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Games of The New Emerging Forces
Formation 1962–1967
Type Sporting event organization
Purpose To boycott the International Olympic Committee after the suspension of Indonesia from that organization
Headquarters Jakarta, Indonesia
51 active members
Official language
and host country's official language when necessary
Federation cofounder
Indonesia President Sukarno

The Games of the New Emerging Forces (GANEFO) were the games set up by Indonesia as a counter to the Olympic Games. Established for the athletes of the so-called "emerging nations" (mainly newly independent socialist states), GANEFO was the name given both to the games held in Jakarta in 1963 and the 36-member sporting federation established the same year.[1] A second GANEFO scheduled for Cairo in 1967 was cancelled and GANEFO had only one subsequent event, an "Asian GANEFO" held in Phnom Penh in 1966.

Sports and politics at GANEFO[edit]

Indonesia established GANEFO in the aftermath of IOC censure for the politically charged 4th edition of Asian Games in 1962 in Jakarta which Indonesia hosted and for which Taiwan and Israel were refused entry cards. The IOC's eventual reaction was to indefinitely suspend Indonesia from the IOC. Indonesia had “thrown down a challenge to all international amateur sports organizations, which cannot very well be ignored,” in the words of IOC president Avery Brundage. This was the first time the IOC suspended one of its members, although Indonesia was readmitted in time for the 1964 Tokyo Olympics.[2]

Ten countries (Cambodia, China, Guinea, Indonesia, Iraq, Mali, Pakistan, Vietnam, and the USSR) announced plans to form GANEFO in April 1963, and 36 countries signed on as members in November 1963.[1] GANEFO made it clear in its constitution that politics and sport were intertwined; this ran against the doctrine of the International Olympic Committee, which strove to separate politics from sport. Indonesian president Sukarno responded that the IOC was itself political because it did not have the People's Republic of China or North Vietnam as members; the IOC was simply "a tool of the imperialists and colonialists."[1] Nevertheless, the IOC decreed that the athletes attending GANEFO would be ineligible to participate in the Olympic Games.

Sukarno would later form, with Chinese support, a Conference of New Emerging Forces, or CONEFO (Conference of New Emerging Forces).[3]

1st GANEFO[edit]

1st Games of the New Emerging Forces
Host city Jakarta, Indonesia
Nations participating 51
Athletes participating 2,700
Opening ceremony 10 November 1963 (1963-11-10)
Closing ceremony 22 November 1963 (1963-11-22)
Officially opened by President Sukarno
Main venue Gelora Bung Karno Stadium

Participating Nations in 1st GANEFO[edit]

The first edition of GANEFO was held in Jakarta, Indonesia on November 10–22, 1963 for 13 days. Athletes from 46 nations dispatched about 2,700 athletes and 7 nations sent staff and officials. In total, 51 nations participated in the Games from Africa, Asia, Europe and Latin America such as Afghanistan, Albania, Algeria, Argentina, Belgium, Bolivia, Brazil, Bulgaria, Burma, Cambodia, Chile, Ceylon, Cuba, Czechoslovakia, DPR Korea, the Dominican Republic, Finland, France, East Germany, Guinea, Hungary, Indonesia, Iraq, Italy, Japan, Laos, Lebanon, Mexico, Mongolia, Morocco, the Netherlands, Nigeria, Pakistan, Palestine, China PR, the Philippines, Poland, Mali, Romania, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Somalia, Thailand, Tunisia, Soviet Union, North Vietnam, the United Arab Republic (currently Egypt and Syria), Uruguay, Yugoslavia, etc. Unlike the Olympics, there was also a team representing "Arab Palestine."[4]

No country, however, was represented officially by its national Olympics committee, for fear of IOC reprisals.[2] For instance, the Soviet Union, in a show of solidarity, sent athletes to the first GANEFO, but in order not to jeopardize their position in the IOC, the Soviet athletes were not of Olympic caliber. Japan let their athletes of non-Olympic caliber attend the first Ganefo to take account of the host nation's position of 1964 Summer Olympics.

1st GANEFO Commemorative Stamps[edit]

Commemorative stamps of the "1st Games of the New Emerging Forces"
Commemorative stamps of the "1st Games of the New Emerging Forces"
Commemorative stamps of the "1st Games of the New Emerging Forces"

Medal table at 1st GANEFO[edit]

In the first edition of GANEFO, China PR was the highest ranking nation with 65 gold medals, Soviet Union the second, followed by the United Arab Republic on the third, Indonesia the fourth, and North Korea the fifth.[5] In all, 48 countries reportedly won medals.[2]

Rank Nation Gold Silver Bronze Total
1  China 68 58 45 171
2  Soviet Union 27 21 9 57
3  Indonesia 21 25 35 81
4  United Arab Republic 22 18 12 52
5  North Korea 13 15 24 52
6  Argentina 5 0 4 9
7  Japan 4 10 14 28

[6] This medal table is incomplete and inaccurate; you can help by expanding it.

Ganefo Bronze medal for Argentinian Water Polo Team. Donated by Héctor Ernesto Urabayen
Ganefo Bronze medal for Argentinian Water Polo Team. Donated by Héctor Ernesto Urabayen

2nd GANEFO (1st Asian GANEFO)[edit]

2nd Asian GANEFO
Host city Phnom Penh, Cambodia
Nations participating 17
Athletes participating 2,000
Opening ceremony 25 November 1966 (1966-11-25)
Closing ceremony 6 December 1966 (1966-12-06)
Officially opened by Norodom Sihanouk

The second edition of GANEFO had been planned to be held in Cairo, the United Arab Republic in 1967, but this was canceled due to political considerations.

The second GANEFO was held in Phnom Penh, Cambodia in November 25 – December 6, 1966.

Participating Nations in 2nd GANEFO (1st Asian GANEFO)[edit]

About 2,000 athletes participated in the 2nd edition of GANEFO from 17 nations (Cambodia, Ceylon, China PR, Indonesia, Iraq, Japan, North Korea, Laos, Lebanon, Mongolia, Nepal, Pakistan, Palestine, Singapore, Syria, North Vietnam and Yemen). The games were opened by Prince Sihanouk, the prime minister of Cambodia.

The second GANEFO was restricted to Asia, except Guinea which participated in the qualifying tournament in Pyongyang, North Korea in August 1–11, 1965. Consequently, only 17 Asian countries participated in the second tournament in Phnom Penh, Cambodia in November 25 – December 6, 1966 which was named '1st Asian GANEFO'.

Medal table at 2nd GANEFO (1st Asian GANEFO)[edit]

In the second edition of GANEFO, China PR was the highest ranking nation with 108 gold medals, North Korea the second, and the host nation, Cambodia, the third.

Rank Nation Gold Silver Bronze Total
1  China 108 57 34 199
2  North Korea 30 42 32 104
3  Cambodia 10 42 10 62
4  Japan 10 12 8 30

This medal table is incomplete; you can help by expanding it.

2nd Asian GANEFO[edit]

In September 1967 was announced a second Asian GANEFO to be held in Beijing, China, in 1970, but later Beijing dropped the plans to host the Games, which were then awarded to Pyongyang, North Korea. But the Games never occurred and the GANEFO organisation collapsed.

See also[edit]


  1. ^ a b c Modelski, George (1963). The New Emerging Forces. Canberra: Australian National University, Research School of Pacific Studies. 
  2. ^ a b c Field, Russell (2011). The Olympic Movement’s Response to the Challenge of Emerging Nationalism in Sport: An Historical Reconsideration of GANEFO. Winnipeg: University of Manitoba. 
  3. ^ "Fakta Sejarah: CONEFO". 
  4. ^ "GANEFO opening ceremony footage". Youtube. 1963. 
  5. ^ "Pembagian medal". Harian Rakyat. 23 November 1963. 
  6. ^ Ewa T. Parker, “Ganefo I: Sports and Politics in Djakarta,” Asian Survey, 5:4 (1965), 181.

External links[edit]