The LG G4 is an Android smartphone developed by LG Electronics as part of the LG G series. Unveiled on 28 April 2015 and first released in South Korea on 29 April 2015 and released in June 2015, as the successor to 2014's G3; the G4 is an evolution of the G3, with revisions to its overall design and camera. The G4 received mixed to positive reviews; the device became the subject of criticism due to instances of hardware failure caused by manufacturing defects, deemed "bootloops", which culminated in a class-action lawsuit filed in March 2017. The design of the G4 is an evolution of the G3, maintaining elements such as its rear-located volume and camera buttons. Several back cover options are available, including plastic covers with a diamond pattern and plastic covers coated in leather, stitched down the middle. Six leather color options are available; the G4 features a 5.5 in, 1440p "Quantum IPS" display, which LG stated would provide better contrast, color accuracy and energy efficiency over another display that LG did not explicitly specify.
The G4 utilizes a hexa-core Snapdragon 808 with 3 GB of RAM, consisting of four low-power Cortex-A53 cores and two Cortex-A57 cores. The G4 includes a removable 3000 mAh battery and supports Qualcomm Quick Charge 2.0 technology with a compatible AC adapter, not included. The G4 comes with 32GB of storage with the option to expand the amount of available storage with a microSD card up to 2 TB in size; the rear-facing camera has a 16-megapixel sensor with a f/1.8 aperture lens, infrared active autofocus, three-axis optical image stabilization, LED flash. A "RGB color spectrum sensor" is located below the flash, which analyzes ambient lighting to optimize the white balance and flash color to generate more natural-looking images; the front-facing camera is 8-megapixels with an aperture of f/2.0. The G4 is supplied with Android 5.1 "Lollipop", although the overall user experience is similar to that of the G3. The camera software was upgraded with raw image support, along with a new manual mode offering the ability to adjust the focus, shutter speed, ISO and white balance.
Optionally, a photo can be taken automatically by double-clicking the lower volume button when the screen is off. The "Glance View" feature allows users to view notifications when the display is off by dragging down. On October 14, 2015, LG announced that the G4 would be upgraded to Android 6.0 "Marshmallow", with its release beginning in Poland the following week. Followed by releases in other European countries, South Korea, in the U. S. on Sprint. It enables new features such as "Google Now on Tap", which allows users to perform searches within the context of information being displayed on-screen, "Doze", which optimizes battery usage when the device is not being physically handled. By February 2016, it had reached wider distribution, such as in Canada. In November 2018, the G4 in the U. S. was updated to Android Nougat 7.0. The G4 was met with mixed to positive reception from critics; the Verge felt that the G4 could appeal to power users alienated by the removal of expandable storage and replaceable batteries on the then-recently released Samsung Galaxy S6.
The display was praised for its improved color accuracy and energy efficiency over the G3, remarking that it was "as good, if not better", than the S6. The G4's rear camera was praised for its quality and color reproduction, along with its "comprehensive" manual mode and its "uncommon" ability to save raw images, but it was noted that its autofocus sometimes missed focus or took long to achieve focus, that the manual mode did not offer saturation or sharpness controls. LG's software was criticized for being unchanged from the G3, for suffering from feature creep and "ugly" aesthetics; the G4 given a 7.9 out of 10, concluding that it "actually functions just fine — but you're not going to see it in the hands of every person at the state fair this summer."The performance of the LG G4 was contrasted to devices that utilize Qualcomm's Snapdragon 810, known to have overheating problems. Ars Technica felt that the need to throttle CPU-intensive tasks to prevent overheating had a negative effect on the 810's performance, arguing that as a result, the G4's Snapdragon 808 performed better in some cases than the 810, but that the Exynos processor of the Galaxy S6 had better overall performance than the two Snapdragon chips on benchmarks.
Considering its camera to be the best part of the device, Ars Technica concluded that the G4 was "a competent smartphone, but doesn't stand out much." Some users reported inconsistencies in the performance of the G4's touchscreen, with some units—particularly U. S. T-Mobile and Verizon variants—having problems registering quick taps and swipes. LG released an update to fix the problem in its keyboard app in June 2015, followed by Verizon releasing a major OTA update in November 2015 to fix the touchscreen problems and address other problems with the device. In January 2016, LG confirmed that some G4 units had a manufacturing defect that caused them to enter an unrecoverable reboot loop, resulting from "loose contact between components"; the company stated that it would replace affected devices under warranty at no charge. I
The PowerBook G4 is a series of notebook computers manufactured and sold by Apple Computer, Inc. between 2001 and 2006 as part of its PowerBook line of notebooks. The PowerBook G4 runs on the RISC-based PowerPC G4 processor, designed by the AIM development alliance and produced by Motorola, it was built by Freescale, after Motorola spun off its semiconductor business under that name in 2004. The PowerBook G4 has two different designs: one enclosed in a titanium body with a translucent black keyboard and a 15-inch screen. Between 2001 and 2003, Apple produced the titanium PowerBook G4. Both models were hailed for their modern design, long battery life, processing power; when the aluminum PowerBook G4s were first released in January 2003, 12-inch and 17-inch models were introduced first, while the 15-inch model retained the titanium body until September 2003, when a new aluminum 15-inch PowerBook was released. The aluminum 15-inch model includes a FireWire 800 port, included with the 17-inch model since its debut nine months earlier.
The PowerBook G4 is the last generation of the PowerBook series, was succeeded by the Intel-powered MacBook Pro line in the first half of 2006. The latest version of OS X any PowerBook G4 can run is Mac OS X Leopard, released in 2007; when Apple switched to Intel x86 processors in 2006, the PowerBook G4's form and aluminum chassis were retained for the MacBook Pro. The first generation of the PowerBook G4 was announced at Steve Jobs' MacWorld Expo keynote on January 9, 2001; the two models featured a PowerPC G4 processor running at either 400 or 500 MHz, housed in a titanium-clad case, 1 inch deep. This was 0.7 inches shallower than the G4's predecessor, the PowerBook G3. The G4 was among the first laptops to use a screen with a widescreen aspect ratio, it featured a front-mounted slot-loading optical drive. The notebook was given the unofficial nickname "TiBook", after the titanium case and the PowerBook brand name; the 1 GHz version of the Titanium G4 is the last, fastest, PowerBook which could natively run Mac OS 9.
The initial design of the PowerBook G4 was developed by Apple hardware designers Jory Bell, Nick Merz, Danny Delulis. The ODM Quanta helped in the design; the new machine was a sharp departure from the black plastic, curvilinear PowerBook G3 models that preceded it. The orientation of the Apple logo on the computer's lid was switched so that it would "read" to onlookers when the computer was in use. PowerBook G3 and prior models presented it right-side-up from the perspective of the computer's owner when the lid was closed. Apple's industrial design team, headed by British designer Jonathan Ive, converged around a minimalist aesthetic—the Titanium G4's design language laid the groundwork for the Aluminum PowerBook G4, the MacBook Pro, the Power Mac G5, the flat-screen iMac, the Xserve, the Mac mini; the hinges on the Titanium PowerBook display are notorious for breaking under typical use. The hinge will break just to the left of where it attaches to the lower case on the right hinge, just to the right on the left hinge.
When the 667 MHz and 800 MHz "DVI" PowerBooks were introduced, Apple changed the hinge design to strengthen it. At least one aftermarket manufacturer began producing sturdier replacement hinges to address this problem, though performing the repair is difficult as the display bezel is glued together. In addition some discolouration, bubbling or peeling of paint on the outer bezel occurred, notably around the area where the palm would rest while using the trackpad; this appeared on early models but not on Titanium PowerBooks. The video cable is routed around the left-side hinge; this will cause the cable to weaken under heavy usage. Many owners have reported display problems such as a jumbled screen. There is a backlight cable that might fail. In 2003 Apple introduced a new line of PowerBook G4s with 12, 15, 17-inch screens and aluminum cases; the new notebooks not only brought a different design to the PowerBook G4 line but laid down the foundation for Apple’s notebook design for the next five years, replaced in January 2008 by the MacBook Air and the subsequent MacBook and MacBook Pro redesigns in October.
The 15" titanium model was still available until September 16, 2003, when the Aluminum model replaced it. Notably, the 12" model brought a welcome return to the Apple subnotebook configuration, conspicuously lacking in their product line since the discontinuation of the PowerBook 2400 in 1998. While the titanium PowerBook G4s were capable of booting into Mac OS 9 or Mac OS X operating systems, the aluminum PowerBook G4s could only boot into Mac OS X. Both series of machines could run Mac OS 9 in Classic mode from within Mac OS X; the aluminum PowerBook G4 was designed by Apple's Vice President of Industrial Design, Jonathan Ive, used a radically different design from the preceding titanium models. The most obvious change was the use of aluminum, not titanium; the keyboard, black, was changed to match the color of the body. Additionally, the aluminum keyboard was backlit on one of the 15" models; this was
Group 4 element
Group 4 is a group of elements in the periodic table. It contains the elements titanium, zirconium and rutherfordium; this group lies in the d-block of the periodic table. The group itself has not acquired a trivial name; the three Group 4 elements that occur are titanium and hafnium. The first three members of the group share similar properties. However, the fourth element rutherfordium, has been synthesized in the laboratory. All isotopes of rutherfordium are radioactive. So far, no experiments in a supercollider have been conducted to synthesize the next member of the group, it is unlikely that they will be synthesized in the near future. Like other groups, the members of this family show patterns in its electron configuration the outermost shells resulting in trends in chemical behavior: Most of the chemistry has been observed only for the first three members of the group; the chemistry of rutherfordium is not established and therefore the rest of the section deals only with titanium and hafnium.
All the elements of the group are reactive metals with a high melting point. The reactivity is not always obvious due to the rapid formation of a stable oxide layer, which prevents further reactions; the oxides TiO2, ZrO2 and HfO2 are white solids with high melting points and unreactive against most acids. As tetravalent transition metals, all three elements form various inorganic compounds in the oxidation state of +4. For the first three metals, it has been shown that they are resistant to concentrated alkalis, but halogens react with them to form tetrahalides. At higher temperatures, all three metals react with oxygen, carbon, boron and silicon; because of the lanthanide contraction of the elements in the fifth period and hafnium have nearly identical ionic radii. The ionic radius of Zr4+ is 79 picometers and that of Hf4+ is 78 pm; this similarity results in nearly identical chemical behavior and in the formation of similar chemical compounds. The chemistry of hafnium is so similar to that of zirconium that a separation on chemical reactions was not possible.
The melting points and boiling points of the compounds and the solubility in solvents are the major differences in the chemistry of these twin elements. Titanium is different from the other two owing to the effects of the lanthanide contraction; the table below is a summary of the key physical properties of the group 4 elements. The four question-marked values are extrapolated. British minerologist William Gregor first identified titanium in ilmenite sand beside a stream in Cornwall, Great Britain in the year 1791. After analyzing the sand, he determined the weakly magnetic sand to contain iron oxide and a metal oxide that he could not identify. During that same year, minerologist Franz Joseph Muller produced the same metal oxide and could not identify it. In 1795, chemist Martin Heinrich Klaproth independently rediscovered the metal oxide in rutile from the Hungarian village Boinik, he named it for the Titans of Greek mythology. Martin Heinrich Klaproth discovered zirconium when analyzing the zircon containing mineral jargoon in 1789.
He deduced that the mineral contained a new element and named it after the known Zirkonerde. However, he failed to isolate the newly discovered zirconium. Cornish chemist Humphry Davy attempted to isolate this new element in 1808 through electrolysis, but failed. In 1824, Swedish chemist Jöns Jakob Berzelius isolated an impure form of zirconium, obtained by heating a mixture of potassium and potassium zirconium fluoride in an iron tube. Hafnium had been predicted by Dmitri Mendeleev in 1869 and Henry Moseley measured in 1914 the effective nuclear charge by X-ray spectroscopy to be 72, placing it between the known elements lutetium and tantalum. Dirk Coster and Georg von Hevesy were the first to search for the new element in zirconium ores. Hafnium was discovered by the two in 1923 in Copenhagen, validating the original 1869 prediction of Mendeleev. There has been some controversy surrounding the discovery of hafnium and the extent to which Coster and Hevesy were guided by Bohr's prediction that hafnium would be a transition metal rather than a rare earth element.
While titanium and zirconium, as abundant elements, were discovered in the late 18th century, it took until 1923 for hafnium to be identified. This was only due to hafnium's relative scarcity; the chemical similarity between zirconium and hafnium made a separation difficult and, without knowing what to look for, hafnium was left undiscovered, although all samples of zirconium, all of its compounds, used by chemists for over two centuries contained significant amounts of hafnium. Rutherfordium was first detected in 1966 at the Joint Institute of Nuclear Research at Dubna. Researchers there bombarded 242Pu with accelerated 22Ne ions and separated the reaction products by gradient thermochromatography after conversion to chlorides by interaction with ZrCl4. 24294Pu + 2210Ne → 264−x104Rf → 264−x104RfCl4 The production of the metals itself is difficult due to their reactivity. The formation of oxides and carbides must be avoided to yield workable metals; the oxides are reacted with chlorine to form the chlorides.
The chlorides of the metals are reacted with magnesium, yielding
The Mitsubishi G4M was the main twin-engine, land-based bomber used by the Imperial Japanese Navy Air Service in World War II. The Allies gave the G4M the reporting name Betty. Japanese Navy pilots called; the G4M had good performance in operational range. These omissions proved to be the aircraft's weakness when confronted with American fighter aircraft during the Pacific War; the G4M was designed for high speed at the time of its introduction. Several weight-saving measures were incorporated into the design, such as dispensing with self-sealing fuel tanks and armor, which caused Allied fighter pilots to give it derisive nicknames such as "the one-shot lighter", "the flying Zippo" and "the flying cigar" because of their tendency to explode or catch on fire from any slight damage to the wing fuel tanks after being hit by aerial machine gun fire or ground-based anti-aircraft fire. Pilots of the Imperial Japanese Navy despairingly called the G4M the "type one lighter", the "flying lighter" and the "hamaki".
This was due to the fact that on many occasions, the G4M was used for low-altitude torpedo attacks on ships during which their performance advantages were negated. The G4M was shot down by anti-aircraft artillery fire, by small arms; the G4M's large size made it an easy gunnery target, the predictable approach path required for a torpedo run made for a easy interception by Allied fighter aircraft. When used for medium- to high-altitude bombing against stationary land targets like supply depots, seaports or airfields, it was much harder to intercept. Using its long range and high speed, the G4M could appear from any direction, it could be gone before any fighters intercepted them; the 20 mm cannon in its tail turret was much heavier armament than was carried by bombers of either side, making aerial attacks from the rear quite dangerous for the Allied fighter aircraft. Sometimes, assuming they did not catch fire after being hit in the wings by flak from the ground or by machine gun bullets from enemy fighters, G4Ms proved to be able to remain airborne despite being badly damaged.
For example, after the attack of the 751 Kōkūtai on the USS Chicago during the Battle of Rennell Island, three out of four surviving aircraft returned despite flying with only one engine. G4M1 Model 11: 1172 examples G4M2 models 22, 22 Ko and 22 Otsu: 429 examples G4M2a, models 24, 24 Ko, 24 Otsu, 24 Hei, 24 Tei: 713 examples G4M3 models 34 Ko, 34 Otsu, 34 Hei: 91 examples G6M1: 30 examples Total production of all versions: 2,435 examples The G4M was similar in performance and missions to other contemporary twin-engine bombers such as the German Heinkel He 111 and the American North American B-25 Mitchell; these were all used in anti-ship roles. The G4M Model 11 was prominent in attacks on Allied shipping from 1941 to early 1944, but after that it became easy prey for Allied fighters; the G4M was first used in combat on 13 September 1940 in Mainland China, when 27 "Bettys" and Mitsubishi C5Ms of 1st Rengo Kōkūtai departed from Taipei and Jeju City to attack Hankow. The bombers and the reconnaissance aircraft were escorted by 13 A6M Zeros of 12th Kōkūtai led by the IJN lieutenant, Saburo Shindo.
A similar operation occurred in May 1941. In December 1941, 107 G4Ms based on Formosa of 1st Kōkūtai and Kanoya Kōkūtai belonging to the 21st Koku Sentai crossed the Luzon Strait en route to bombing the Philippines; the G4M's most notable use as a torpedo bomber was in the sinking of Prince of Wales and Repulse off the eastern coast of Malaya on 10 December 1941. The G4Ms attacked along with older Mitsubishi G3M "Nell" bombers, which made high-level bombing runs. Prince of Wales and Repulse were the first two capital ships to be sunk by air attacks during a war, while in open waters; the bomber crews were from the Kanoya Air Group of Kanoya Kōkūtai, Genzan Air Group of Genzan Kōkūtai, the Mihoro Air Group of Mihoro Kōkūtai, trained in torpedo attacks at an altitude of less than 10 metres, in long-range over-ocean navigation, so they could attack naval targets moving at sea. Nine G4Ms participated in the long range bombing raid of Katherine, Northern Territory, on 22 March 1942. G4Ms made many attacks against Allied ships and land targets during the six-month-long Guadalcanal Campaign in late 1942.
On 8 August 1942, during the second day of the U. S. Marine landings on Guadalcanal, 23 IJNAF torpedo-carrying G4M1s attacked American ships at Lunga Point. 18 of the G4M1s were shot down, by heavy anti-aircraft fire and carrier-based F4F fighters. In all 18 Japanese crews – 120 aviators – were lost at the beginning of August 1942. More than 100 G4M1s and their pilots and crews were lost during the many battles over and near Guadalcanal. In the two days of the Battle of Rennell Island, 29 and 30 January 1943, 10 out of 43 G4M1s were shot down during night torpedo attacks, all by U. S. Navy anti-aircraft fire. About 70 Ja
The Gulfstream IV and derivatives are a family of twinjet aircraft for private or business use. They were designed and built by Gulfstream Aerospace, a General Dynamics company based in Savannah, United States, from 1985 until 2018. Aircraft power is provided by two Rolls-Royce RB.183 Tay turbofans. Upon delivery of the last G450, over 900 GIV/GIV-SP/G450 units had been produced; the last G450 was delivered on 19 January 2018 after 365 deliveries over 12 years, ending a 30-year production run, to be replaced by the G500. Gulfstream, in collaboration with Grumman, began work on the Gulfstream IV in March 1983 as a re-engined, stretched fuselage derivative of the Gulfstream III. A decision to redesign the wing structure for weight reduction presented an opportunity for an aerodynamic redesign of the wing to reduce cruise drag and increase range. Wing contour modifications had to be restricted to the forward 65% of wing chord so that no redesign of the control surfaces would be necessary. Modification of the inboard wing would have entailed a redesign of the fuselage floor structure this region of the wing was not modified.
Outboard wing modifications were aimed at reducing the peak subcritical pressure coefficient and moving it aft in an effort to reduce shock strength and increase shock sweep. The Gulfstream IV wing has a weaker, more swept outboard shock resulting in a lower cruise drag. Other benefits arising from this design are a lower root bending moment due to the more inboard center of pressure, a lower stall speed due to washout and a larger fuel volume due to increased chord; these aerodynamic improvements result in an increase in range of over 300 nautical miles. In addition to the wing redesign, the Gulfstream IV became the first business jet to have an entire glass cockpit; the first GIV made its maiden flight on September 19, 1985. The model received type certification from the FAA on April 22, 1987; the G-IV entered into service with serial number 1000 in 1987 and was upgraded to the special purpose GIV-SP version at serial number 1214 in 1993. It was redesignated G400 at serial number 1500. A shorter range variant was created based on the GIV and given the G300 designation in 2002.
The G400 has a large cabin, long range of 4,350 nautical miles and the same comfort and design that characterize the G series. Maximum cruise height and speed are 45,000 ft and Mach 0.77. Earlier models were fitted with Honeywell's SPZ 8000 Avionics package; the SPZ 8400 Avionics Package was an option, becoming standard on models. Its second-hand price was below $15 million in 2009. In 2001, Gulfstream began work on an improved version of the GIV-SP designated GIV-X, it was renamed G450. The G450 is lengthened 1 ft over the G400 and shares the forward fuselage and larger cockpit of the G550. Production of the G450 began in October 2004, replacing the G400; the G450 has better performance and comes with the PlaneView cockpit with four 14-inch liquid crystal displays and a Head up display. The shorter range G350 version of the G450 was developed and received certification in 2004. By 2018, 1990 to 1992 GIVs were for sale at $1.6-4.4 million, 1992 to 1999 GIVSPs were listed for $1.25-5.2 million, 15-year-old G300s and G400s were available for $4.5-7 million and 2006 to 2016 G450s at $9.95-23.75 million.
The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration operates a GIV-SP modified to fly scientists and crew members at 45,000 feet around tropical cyclones. The aircraft was modified to drop instruments called "dropsondes" to measure windspeed, barometric pressure and temperature as they fall to the surface of the ocean. By sampling the cyclone with these dropsondes over a 4,000 mile track around the storm, the forecasters at NOAA's National Hurricane Center and Hurricane Research Division can better predict where the hurricane will be "steered" by the upper level winds, they predict wind shear that will either increase or decrease a hurricane's strength. The GIV-SP is suited for this mission since it is fast, can fly long distances with ample cabin space for the crew and instruments. In 2009, the NOAA GIV-SP was further modified by the addition of a side-scanning Doppler radar to the rear fuselage; this radar is used for storm cloud profiling. In June 1987 a Gulfstream IV set 22 world records in its class in flying west around the world in 45 hr 25 min.
The next year another GIV set 11 world records flying east around the world. In 1990, Gulfstream CEO Allen Paulson and a Gulfstream flight crew set 35 international records for around-the-world flight in a GIV; the U. S. military variant of the IV, designated C-20F/G/H/J Gulfstream IV in Department of Defense service. The C-20F is a GIV model operated by the U. S. Army in a command/executive transport role; the C-20G aircraft may be configured for cargo operations, 26 passenger operations or combinations of the two. With passengers seats removed, it may be configured as three pallets with no passengers or two pallets and eight passengers or one pallet and fourteen passengers. With full seating, the aircraft is capable of accommodating up to twenty-six passengers and a crew of four. A hydraulically operated cargo door is installed on the starboard side of the aircraft, a ball roller cargo floor is capable of accommodating palletized cargo; the C-20G is operated by Fleet Logistics Support Squadron Four Eight at Naval Air Facility, Andrews Air Force Base, Washington, DC and at VMR Detachment Kaneohe Bay, Marine Corps Air Station Kaneohe Bay, Marine Corps Base Hawaii.
The C-20H is a GIV-SP model operated by the U. S. Air Force in a command/executive transport role; the C-20J is a GIV-SP model operated by the U. S. Army in a command/executive transport role; the United States Department of
The Gotha G. IV was a heavy bomber used by the Luftstreitkräfte during World War I. Experience with the earlier G. III showed that the rear gunner could not efficiently operate both the ventral positions. Hans Burkhard's solution was the Gotha tunnel, a trough connecting an aperture in the upper decking with a large, triangular cross-section opening extending from the wing's trailing edge rearwards along the bottom of the rear fuselage; the Gotha tunnel allowed the top-side gun to fire through the fuselage at targets below and behind the bomber. A separate ventral 7.92 mm machine gun could still be mounted, there was a provision for a fourth machine gun on a post between the pilot's and bombardier's cockpits, although this was carried due to the weight penalty. The G. IV introduced other changes; the fuselage was skinned in plywood, eliminating the partial fabric covering of the G. III. Although it was not the reason for this modification, it was noted at the time that the plywood skinning enabled the fuselage to float for some time in the event of a water landing.
Furthermore, complaints of poor lateral control on landing, led to the addition of ailerons on the lower wing. In November 1916, the Gothaer Waggonfabrik received a production order for 35 aircraft: this was subsequently increased to 50 in February 1917. A further 80 aircraft were ordered from the Siemens-Schuckert Werke and 100 from Luft-Verkehrs-Gesellschaft. Compared to the Gothaer aircraft, these licence-built aircraft were heavier and slower, because Idflieg specified the use of a strengthened airframe. In order to counteract this, SSW built a number of modified examples, including one driven by tractor instead of pusher engines, one with an extra bay added to its wing cellule, two with a new airfoil section for the wings, one with a supercharger. None of these modifications had been evaluated by the end of the war. Late-production SSW G. IVs usually incorporated the Stossfahrgestell auxiliary nosewheels and Flettner servo tabs developed for the G. V. Responding to a different performance issue, LVG overcame the tail heaviness of its machines by increasing the sweepback of the wings.
Late production by SSW and LVG became obsolete, hence many aircraft were finished as trainers with lower performance engines. The SSW-built trainers relocated the fuel tanks from the engine nacelles to within the fuselage, as on the G. V. In March 1917, the G. IV entered service with Kagohl 1, redesignated Kagohl 3 upon receipt of the new machines, the G. IVs were soon to be put to use in Operation Türkenkreuz - the strategic bombing of London; this was delayed when practice missions revealed faulty engine bearings that had to be replaced, that the prevailing winds were stronger than expected, requiring the addition of extra fuel tanks. Additionally, it was discovered that the design of the fuel system prevented the main tanks from being utilised, this problem had to be addressed as well. Around 30 LVG-built G. IVs were fitted with 8 mm Schwarzlose machine guns for Austro-Hungarian service. Another one was experimentally fitted with a 20 mm Becker cannon for ground attack. Gothas were used in German strategic bombing during World War I.
All surviving Gotha aircraft were destroyed in accordance with the terms of the Treaty of Versailles. The sole known exception was one Gotha G. IV in Polish possession. Germany Luftstreitkräfte Austria-Hungary KuKLFT Netherlands Royal Netherlands Air ForceOnly one G. IV, forced landing on 18.08.1917 at Nieuweschans, due to destruction of one of the propellers over the Tutjeshut. The aircraft was repaired, only to crash on the first test flight two months in Soesterberg. Written off from register 1919, Dutch number LA-50 and G-700. Poland Polish Air ForceThe single operational G. IV was captured by Polish forces during the Greater Poland Uprising in 1919. Once repaired, the aircraft joined the 21. Eskadra Niszczycielska on April 30, 1920. After brief operational use in the Polish–Soviet War between 20 May and 2 August 1920, the aircraft was damaged on 31 August 1920 and withdrawn from service. Other G. IV was not used in action. General characteristics Crew: 3 Length: 12.2 m Wingspan: 23.7 m Height: 3.9 m Wing area: 89.5 m2 Empty weight: 2,413 kg Gross weight: 3,648 kg Powerplant: 2 × Mercedes D.
IVa, 193 kW eachPerformance Maximum speed: 135 km/h Range: 810 km Endurance: 6 hours Service ceiling: 5,000 m Armament 2 or 3 × 7.92 mm Parabellum LMG 14 machine guns Up to 500 kg of bombs Gotha RaidsRelated development Gotha G. VAircraft of comparable role and era AEG G. III, AEG G. IV, AEG G. V Friedrichshafen G. II, Friedrichshafen G. III Related lists List of military aircraft of Germany List of bomber aircraft Taylor, Michael J. H.. Jane's Encyclopedia of Aviation. London: Studio Editions. P. 426. World Aircraft Information Files. London: Bright Star Publishing. Pp. File 895 Sheet 08. Grosz, Peter M.. The Gotha GI - GV. Leatherhead, Surrey: Profile Publications. Grosz, Peter M.. Gotha!. Berkhamstead, Hertfordshire: Albatros Productions
The G4 class is a series of five combination roll-on/roll-off container ships that are operated by the Atlantic Container Line and entered service in the mid-2010s. They are named Atlantic Star, Atlantic Sail, Atlantic Sea, Atlantic Sky, Atlantic Sun. Early design work for a new ConRO design began at International Maritime Advisors, which finished the basic plans in 2008. Knud E. Hansen modified the design to ACL specifications, in July 2012 the construction contract for five ships was awarded to Hudong-Zhonghua Shipbuilding. Construction began with steel-cutting for the first ship, at the time unnamed, in September 2013. In October 2014, ACL announced the names of the ships in the fleet, having selected them from employee suggestions; the first ship of the class, Atlantic Star, was launched in November 2014 and was planned to enter service in mid-2015, but ACL did not take delivery of the vessel until October 2015 and her maiden voyage did not occur until early 2016. The remaining four ships were delivered over the course of 2016, beginning with Atlantic Sail in April.
The entire fleet had been planned to enter service in 2015, but construction at the shipyard was delayed due to challenges building to the brand new design. Following their entry into service, problems with the quality of major components license-built in Asia to European designs were identified, requiring drydocking of the vessels for replacement of the faulty parts; the G4 class is the largest ConRO design in the world larger than the preceding 1980s-built G3 class but with more cargo capacity. They are 296 metres long, with a beam of 37.6 metres and a draft of 11.6 metres, have a gross tonnage of 100,430 GT, with a deadweight tonnage of 55, 649 DWT. Each ship is driven by a Wärtsilä RT-flex68D eight-cylinder low speed diesel engine with a power output of 22,000 kilowatts that gives a service speed of up to 19.25 knots. There are three Wärtsilä thrusters installed for two at the bow and one at the stern. Shipboard power is supplied by a 2,000 kilowatts generator driven by the main engine, as well as four Yanmar gensets that have a total of 8,750 kilowatts.
There are seven decks for roll-on/roll-off cargo, totaling 5,270 lane meters and 28,900 square metres of space, with a 3,807 TEU container capacity. In contrast to typical ConRO designs, which carry containers abovedecks and RoRo cargo below with the superstructure situated aft, G4 vessels carry containers at the bow through the entire depth of the hull, with RoRo garage space amidships in and below the superstructure, containers above decks at the stern, with Ro/Ro space and the machinery belowdecks; this configuration allows for greater cargo capacity, as well as lower ballast requirements. Unusually for cargo vessels, the G4 design does not include a bulbous bow, instead specifying a vertical prow, more efficient across a wide range of cargo loads and sea conditions