charles Xavier refers to his team as "G-Men," but Moira MacTaggart says that they are something different like "X-Men." Charles keeps it. The Spanish Rock band Hombres G got its name from the Spanish translation of G-Man and after the Movie of the same name. G. I. FBI portrayal in media fed Society of Former Special Agents of the Federal Bureau of Investigation Men in Black G-Man
An Airman is a member of an air force or air arm of a nation's armed forces. In certain air forces, it can refer to a specific enlisted rank. In civilian aviation usage, the term airman is analogous to the term sailor in nautical usage. In the American Federal Aviation Administration usage, an airman is any holder of an airman's certificate, male or female; this certificate is issued to those who qualify for it by the Federal Aviation Administration Airmen Certification Branch. In the U. S. Air Force, airman is a general term which can refer to any member of the United States Air Force, regardless of rank, a specific enlisted rank; the rank of airman is the second enlisted rank from the bottom, just above the rank of Airman Basic, just below that of Airman First Class. Since the Air Force was established in 1947, all of the various ranks of "airman" have always included women, in this context, the word "man" means "human being". Former U. S. Air Force ranks included Airman Third Class; the current E-2 paygrade rank of Airman was called Airman Third Class from 1952 to 1967.
A person with the rank of Airman Basic is promoted to the rank of Airman after six months of active duty service in the Air Force, if that member had signed up for an enlistment period of at least four years of active duty. On the other hand, an enlistee could be promoted to the rank of Airman after completing Air Force basic training given one of several additional qualifications: Having completed at least two years of a Junior Reserve Officers' Training Corps while in high school. Having achieved the Eagle Scout level from the Boy Scouts of America, or the Gold Award from the Girl Scouts of the United States of America. Having earned 20 college semester credit hours; those enlistees who have qualified for these early promotions to the rank of Airman are allowed to wear their single airman insignia stripe during the Air Force basic training graduation ceremony at Lackland Air Force Base in San Antonio, Texas. They receive a retroactive pay increment that brings them up to the pay grade for an Airman upon their completion of basic training.
While at the rank of Airman, the duties of enlisted personnel include adjusting to the Air Force way of military life and becoming proficient in their Air Force duty specialties. Note that upon leaving basic training, all Airmen enter a period of many weeks or many months of training at Air Force schools in their duty specialties that they and the Air Force have selected for them depending on their aptitudes and interests, the needs of the Air Force. For Airmen with high aptitudes, some of these training programs include more than one school and take a year or more to complete. Airmen are nicknamed “mosquito wings" due to the insignia's resemblance to a mosquito’s small wings. In the U. S. Navy, Airman is the enlisted rank that corresponds to the pay grade of E-3 in the Navy's aviation field, but it is just below the rank of Petty Officer Third Class, pay grade E-4. In the U. S. Coast Guard, the ranks are similar or identical to the ones in the U. S. Navy, a Coast Guard airman is identical in rank and pay to an Airman in the Navy.
Coast Guard Airman is the enlisted rank that corresponds to the pay grade of E-3 in the Coast Guard's aviation field. Airman is just above the Coast Guard rank of airman apprentice, Seaman Apprentice, fireman apprentice, the E-2 pay grade, but it is just below the rank of Petty Officer Third Class, E-4 pay grade. Military pilot Soldier Sailor Marine U. S. Air Force enlisted rank insignia U. S. Navy enlisted rate insignia RAF enlisted ranks Aircraftman
The Servicemen's Readjustment Act of 1944 known as the G. I. Bill, was a law, it was designed by the American Legion, who helped to push it through Congress by mobilizing its chapters. The act avoided the disputed postponed life insurance policy payout for World War I veterans that caused political turmoil for a decade and a half after that war. Benefits included dedicated payments of tuition and living expenses to attend high school, college or vocational/technical school, low-cost mortgages, low-interest loans to start a business, as well as one year of unemployment compensation, it was available to all veterans, on active duty during the war years for at least 90 days and had not been dishonorably discharged—exposure to combat was not required. The recipients did not pay any income tax on the G. I. benefits, since they were not considered earned income. By 1956 7.8 million veterans had used the G. I. Bill education benefits, some 2.2 million to attend colleges or universities and an additional 5.6 million for some kind of training program.
Historians and economists judge the G. I. Bill a major political and economic success—especially in contrast to the treatments of World War I veterans—and a major contribution to America's stock of human capital that encouraged long-term economic growth. Canada operated a similar program for its World War II veterans, with a beneficial economic impact. Since the original U. S. 1944 law, the term has come to include other benefit programs created to assist veterans of subsequent wars as well as peacetime service. During the 1940s, "fly-by-night" for-profit colleges sprang up to collect veterans' education grants, because the program provided limited oversight. Today, for-profit colleges and their lead generators have taken advantage of the post-9/11 G. I. Bill to target veterans for subpar products and services. According to CBS News, about 40 percent of all G. I. Bill education funds go to for-profit colleges; the Department of Veterans Affairs has a G. I. Bill feedback form for recipients to address their complaints against colleges.
In 2012, President Barack Obama signed Executive Order 13607, to ensure that predatory colleges did not aggressively recruit military service members and their families. In 2017, President Donald Trump signed the Forever GI Bill extending the allowable time period for veterans to pursue educational opportunities. On June 22, 1944, the Servicemen's Readjustment Act of 1944 known as the G. I. Bill of Rights, was signed into law. During the war, politicians wanted to avoid the postwar confusion about veterans' benefits that became a political football in the 1920s and 1930s. Veterans' organizations that had formed after the First World War had millions of members. Ortiz says their efforts "entrenched the VFW and the Legion as the twin pillars of the American veterans' lobby for decades."Harry W. Colmery, Republican National Committee chairman and a former National Commander of the American Legion, is credited with writing the first draft of the G. I. Bill, he jotted down his ideas on stationery and a napkin at the Mayflower Hotel in Washington, D.
C. U. S. Senator Ernest McFarland, AZ, National Commander of the American Legion Warren Atherton, CA were involved in the bill's passage and are known the "fathers of the G. I. Bill." One might term Edith Nourse Rogers, MA, who helped write and who co-sponsored the legislation, as the "mother of the G. I. Bill"; as with Colmery, her contribution to writing and passing this legislation has been obscured by time. The bill that President Roosevelt proposed had a means test—only poor veterans would get one year of funding; the American Legion proposal provided full benefits for all veterans, including women and minorities, regardless of their wealth. An important provision of the G. I. Bill was low interest, zero down payment home loans for servicemen, with more favorable terms for new construction compared to existing housing; this encouraged millions of American families to move out of urban apartments and into suburban homes. Another provision was known as the 52–20 clause for unemployment. Unemployed war veterans would receive $20 once a week for 52 weeks for up to one year while they were looking for work.
Less than 20 percent of the money set aside for the 52–20 Club was distributed. Rather, most returning servicemen found jobs or pursued higher education; the original G. I. Bill ended in 1956. A variety of benefits have been available to military veterans since the original bill, these benefits packages are referred to as updates to the G. I. Bill. A greater percentage of Vietnam veterans used G. I. Bill education benefits than Korean War veterans. Although the G. I. Bill did not advocate discrimination, it was interpreted differently for blacks than for whites. Historian Ira Katznelson argued that "the law was deliberately designed to accommodate Jim Crow"; because the programs were directed by local, white officials, many veterans did not benefit. In the New York and northern New Jersey suburbs 67,000 mortgages were insured by the G. I. Bill, but fewer than 100 were taken out by non-whites. By 1946, only one-fifth of the 100,000 blacks who had applied for educational benefits had registered in college.
Furthermore black colleges an