India known as the Republic of India, is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh largest country by area and with more than 1.3 billion people, it is the second most populous country as well as the most populous democracy in the world. Bounded by the Indian Ocean on the south, the Arabian Sea on the southwest, the Bay of Bengal on the southeast, it shares land borders with Pakistan to the west. In the Indian Ocean, India is in the vicinity of Sri Lanka and the Maldives, while its Andaman and Nicobar Islands share a maritime border with Thailand and Indonesia; the Indian subcontinent was home to the urban Indus Valley Civilisation of the 3rd millennium BCE. In the following millennium, the oldest scriptures associated with Hinduism began to be composed. Social stratification, based on caste, emerged in the first millennium BCE, Buddhism and Jainism arose. Early political consolidations took place under the Gupta empires. In the medieval era, Zoroastrianism and Islam arrived, Sikhism emerged, all adding to the region's diverse culture.
Much of the north fell to the Delhi Sultanate. The economy expanded in the 17th century in the Mughal Empire. In the mid-18th century, the subcontinent came under British East India Company rule, in the mid-19th under British Crown rule. A nationalist movement emerged in the late 19th century, which under Mahatma Gandhi, was noted for nonviolent resistance and led to India's independence in 1947. In 2017, the Indian economy was the world's sixth largest by nominal GDP and third largest by purchasing power parity. Following market-based economic reforms in 1991, India became one of the fastest-growing major economies and is considered a newly industrialised country. However, it continues to face the challenges of poverty, corruption and inadequate public healthcare. A nuclear weapons state and regional power, it has the second largest standing army in the world and ranks fifth in military expenditure among nations. India is a federal republic governed under a parliamentary system and consists of 29 states and 7 union territories.
A pluralistic and multi-ethnic society, it is home to a diversity of wildlife in a variety of protected habitats. The name India is derived from Indus, which originates from the Old Persian word Hindush, equivalent to the Sanskrit word Sindhu, the historical local appellation for the Indus River; the ancient Greeks referred to the Indians as Indoi, which translates as "The people of the Indus". The geographical term Bharat, recognised by the Constitution of India as an official name for the country, is used by many Indian languages in its variations, it is a modernisation of the historical name Bharatavarsha, which traditionally referred to the Indian subcontinent and gained increasing currency from the mid-19th century as a native name for India. Hindustan is a Middle Persian name for India, it was introduced into India by the Mughals and used since then. Its meaning varied, referring to a region that encompassed northern India and Pakistan or India in its entirety; the name may refer to either the northern part of India or the entire country.
The earliest known human remains in South Asia date to about 30,000 years ago. Nearly contemporaneous human rock art sites have been found in many parts of the Indian subcontinent, including at the Bhimbetka rock shelters in Madhya Pradesh. After 6500 BCE, evidence for domestication of food crops and animals, construction of permanent structures, storage of agricultural surplus, appeared in Mehrgarh and other sites in what is now Balochistan; these developed into the Indus Valley Civilisation, the first urban culture in South Asia, which flourished during 2500–1900 BCE in what is now Pakistan and western India. Centred around cities such as Mohenjo-daro, Harappa and Kalibangan, relying on varied forms of subsistence, the civilization engaged robustly in crafts production and wide-ranging trade. During the period 2000–500 BCE, many regions of the subcontinent transitioned from the Chalcolithic cultures to the Iron Age ones; the Vedas, the oldest scriptures associated with Hinduism, were composed during this period, historians have analysed these to posit a Vedic culture in the Punjab region and the upper Gangetic Plain.
Most historians consider this period to have encompassed several waves of Indo-Aryan migration into the subcontinent from the north-west. The caste system, which created a hierarchy of priests and free peasants, but which excluded indigenous peoples by labeling their occupations impure, arose during this period. On the Deccan Plateau, archaeological evidence from this period suggests the existence of a chiefdom stage of political organisation. In South India, a progression to sedentary life is indicated by the large number of megalithic monuments dating from this period, as well as by nearby traces of agriculture, irrigation tanks, craft traditions. In the late Vedic period, around the 6th century BCE, the small states and chiefdoms of the Ganges Plain and the north-western regions had consolidated into 16 major oligarchies and monarchies that were known as the mahajanapadas; the emerging urbanisation gave rise to non-Vedic religious movements, two of which became independent religions. Jainism came into prominence during the life of Mahavira.
Buddhism, based on the teachings of Gautama Buddha, attracted followers from all social classes excepting the middle
Taipei American School
Taipei American School is a private international school with an American-based curriculum located in Tianmu, Shilin District, Taiwan, Republic of China. TAS has more than 20 Advanced Placement courses for students to choose to learn before attending Colleges in the United States only. Founded in 1949, the school served as a U. S. Department of Defense contract school during the U. S. military presence in Taiwan from the 1950s to 1970s. Upon the termination of diplomatic relations between the United States and the ROC in 1979, TAS was reorganized into a private international school; the school is operated by the Taipei American School Foundation under contract to the American Institute in Taiwan, the United States' quasi-embassy in Taiwan. Most graduates of TAS go on to attend colleges and universities in United States, although some choose to attend schools in other countries; as required by ROC law, TAS admits only students. The first meeting of Taipei American School took place on September 26, 1949, in the basement of Presbyterian Theological Seminary at Zhongshan North Road, with eight students.
This marked the beginning of the "missionary era" where Taiwanese and American medical missionaries were instrumental in founding TAS and providing it with students. The first class of students included American and Taiwanese students. By 1951, the influx of missionaries and business people escaping from the communist victory in mainland China caused enrollment to grow to 120 students. By 1952, TAS was forced to relocate to Nong'an East Road to provide space for the growing student population In 1953, the U. S. Military Assistance Advisory Group was established in Taiwan; this brought to the island a large number of U. S. military personnel. Along with these military personnel came their families, including children needing an American-style education. TAS became the school for the children of the U. S. military personnel. In the summer of 1953, TAS constructed a much larger campus at Chang'an East Road. In 1956, TAS graduated its first class of 14 seniors. By the Chang'an campus had 50 faculty members and 1,000 students.
In 1957, Mr. Wayne Nesbitt served as the first superintendent of the school. In 1959, TAS purchased a 22 acre site in Shilin for a new campus. In March 1960, the kindergarten and lower school moved into a 36-classroom 5-wing complex on the site; the upper school remained at the Chang'an campus until 1964, when the last upper school facilities were completed. By 1969, TAS enrollment reached its highest point with nearly 3,000 students. Bordered on two sides by a river, the Shilin campus was prone to flooding during the typhoons experienced on Taiwan when the protective dikes were breached. Cleanup took several days as classrooms were dried out and mud and silt was removed. In the 1970s Taiwan's transforming economy brought foreign businessmen and overseas Chinese into the local economy, setting the stage for TAS's transformation as enrollment shrank as U. S. military pulled out of Taiwan. By the late seventies, student enrollment dropped to 700 students. Within a few years, enrollment started to increase again as overseas Chinese with foreign passports arrived in Taiwan searching for American educational facilities for their children.
By the early eighties, the majority of students were ethnically Taiwanese and U. S. citizens. In September 1989, TAS relocated to its present campus in Taipei. To obtain use of the government land in Tianmu, TAS exchanged title to its Shihlin property for a long-term lease on the Tianmu site at a concessionary rent; the 50th anniversary of Taipei American School was celebrated in 1999. As part of this celebration, TAS published a book documenting the history of the school: "Ties That Bind", authored by former director Richard Vuylsteke. In 2009, TAS celebrated its sixtieth anniversary; the current 15-acre campus, completed in 1989, consists of a four-story complex with 200 classrooms. In September 2010, TAS broke ground for the construction of three new buildings on its current campus: the new upper school building featuring science and technology classrooms with research and robotics laboratories, the Liu Lim Arts Center, another gymnasium with covered and outdoor tennis courts; the independently operated Taipei Youth Program Association is located at TAS and uses the campus facilities.
The school is located directly across the street from Taipei Japanese School. TAS is divided into three divisions: lower and upper schools; the lower school includes pre-kindergarten and grades 1 through 5. The middle school includes grades 6 through 8; the upper school includes grades 9 through 12. Each division is run by 1 or 2 assistant principals; the superintendent serves as school head. The Taipei American School Board of Directors a hybrid board consisting of nine elected Board members and two appointed Board members. Elected Board members serve for three-year terms and appointed Board members serve for four-year terms. Board members serve without compensation and have the primary task of formulating and evaluating all school policies and overseeing the school's financial affairs, it is their responsibility to see that the resources are in place to support excellence in all areas, always prioritizing the interests of the students first. The Board invites parents and faculty to attend these meetings.
Board members are elected by the Taipei American School Association, which consists of all parents or guardians of children attending TAS. The combined KA-12 school enrollment is 2,28
Turkey the Republic of Turkey, is a transcontinental country located in Western Asia, with a smaller portion on the Balkan Peninsula in Southeast Europe. East Thrace, located in Europe, is separated from Anatolia by the Sea of Marmara, the Bosphorous strait and the Dardanelles. Turkey is bordered by Bulgaria to its northwest. Istanbul is the largest city. 70 to 80 per cent of the country's citizens identify as Turkish. Kurds are the largest minority. At various points in its history, the region has been inhabited by diverse civilizations including the Assyrians, Thracians, Phrygians and Armenians. Hellenization continued into the Byzantine era; the Seljuk Turks began migrating into the area in the 11th century, their victory over the Byzantines at the Battle of Manzikert in 1071 symbolizes the start and foundation of Turkey. The Seljuk Sultanate of Rûm ruled Anatolia until the Mongol invasion in 1243, when it disintegrated into small Turkish principalities. Beginning in the late 13th-century, the Ottomans started uniting these Turkish principalities.
After Mehmed II conquered Constantinople in 1453, Ottoman expansion continued under Selim I. During the reign of Suleiman the Magnificent the Ottoman Empire encompassed much of Southeast Europe, West Asia and North Africa and became a world power. In the following centuries the state entered a period of decline with a gradual loss of territories and wars. In an effort to consolidate the weakening social and political foundations of the empire, Mahmut II started a period of modernisation in the early 19th century, bringing reforms in all areas of the state including the military and bureaucracy along with the emancipation of all citizens. In 1913, a coup d'état put the country under the control of the Three Pashas. During World War I, the Ottoman government committed genocides against its Armenian and Pontic Greek subjects. Following the war, the conglomeration of territories and peoples that comprised the Ottoman Empire was partitioned into several new states; the Turkish War of Independence, initiated by Mustafa Kemal Atatürk and his colleagues against occupying Allied Powers, resulted in the abolition of monarchy in 1922 and the establishment of the Republic of Turkey in 1923, with Atatürk as its first president.
Atatürk enacted numerous reforms, many of which incorporated various aspects of Western thought and customs into the new form of Turkish government. The Kurdish–Turkish conflict, an armed conflict between the Republic of Turkey and Kurdish insurgents, has been active since 1984 in the southeast of the country. Various Kurdish groups demand separation from Turkey to create an independent Kurdistan or to have autonomy and greater political and cultural rights for Kurds in Turkey. Turkey is a charter member of the UN, an early member of NATO, the IMF and the World Bank, a founding member of the OECD, OSCE, BSEC, OIC and G-20. After becoming one of the first members of the Council of Europe in 1949, Turkey became an associate member of the EEC in 1963, joined the EU Customs Union in 1995 and started accession negotiations with the European Union in 2005 which have been stopped by the EU in 2017 due to "Turkey's path toward autocratic rule". Turkey's economy and diplomatic initiatives led to its recognition as a regional power while its location has given it geopolitical and strategic importance throughout history.
Turkey is a secular, unitary parliamentary republic which adopted a presidential system with a referendum in 2017. Turkey's current administration headed by president Recep Tayyip Erdoğan of the AKP has enacted measures to increase the influence of Islam, undermine Kemalist policies and freedom of the press; the English name of Turkey means "land of the Turks". Middle English usage of Turkye is evidenced in an early work by Chaucer called The Book of the Duchess; the phrase land of Torke is used in the 15th-century Digby Mysteries. Usages can be found in the Dunbar poems, the 16th century Manipulus Vocabulorum and Francis Bacon's Sylva Sylvarum; the modern spelling "Turkey" dates back to at least 1719. The Turkish name Türkiye was adopted in 1923 under the influence of European usage; the Anatolian peninsula, comprising most of modern Turkey, is one of the oldest permanently settled regions in the world. Various ancient Anatolian populations have lived in Anatolia, from at least the Neolithic period until the Hellenistic period.
Many of these peoples spoke the Anatolian languages, a branch of the larger Indo-European language family. In fact, given the antiquity of the Indo-European Hittite and Luwian languages, some scholars have proposed Anatolia as the hypothetical centre from which the Indo-European languages radiated; the European part of Turkey, called Eastern Thrace, has been inhabited since at least forty thousand years ago, is known to have been in the Neolithic era by about 6000 BC. Göbekli Tepe is the site of the oldest known man-made religious structure, a temple dating to circa 10,000 BC, while Çatalhöyük is a large Neolithic and Chalcolithic settlement in southern Anatolia, which existed from approximately
International School of Geneva
The International School of Geneva known as "Ecolint" or "The International School", is a private international school based in Geneva, Switzerland. Founded in 1924 in the service of the League of Nations, it is the oldest and largest operating international school in the world. In the mid-1960s, a group of teachers from Ecolint created the International Schools Examinations Syndicate, which became the International Baccalaureate Organization and the International Baccalaureate. Ecolint is composed of three campuses in and around Geneva, each with its own principal working under the Director General of the Foundation of the International School of Geneva and a Governing Board elected by parents and staff with co-opted members from the UN and Swiss Government. Ecolint is a bilingual school, with instruction in English and French. In addition to the IB, it is a testing centre for the US college boards and the British IGCSE. Ecolint is a member of the G20 Schools Group. In 2006, the British Guardian newspaper listed Ecolint as one of the best international schools in the world for those seeking a UK-style curriculum.
According to the Good Schools Guide International, "the International School of Geneva turns out well-educated, happy students who are comfortable with themselves and ready to move on to tertiary education around the world." Ecolint's secondary education is not approved as a Mittelschule/Collège/Liceo by the Swiss Federal State Secretariat for Education and Innovation. Ecolint's various programmes are accredited by the Council of International Schools and the Middle States Association; the last full accreditation was conducted in 2011, with an interim assessment in 2016. Ecolint has satisfied the authorization procedures of the International Baccalaureate to offer the PYP, MYP, IBDP, IBCP. Campus La Châtaigneraie is an approved Cambridge Assessment school. From 1920 to 1921 the League of Nations and the International Labor Office established their headquarters in Geneva. In 1924 the International School of Geneva was founded by senior members of two international organizations, in conjunction with Adolphe Ferrière and Elisabeth Rotten.
Since its inception, the school has pursued a mission to educate for peace and to inculcate strong humanitarian values of inclusiveness and inter-cultural understanding. As their website states, "Resolutely not-for-profit, mankind is the only beneficiary of our work, not corporate shareholders or private equity firms." Ferrière housed the first class in his family's chalet. He was technical adviser to the school from 1924 to 1926. Other prominent individuals involved in the creation of the School were Arthur Sweetser and Dr. Ludwik Rajchman, they were supported by William Rappard, Rector of the University of Geneva and Sir Arthur Salter, a senior official of the League of Nations. The foundation continued to evolve as it acquired new campuses in the Vaud countryside at La Châtaigneraie near Founex and at Pregny. A sports hall was built in 1977 and a new primary building was built in 2011 on the La Châtaigneraie campus. In 1993 a sciences building was built and in 2002 the old "La Ferme" building, which used to house the girls' boarding lodgings, became the music building.
The new multimedia library was finished in September 2001, adding a third floor to what is known as the "New Building". In September 2008, the new sports hall was opened, replacing the long-defunct swimming pool, the aging "Bubble", inflated in 2000 to protect from harsh climates, the old PTA offices; this was achieved with the financial help of the Hans Wilsdorf Foundation. A state of the art primary school building was opened in September 2011, bringing the total capacity of the campus to 1600 students; the third campus, Campus des Nations has had two beginnings. The first was in the 1940s with Rigot which became Pregny-Rigot, the second in 2005 with the closure of Rigot and the opening of Saconnex; the Pregny-Rigot campus was a pre-K through year 6 school that adopted the International Baccalaureate Primary Years Program in 2002. This campus had two buildings, Rigot, an old Swiss farmhouse just off Place des Nations housing the early childhood classes, the other a unique architectural structure up the hill from the United Nations and Red Cross which hosted the primary school and learning center.
In 2005, Pregny-Rigot shifted with the opening of a new building, near the World Health Organization and the International Labor Organization. The early childhood classes at Rigot were moved to a renovated Pregny and Rigot was returned to the city of Geneva. Years 3-6 were moved from Pregny to the new building, which opened a secondary school; the Secondary school offers the IB's Middle Years Programme, the IB Diploma and the IB Career Related Programme. La Grande Boissière is the largest of the three; the primary school has 550 students, runs through grade 4. The middle school has about 550 students, runs from grade 5 to grade 8; the secondary school has around 800 students, beginning with 9th grade and going to grade 12 or 13. All three stages offer bilingual programmes; the Primary School Principal is Mr Duff Gyr, the Middle School Principal is Ms Shona Wright and the Campus and Secondary School Principal is Dr Conrad Hughes. La Châtaigneraie became part of Ecolint
Australia the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands. It is the world's sixth-largest country by total area; the neighbouring countries are Papua New Guinea and East Timor to the north. The population of 25 million is urbanised and concentrated on the eastern seaboard. Australia's capital is Canberra, its largest city is Sydney; the country's other major metropolitan areas are Melbourne, Brisbane and Adelaide. Australia was inhabited by indigenous Australians for about 60,000 years before the first British settlement in the late 18th century, it is documented. After the European exploration of the continent by Dutch explorers in 1606, who named it New Holland, Australia's eastern half was claimed by Great Britain in 1770 and settled through penal transportation to the colony of New South Wales from 26 January 1788, a date which became Australia's national day; the population grew in subsequent decades, by the 1850s most of the continent had been explored and an additional five self-governing crown colonies established.
On 1 January 1901, the six colonies federated. Australia has since maintained a stable liberal democratic political system that functions as a federal parliamentary constitutional monarchy, comprising six states and ten territories. Being the oldest and driest inhabited continent, with the least fertile soils, Australia has a landmass of 7,617,930 square kilometres. A megadiverse country, its size gives it a wide variety of landscapes, with deserts in the centre, tropical rainforests in the north-east and mountain ranges in the south-east. A gold rush began in Australia in the early 1850s, its population density, 2.8 inhabitants per square kilometre, remains among the lowest in the world. Australia generates its income from various sources including mining-related exports, telecommunications and manufacturing. Indigenous Australian rock art is the oldest and richest in the world, dating as far back as 60,000 years and spread across hundreds of thousands of sites. Australia is a developed country, with the world's 14th-largest economy.
It has a high-income economy, with the world's tenth-highest per capita income. It is a regional power, has the world's 13th-highest military expenditure. Australia has the world's ninth-largest immigrant population, with immigrants accounting for 26% of the population. Having the third-highest human development index and the eighth-highest ranked democracy globally, the country ranks in quality of life, education, economic freedom, civil liberties and political rights, with all its major cities faring well in global comparative livability surveys. Australia is a member of the United Nations, G20, Commonwealth of Nations, ANZUS, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, World Trade Organization, Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, Pacific Islands Forum and the ASEAN Plus Six mechanism; the name Australia is derived from the Latin Terra Australis, a name used for a hypothetical continent in the Southern Hemisphere since ancient times. When Europeans first began visiting and mapping Australia in the 17th century, the name Terra Australis was applied to the new territories.
Until the early 19th century, Australia was best known as "New Holland", a name first applied by the Dutch explorer Abel Tasman in 1644 and subsequently anglicised. Terra Australis still saw occasional usage, such as in scientific texts; the name Australia was popularised by the explorer Matthew Flinders, who said it was "more agreeable to the ear, an assimilation to the names of the other great portions of the earth". The first time that Australia appears to have been used was in April 1817, when Governor Lachlan Macquarie acknowledged the receipt of Flinders' charts of Australia from Lord Bathurst. In December 1817, Macquarie recommended to the Colonial Office. In 1824, the Admiralty agreed that the continent should be known by that name; the first official published use of the new name came with the publication in 1830 of The Australia Directory by the Hydrographic Office. Colloquial names for Australia include "Oz" and "the Land Down Under". Other epithets include "the Great Southern Land", "the Lucky Country", "the Sunburnt Country", "the Wide Brown Land".
The latter two both derive from Dorothea Mackellar's 1908 poem "My Country". Human habitation of the Australian continent is estimated to have begun around 65,000 to 70,000 years ago, with the migration of people by land bridges and short sea-crossings from what is now Southeast Asia; these first inhabitants were the ancestors of modern Indigenous Australians. Aboriginal Australian culture is one of the oldest continual civilisations on earth. At the time of first European contact, most Indigenous Australians were hunter-gatherers with complex economies and societies. Recent archaeological finds suggest. Indigenous Australians have an oral culture with spiritual values based on reverence for the land and a belief in the Dreamtime; the Torres Strait Islanders, ethnically Melanesian, obtained their livelihood from seasonal horticulture and the resources of their reefs and seas. The northern coasts and waters of Australia were visited s
Korean Minjok Leadership Academy
Korean Minjok Leadership Academy is a co-educational, independent boarding high school near the town of Hoengseong, South Korea, 120 kilometers east of Seoul at an elevation of 600 meters. Located on 1.27 square kilometers, it is one of the largest institutions in terms of contiguous area in the nation. One of the most selective secondary boarding schools in South Korea, KMLA is reputable for the placement of its graduates at eminent universities. KMLA is a member of the G20 Schools group. School founder Choi Myung-Jae found reason in establishing KMLA upon a visit to England's Eton College in 1977, feeling the need for an institution of high character to nurture future global leaders in Korea. Choi received government permission to establish the school in 1993; the first headmaster and faculty were appointed on 1 March 1995, the school received its first students a year later. The gym was completed in December 1996, Dasan Hall was completed the following year; the school's `English-only policy' was established in January 1997 and was applied to all areas of the school except a few non-English classes.
In the same year, Choi was appointed school director. In 1998, the school's three step education policy of teaching-discussion-writing was institutionalized, the first elections for the student council were held, the Minjok Herald was first published. In 1999, the graduation of the first wave was held and the twelve-floor dormitory was completed. In 2000, Choi Kyung-Jong was appointed director. In 2001, the school was certified as an Educational Testing Service AP test center and designated as an experimental independent private school by the South Korean government. In 2002, founder Choi Myung-Jae took office as the fourth headmaster. In 2003, the school held its first mathematics competition for middle school students, the former minister of education, Lee Don-Hee was appointed headmaster that August. In 2004, the school inaugurated the Global Leadership Program for Students, established an individual research program, achieved certification to administer the SAT and PSAT. In 2007, KMLA was highlighted by the US College Board as a World Best School in the Advanced Placement Program in seven subjects expanded from four subjects the year before—calculus, microeconomics, macroeconomics and statistics.
That same year, the Wall Street Journal listed the school's international program at No. 32 among schools that matriculated students to eight most-selective American colleges and universities. The school has an average SAT score of 2260. With the commencement of the new semester in 2008, Cheong-il Yoon, Ph. D. former dean of education at Seoul National University, assumed the headmastership. Under his leadership, reforms have been initiated, namely the increased and systematized effort to fund raise as well as the plan to make international teachers comprise 30 percent of its faculty. In 2011, the KMLA's first music concert was held. Endowed with national pride in heart, our fatherland's bright future in mind, let us study not for the sake of personal gain but for the sake of learning itself. Let us not choose a career based on thoughts of personal advancement but choose a career based on talents and aptitude; such is my true happiness, tomorrow's bright fatherland, a better world for all. Yi Sun-sin Jeong Yak-yong The school song is written in the form of sijo, folk song, march.
The school song consists of the school history and eventual goal of the school. Singing the song in morning assemblies and school events, students promote school pride and community spirit; every Monday at the end of the morning assembly, all students and teachers stand up and sing the school song accompanied by the KMLA Orchestra or the Minjok Orchestra. Some of KMLA's characteristics and policies are as follows: Support for the teachers' academic research; the admission process of KMLA goes through three steps — a first round selection of students is admitted based on application forms containing school grades and extra curricular activities. Selected students go through an interview, a physical test. Throughout school history, KMLA students have received awards in international competitions such as in Olympiads in science, mathematics and philosophy. One-thirds of the graduates enroll in foreign universities in the United States; the annual cost of attending KMLA is estimated to be $15,800.
KMLA students are enrolled either on the domestic track or on the international track, depending on their plans for college application. Beginning in 2008, KMLA has begun to select students without differentiation by separate tracks, enabling the students to make their decisions concerning college during their high school years without unnecessary pressure. In the beginning years of KMLA, the entrance exam allowed only 20 to 30 passing students, but has increased the number of new students from 2003. From 2004–2009, the school admitted 150 students. However, corresponding with the plans of the school to increase its size
Taiwan the Republic of China, is a state in East Asia. Neighbouring states include the People's Republic of China to the west, Japan to the northeast, the Philippines to the south. Taiwan is the most populous state and largest economy, not a member of the United Nations; the island of Taiwan was inhabited by indigenous peoples for thousands of years before the 17th century, when Dutch colonialists opened the island to mass Han immigration. After a brief rule by the Kingdom of Tungning, the island was annexed in 1683 by the Qing dynasty of China, ceded to Japan in 1895. Following the surrender of Japan in 1945, the Republic of China, which had overthrown and succeeded the Qing in 1911, took control of Taiwan; the resumption of the Chinese Civil War led to the loss of the mainland to the Communists and the flight of the ROC government to Taiwan in 1949. Although the ROC government continued to claim to be the legitimate representative of China, since 1950 its effective jurisdiction has been limited to Taiwan and several small islands.
In the early 1960s, Taiwan entered a period of industrialisation. In the 1980s and early 1990s, it changed from a one-party military dictatorship to a multi-party democracy with a semi-presidential system; as a founding member, the ROC represented China in the UN until it was replaced by the PRC in 1971. The PRC has claimed sovereignty over Taiwan and refused diplomatic relations with any country that recognises the ROC; as of 2019, Taiwan maintains official ties with 16 out of 193 UN member states. Most international organisations in which the PRC participates either refuse to grant membership to Taiwan or allow it to participate only as a non-state actor. Most major powers maintain unofficial ties with Taiwan through representative offices and institutions that function as de facto embassies and consulates. In Taiwan, the major political division is between parties favouring eventual Chinese unification and promoting a Chinese identity contrasted with those aspiring to independence and promoting a Taiwanese identity, though both sides have moderated their positions to broaden their appeal.
Taiwan is a high-income advanced economy, with a skilled and educated workforce. It has the 22nd-largest economy in the world, its high-tech industry plays a key role in the global economy, it is urbanised, is one of the most densely populated countries in the world, with most of the population concentrated on the western coast. The state is ranked in terms of civil and political liberties, health care and human development. Various names for the island of Taiwan remain in use today, each derived from explorers or rulers during a particular historical period; the name Formosa dates from 1542, when Portuguese sailors sighted an uncharted island and noted it on their maps as Ilha Formosa. The name Formosa "replaced all others in European literature" and remained in common use among English speakers into the 20th century. In the early 17th century, the Dutch East India Company established a commercial post at Fort Zeelandia on a coastal sandbar called "Tayouan", after their ethnonym for a nearby Taiwanese aboriginal tribe Taivoan people, written by the Dutch and Portuguese variously as Taiouwang, Teijoan, etc.
This name was adopted into the Chinese vernacular as the name of the sandbar and nearby area. The modern word "Taiwan" is derived from this usage, seen in various forms in Chinese historical records; the area occupied by modern-day Tainan represented the first permanent settlement by both European colonists and Chinese immigrants. The settlement grew to be the island's most important trading centre and served as its capital until 1887. Use of the current Chinese name became official as early as 1684 with the establishment of Taiwan Prefecture. Through its rapid development the entire Formosan mainland became known as "Taiwan". In his Daoyi Zhilüe, Wang Dayuan used "Liuqiu" as a name for the island of Taiwan, or the part of it closest to Penghu. Elsewhere, the name was used for the Ryukyu Islands in general or Okinawa, the largest of them; the name appears in the Book of Sui and other early works, but scholars cannot agree on whether these references are to the Ryukyus, Taiwan or Luzon. The official name of the state is the "Republic of China".
Shortly after the ROC's establishment in 1912, while it was still located on the Chinese mainland, the government used the short form "China" to refer to itself, which derives from zhōng and guó, a term which developed under the Zhou dynasty in reference to its royal demesne, the name was applied to the area around Luoyi during the Eastern Zhou and to China's Central Plain before being used as an occasional synonym for the state during the Qing era. During the 1950s and 1960s, after the government had withdrawn to Taiwan upon losing the Chinese Civil War, it was referred to as "Nationalist China" to differentiate it from "Communist China", it was a member of the United Nations representing "China" until 1971, when it lost its seat to the People's Republic of China. Over subsequent decades, the Republic of China has become known as "Taiwan", after the island that comprises 99% of the territory under its control. In some contexts ROC government publications, the name is written as "