The Game Boy is an 8-bit handheld game console developed and manufactured by Nintendo. The first handheld in the Game Boy line, it was first released on April 21, 1989 in Japan, followed by North America three months and in Europe nearly a year after. Designed by the same team that developed the Game & Watch and several Nintendo Entertainment System games, it was created and published by Satoru Okada, Gunpei Yokoi, Nintendo Research & Development 1. Nintendo's second handheld game console, the Game Boy combined features from both the NES and the Game & Watch; the console features a dot-matrix screen, five control buttons, a 2 voice speaker, like its rivals, uses cartridges as physical media. At launch, it was sold either as a standalone unit, or bundled with the one of several games, including Super Mario Land and Tetris. Several accessories were developed for the Game Boy, including a carrying pouch and the Game Boy Printer. Despite being technically inferior to its competitors, the Game Boy received praise for its battery life and durability, outsold the competition, selling one million units in the United States within a few weeks.
Together with its successor, the Game Boy Color, the handheld has sold an estimated 118 million units worldwide. It is one of the most recognizable devices from the 1980s, becoming a cultural icon in the years following its release. Several redesigns were released during the console's lifetime, including the Game Boy Pocket and the Game Boy Light. Production of the Game Boy continued into the early 2000s, until it was discontinued following the release of its successor, the Game Boy Advance, in 2001; the original internal codename for the Game Boy was "Dot Matrix Game", these initials came to be featured on the final product's model number, "DMG-01". The internal reception of the device was very poor; the Game Boy has four operation buttons labeled "A", "B", "SELECT", "START", as well as a directional pad. There is a volume control dial on the right side of the device and a similar dial on the left side to adjust the contrast. At the top of the Game Boy, a sliding on-off switch and the slot for the Game Boy cartridges are located.
The on-off switch includes a physical lockout to prevent users from either inserting or removing a cartridge while the unit is switched on. Nintendo recommends users leave a cartridge in the slot to prevent dust and dirt from entering the system; the Game Boy contains optional input and/or output connectors. On the left side of the system is an external 3.5 mm × 1.35 mm DC power supply jack that allows users to use an external rechargeable battery pack or AC adapter instead of four AA batteries. The Game Boy requires 6 V DC of at least 150 mA. A 3.5 mm stereo headphone jack is located on the bottom side of the unit which allows users to listen to the audio with the bundled headphones or external speakers. The right-side of the device offers a port which allows a user to connect to another Game Boy system via a link cable, provided both users are playing the same game; the port can be used to connect a Game Boy Printer. The link cable was designed for players to play head-to-head two-player games such as in Tetris.
However, game developer Satoshi Tajiri would use the link cable technology as a method of communication and networking in the popular Pokémon video game series. CPU: Custom 8-bit Sharp LR35902 at 4.19 MHz. This processor is similar to an Intel 8080 in that none of the registers introduced in the Z80 are present. However, some of the Z80's instruction set enhancements over the 8080 bit manipulation, are present. Still other instructions are unique to this particular flavor of 8080/Z80 CPU. Parity flag, half of conditional and all input-output instructions were removed from 8080 instruction set also; the IC contains integrated sound generation. RAM: 8 kiB internal S-RAM Video RAM: 8 kiB internal ROM: On-CPU-Die 256-byte bootstrap; the unit only has one speaker. Display: Reflective STN LCD 160 × 144 pixels Frame rate: Approximately 59.7 frames per second Vertical blank duration: Approx 1.1 ms Screen size: 66 mm diagonal Color palette: 2-bit Communication: 2 Game Boys can be linked together via built-in serial ports, up to 4 with a DMG-07 4-player adapter.
And 16 in maximum. Power: 6 V, 0.7 W Dimensions: 90 mm × 148 mm × 32 mm / 3.5″ × 5.8″ × 1.3″ Weight: 220 g On March 20, 1995, Nintendo released several Game Boy models with colored cases, advertising them in the "Play It Loud!" campaign, known in Japan as Game Boy Bros. Specifications for this unit remain the same as the original Game Boy, including the monochromatic screen; this new line of colored Game Boys would set a precedent for Nintendo handhelds. Play It Loud! units were manufactured in red, black, white and clear or sometimes called X-Ray in the UK. Most common are the yellow, red and black, Green is scarce but blue and white are the rarest. Blue was a Europe and Japan only release, White was a Japanese majority release with UK Toys R Us s
The pound sterling known as the pound and less referred to as sterling, is the official currency of the United Kingdom, Guernsey, the Isle of Man, South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands, the British Antarctic Territory, Tristan da Cunha. It is subdivided into 100 pence. A number of nations that do not use sterling have currencies called the pound. Sterling is the third most-traded currency in the foreign exchange market, after the United States dollar, the euro. Together with those two currencies and the Chinese yuan, it forms the basket of currencies which calculate the value of IMF special drawing rights. Sterling is the third most-held reserve currency in global reserves; the British Crown dependencies of Guernsey and the Isle of Man produce their own local issues of sterling which are considered equivalent to UK sterling in their respective regions. The pound sterling is used in Gibraltar, the Falkland Islands, Saint Helena and Ascension Island in Saint Helena and Tristan da Cunha; the Bank of England is the central bank for the pound sterling, issuing its own coins and banknotes, regulating issuance of banknotes by private banks in Scotland and Northern Ireland.
Banknotes issued by other jurisdictions are not regulated by the Bank of England. The full official name pound sterling, is used in formal contexts and when it is necessary to distinguish the United Kingdom currency from other currencies with the same name. Otherwise the term pound is used; the currency name is sometimes abbreviated to just sterling in the wholesale financial markets, but not when referring to specific amounts. The abbreviations "ster." and "stg." are sometimes used. The term "British pound" is sometimes incorrectly used in less formal contexts, it is not an official name of the currency; the exchange rate of the pound sterling against the US dollar is referred to as "cable" in the wholesale foreign exchange markets. The origins of this term are attributed to the fact that in the 1800s, the GBP/USD exchange rate was transmitted via transatlantic cable. Forex traders of GBP/USD are sometimes referred to as "cable dealers". GBP/USD is now the only currency pair with its own name in the foreign exchange markets, after IEP/USD, known as "wire" in the forward FX markets, no longer exists after the Irish Pound was replaced by the euro in 1999.
There is apparent convergence of opinion regarding the origin of the term "pound sterling", toward its derivation from the name of a small Norman silver coin, away from its association with Easterlings or other etymologies. Hence, the Oxford English Dictionary state that the "most plausible" etymology is derivation from the Old English steorra for "star" with the added diminutive suffix "-ling", to mean "little star" and to refer to a silver penny of the English Normans; as another established source notes, the compound expression was derived: However, the perceived narrow window of the issuance of this coin, the fact that coin designs changed in the period in question, led Philip Grierson to reject this in favour of a more complex theory. Another argument that the Hanseatic League was the origin for both the origin of its definition and manufacture, in its name is that the German name for the Baltic is "Ost See", or "East Sea", from this the Baltic merchants were called "Osterlings", or "Easterlings".
In 1260, Henry III granted them a charter of protection and land for their Kontor, the Steelyard of London, which by the 1340s was called "Easterlings Hall", or Esterlingeshalle. Because the League's money was not debased like that of England, English traders stipulated to be paid in pounds of the "Easterlings", contracted to "'sterling". For further discussion of the etymology of "sterling", see sterling silver; the currency sign for the pound is £, written with a single cross-bar, though a version with a double cross-bar is sometimes seen. This symbol derives from medieval Latin documents; the ISO 4217 currency code is GBP, formed from "GB", the ISO 3166-1 alpha-2 code for the United Kingdom, the first letter of "pound". It does not stand for "Great Britain Pound" or "Great British Pound"; the abbreviation "UKP" is used but this is non-standard because the ISO 3166 country code for the United Kingdom is GB. The Crown dependencies use their own codes: GGP, JEP and IMP. Stocks are traded in pence, so traders may refer to pence sterling, GBX, when listing stock prices.
A common slang term for the pound sterling or pound is quid, singular and plural, except in the common phrase "quids in!". The term may have come via Italian immigrants from "scudo", the name for a number of coins used in Italy until the 19th century.
Green Bay Packers
The Green Bay Packers are a professional American football team based in Green Bay, Wisconsin. The Packers compete in the National Football League as a member club of the league's National Football Conference North division, it is the third-oldest franchise in the NFL, dating back to 1919, is the only non-profit, community-owned major league professional sports team based in the United States. Home games have been played at Lambeau Field since 1957; the Packers are the last of the "small town teams" which were common in the NFL during the league's early days of the 1920s and'30s. Founded in 1919 by Earl "Curly" Lambeau and George Whitney Calhoun, the franchise traces its lineage to other semi-professional teams in Green Bay dating back to 1896. Between 1919 and 1920, the Packers competed against other semi-pro clubs from around Wisconsin and the Midwest, before joining the American Professional Football Association, the forerunner of today's NFL, in 1921. Although Green Bay is by far the smallest major league professional sports market in North America, Forbes ranked the Packers as the world's 26th most valuable sports franchise in 2016, with a value of $2.35 billion.
The Packers have won 13 league championships, the most in NFL history, with nine pre–Super Bowl NFL titles and four Super Bowl victories. The Packers won the first two Super Bowls in 1967 and 1968 and were the only NFL team to defeat the American Football League prior to the AFL–NFL merger; the Vince Lombardi Trophy is named after the Packers' coach of the same name, who guided them to their first two Super Bowls. Their two subsequent Super Bowl wins came in 1996 and 2010; the Packers are long-standing adversaries of the Chicago Bears, Minnesota Vikings, Detroit Lions, who today comprise the NFL's NFC North division, were members of the NFC Central Division. They have played over 100 games against each of those teams through history, have a winning overall record against all of them, a distinction only shared with the Kansas City Chiefs and Dallas Cowboys; the Bears–Packers rivalry is one of the oldest in NFL history, dating back to 1921. The Green Bay Packers were founded on August 11, 1919 by former high-school football rivals Earl "Curly" Lambeau and George Whitney Calhoun.
Lambeau solicited funds for uniforms from his employer, the Indian Packing Company. He was given $500 for uniforms and equipment, on the condition that the team be named for its sponsor; the Green Bay Packers have played in their original city longer than any other team in the NFL. On August 27, 1921, the Packers were granted a franchise in the new national pro football league, formed the previous year. Financial troubles plagued the team and the franchise was forfeited within the year before Lambeau found new financial backers and regained the franchise the next year; these backers, known as "The Hungry Five", formed the Green Bay Football Corporation. After a near-miss in 1927, Lambeau's squad claimed the Packers' first NFL title in 1929 with an undefeated 12–0–1 campaign, behind a stifling defense which registered eight shutouts. Green Bay would repeat as league champions in 1930 and 1931, bettering teams from New York and throughout the league, with all-time greats and future Hall of Famers Mike Michalske, Johnny McNally, Cal Hubbard and Green Bay native Arnie Herber.
Among the many impressive accomplishments of these years was the Packers' streak of 29 consecutive home games without defeat, an NFL record which still stands. The arrival of end Don Hutson from Alabama in 1935 gave Lambeau and the Packers the most-feared and dynamic offensive weapon in the game. Credited with inventing pass patterns, Hutson would lead the league in receptions eight seasons and spur the Packers to NFL championships in 1936, 1939 and 1944. An iron man, Hutson played both ways, leading the league in interceptions as a safety in 1940. Hutson claimed 18 NFL records. In 1951, his number 14 was the first to be retired by the Packers, he was inducted as a charter member of the Pro Football Hall of Fame in 1963. After Hutson's retirement, Lambeau could not stop the Packers' slide, he purchased a large lodge near Green Bay for team families to live. Rockwood Lodge was the home of the 1946–49 Packers; the 1947 and 1948 seasons produced a record of 12–10–1, 1949 was worse at 3–9. The lodge burned down on January 24, 1950, insurance money paid for many of the Packers' debts.
Curly Lambeau departed after the 1949 season. Gene Ronzani and Lisle Blackbourn could not coach the Packers back to their former magic as a new stadium was unveiled in 1957; the losing would descend to the disastrous 1958 campaign under coach Ray "Scooter" McLean, whose lone 1–10–1 year at the helm is the worst in Packers history. Former New York Giants assistant Vince Lombardi was hired as Packers head coach and general manager on February 2, 1959. Few suspected the hiring represented the beginning of a immediate turnaround. Under Lombardi, the Packers would become the team of the 1960s, winning five World Championships over a seven-year span, including victories in the first two Super Bowls. During the Lombardi era, the stars of the Packers' offense included Bart Starr, Jim Taylor, Carroll Dale, Paul Hornung, Forrest Gregg, Jerry Kramer; the defense included Willie Davis, Henry Jordan, Willie Wood, Ray Nitschke, Dave Robinson, Herb Adderley. The Packers' first regular season game under Lombardi was on September 27, 1959, a 9–6 victory over the Chicago Bears in Green Bay.
After winning their first three, the Packers lost the next five before finishing strong by sweeping their final four. The 7–5 record represented the Packers' first winning season since 1947, enough to earn rookie
In molecular biology, the guanylate-binding protein family is a family of GTPases, induced by interferon -gamma. GTPases induced by IFN-gamma are key to the protective immunity against microbial and viral pathogens; these GTPases are classified into three groups: the small 47-KD immunity-related GTPases, the Mx proteins, the large 65- to 67-kd GTPases. Guanylate-binding proteins fall into the last class. In humans, there are seven GBPs. Structurally, hGBP1 consists of two domains: a compact globular N-terminal domain harbouring the GTPase function, an alpha-helical finger-like C-terminal domain. Human GBP1 is secreted from cells without the need of a leader peptide, has been shown to exhibit antiviral activity against Vesicular stomatitis virus and Encephalomyocarditis virus, as well as being able to regulate the inhibition of proliferation and invasion of endothelial cells in response to IFN-gamma
Game Boy Player
The Game Boy Player is a device made by Nintendo for the Nintendo GameCube which enables Game Boy, Game Boy Color, or Game Boy Advance cartridges to be played on a television. It was the last Game Boy-based add-on to a Nintendo console, it connects via the high speed parallel port at the bottom of the GameCube and requires use of a boot disc to access the hardware. Unlike devices such as Datel's Advance Game Port, the Game Boy Player does not use software emulation, but instead uses physical hardware nearly identical to that of a Game Boy Advance; the device does not use the enhanced effects used by the previous Game Boy accessory, the Super Game Boy, released for the Super Nintendo Entertainment System in 1994. The Game Boy Player is available in Indigo, Spice, or Platinum in Japan. A special Game Boy Player for the Panasonic Q was released because the Q's legs are oriented differently from the original GameCube's. All Game Boy Players have screws on the bottom to secure it to the bottom of the GameCube and have an eject button on the right side of the unit for removing Game Boy Advance games.
Game Boy and Game Boy Color games stick out from the unit, as with the Game Boy Advance and Game Boy Advance SP, so they can be taken out when the system is off or "Change Cartridge" has been selected from the menu. The Game Boy Player allows users to set a timer from one to sixty minutes. Unlike some Nintendo GameCube accessories, including the Advance Game Port, Game Boy Player is not compatible with the Wii directly; the Wii lacks the hi-speed port of the GameCube. The Wii has a different footprint, making direct compatibility too complicated to be included; the Game Boy Player is region free, meaning the units will function on any GameCube system regardless of region. However, the boot discs are region must match the region of the GameCube system; the Game Boy Player allows for control either through a GameCube controller or a Game Boy Advance or Game Boy Advance SP hooked up with a GameCube-Game Boy Advance Cable. When using a Game Boy Advance, the buttons are identical, but due to the GameCube controller's different layout, there are two different mappings players can use.
At least one GameCube controller must be plugged in for access to the Game Boy Player's internal menu, which can be accessed by pressing the Z button. All controllers, Game Boy Advances, Game Boy Advance SPs connected to the GameCube are recognized as the same player; this allows a sort of co-op mode for games that do not have it. Furthermore, allowing for multiple controllers recognized as the same player allows for simpler and more comfortable play of single system multiplayer Game Boy Advance games, such as those found in Mario Party Advance, in lieu of up to four players holding one Game Boy Advance unit. In order to link other hardware, players are required to connect to the extension port on the Game Boy Player with the proper cable, which depends on whether the game was designed for Game Boy Advance or a Game Boy system released before the Game Boy Advance. Map One is closer to the Game Boy Advance's normal layout, while Map Two makes it easier to play with one hand and allows some SNES rereleases to control more like they may have with the SNES controller, as they had the Y button mapped to L and the X button mapped to R. Japanese hardware manufacturer Hori created for the Japanese market a special digital-only controller designed for use with the Game Boy Player.
The design of the controller is similar to the design of the SNES controller, but with the GameCube's face button layout. In addition, there is a Select button on the controller mapped to the Y button internally; the menu has six options to choose from: Frame: changes the colored border around the game "screen" to one of twenty different patterns. Super Game Boy borders are not supported. Size: changes the size that the GBA screen takes up on the TV Controller: switches between the two controller mappings Screen: controls a motion blur effect to reduce potential flicker from programming tricks designed for a GBA screen. Can be set to "sharp", "normal", or "soft". Timer: set an alarm for one to sixty minutes. Change Cartridge: stops the game so cartridges can be swapped safely, without having to turn the GameCube off; the Game Boy Player supports the following: Game Boy Game Paks: compatible with most Game Boy, Game Boy Color, Game Boy Advance games. Game Boy games can be played using the same selectable color palettes as on the Game Boy Color, Game Boy Advance and Game Boy Advance SP.
Games with compatibility issues are listed below. E-Reader: compatible with the E-Reader accessory, as well as all Mario Party-e, Super Mario Advance 4-e, Animal Crossing-e, Classic games, Pokémon Battle-e cards. Nintendo GameCube Game Boy Advance cable: By plugging it into a GameCube controller port, a GBA or GBA SP can be used as a substitute for a GameCube controller. Wireless Adapter: the GBP supports the use of a Wireless Adapter, will work with all games compatible with the accessory; the instruction manual for the Game Boy Player mentions that "A few original Game Boy Game Paks may have display or sound problems," and that "Motion sensor, rumble feature and infrared feature Game Paks will not work with the Game Boy Player." The following list concerns Game Boy Advanc
Traditional ginger beer is a sweetened and carbonated non-alcoholic beverage. It is produced by the natural fermentation of prepared ginger spice and sugar, its origins date from the colonial spice trade with the Orient and the sugar producing islands of the Caribbean. It was popular in its colonies from the 18th century. Other spices were variously added and any alcohol content was limited to 2% by excise tax laws in 1855. Few brewers have maintained an alcoholic product. Current ginger beers are manufactured rather than brewed with flavor and color additives. Ginger ales are not brewed. Ginger beer is still produced at home using a symbiotic colony of yeast and a Lactobacillus known as a "ginger beer plant". Ginger beer has experienced a marked increase in popularity in recent years accompanying the popularity of cocktails based on it, such as the Moscow Mule and the Dark'n' Stormy; as early as 500 BC, ginger was used as a medicine and for flavouring food in Ancient China and India. In the western hemisphere, ginger was used to spice up drinks.
During the Victorian era, it was used to brew an alcoholic beverage termed "ginger beer". Brewed ginger beer originated in Yorkshire in England in the mid-18th century and became popular throughout Britain, the United States, South Africa and Canada, reaching a peak of popularity in the early 20th century. Brewed ginger beer was brought to the United States of the Ionian Islands by the British Army in the 19th century, is still made as a local specialty known as tsitsibíra by villagers in rural Corfu. Brewed ginger beer is sold worldwide. Crabbie's is a popular brand in the UK, it is labelled "alcoholic ginger beer" to distinguish it from the more established commercial ginger beers, which are not brewed, but carbonated with pressurized carbon dioxide. Hollows & Fentimans claims its ginger beer to be gluten-free. Crabbie's ginger beer is free from gluten in the UK, but not the US; the ginger beer plant known as "bees wine", "Palestinian bees", "Californian bees", "balm of Gilead", is not what is considered a plant but a composite organism comprising the yeast Saccharomyces florentinus and the bacterium Lactobacillus hilgardii, which form a symbiotic culture of bacteria and yeast.
It forms a gelatinous substance that allows it to be transferred from one fermenting substrate to the next, much like kefir grains and tibicos. The GBP was first described by Harry Marshall Ward in 1892, from samples he received in 1887. Original ginger beer is brewed by leaving water, ginger, optional ingredients such as lemon juice and cream of tartar, GBP to ferment for several days, converting some of the sugar into alcohol. GBP may be obtained from several commercial sources; until about 2008 laboratory-grade GBP was available, only from the yeast bank Deutsche Sammlung von Mikroorganismen und Zellkulturen in Germany, but the item is no longer listed. The National Collection of Yeast Cultures had an old sample of "Bees wine" as of 2008, but current staff have not used it, NCYC are unable to supply it for safety reasons, as the exact composition of the sample is unknown. In the UK, the origins of the original ginger beer plant is unknown; when a batch of ginger beer was made using some ginger beer plant, the jelly-like residue was bottled and became the new GBP.
Some of this GBP was kept for making the next batch of ginger beer, some was given to friends and family, so the'plant' was passed on through generations. Following Ward's research and experiments, he created his own ginger beer from a new'plant' that he had made, he proposed, but did not prove, that the'plant' was created by contaminants found on the raw materials, with the yeast coming from the raw brown sugar and the bacteria coming from the ginger root. A form of Ginger beer plant can be made by fermenting a mixture of water, brewer's or baker's yeast and sugar. More ginger may be added; when finished, this concentrated mix is strained, diluted with water and lemon juice, bottled. Non-alcoholic ginger beer is a type of carbonated soft drink flavoured with ginger. An example is Stoney, a product of The Coca-Cola Company sold in southern and eastern Africa; the ginger beer soft drink may be mixed with beer to make one type of shandy, or with dark rum to make a drink from Bermuda, called a Dark'N' Stormy.
It is the main ingredient in the Moscow Mule cocktail. Ginger ale Crabbie's Root beer Barritt's Ginger Beer Sockerdricka Caribbean cuisine Ginger wine Canton Socată List of soft drink flavors Donoghue v. Stevenson, legal case involving ginger beer Of the Street Sale of Ginger-Beer, Lemonade,&C. from London Labour and the London Poor, Volume 1, Henry Mayhew, 1851. Http://www.scienceinschool.org/sites/default/files/issuePdf/issue8.pdf