GCR Class 8F
The GCR Class 8F was a class of ten 4-6-0 locomotives built for the Great Central Railway in 1906 by Beyer and Company to the design of John G. Robinson for working fast goods and fish trains, they passed to the London and North Eastern Railway at the 1923 grouping and received the classification'B4'. The new design was similar to 4-6-0 the two locomotives of the except that they had smaller driving wheels, they were built with a saturated boiler, inside slide valves and Stephenson valve gear, two outside cylinders connected to 6-foot-7-inch diameter driving wheels. The ten locomotives were renumbered by the LNER by adding 5000 to their GCR numbers. Between 1925 and 1928 the whole class received superheated boilers, but six received 10-inch piston valves and 21-inch cylinders giving rise to two LNER sub-classes B4/1 and B4/2; the LNER had designed a new type of superheated boiler based on the old design. These were used on the B4 class locomotives; the class were used on fish trains between the port of Grimsby and London and Manchester although they were found to be successful passenger locomotives.
The first locomotive No. 1095 was chosen to haul the special train at the inauguration ceremony for the new port of Immingham in 1906, was named ‘Immingham’ thereafter. After grouping the class was transferred to Ardsley, South Yorkshire and did much useful work in the West Riding of Yorkshire Boddy, M. G.. Fry, E. V. ed. Locomotives of the L. N. E. R. Part 2B: Tender Engines—Classes B1 to B19. Lincoln: RCTS. ISBN 0-901115-73-8
GCR Class 9J
The GCR Class 9J was a class of 174 0-6-0 steam locomotives designed by John G. Robinson for freight work on the Great Central Railway in 1901, they passed to the London and North Eastern Railway in 1923. The LNER classified them as J11 with sub-classes J11/1 to J11/5 because of detail differences; the whole class survived into British Railways ownership in 1948 and their BR numbers were 64280–64453. All had been withdrawn and scrapped by 1962 and none have been preserved
GCR Class 5A
The GCR Class 5A was a class of seven 0-6-0 steam tank locomotives designed by John G. Robinson for work in docks operated by the Great Central Railway, they passed to the London and North Eastern Railway at the grouping in 1923 and received the LNER classification J63. The class was introduced in 1906 as a replacement for the GCR Class 4 dock shunters, based on his predecessor’s GCR Class 5 but with side tanks rather than saddle tanks. A seventh locomotive was built in 1914. All seven examples survived into British Railways ownership in 1948, at least one being at Immingham in 1952, at least one at Connah's Quay in 1954, they were all withdrawn between 1953 and 1957. Allen, D. W.. Fry, E. V. ed. Locomotives of the L. N. E. R. Part 8A: Tank Engines - Classes J50 to J70, Kenilworth: RCTS, ISBN 0-901115-05-3 Goode, C. Tony. Railways of North Lincolnshire. Anlaby, Hull: C. T. Goode. ISBN 0-9508239-7-X. Green, C. C.. North Wales Branch Line Album. Shepperton: Ian Allan Publishing. ISBN 0 7110 1252 0. Hancox, A. C.
The Harmonious Blacksmith Robinson, The Stephenson Locomotive Society, ISBN 0-903881-03-9 Ludlam, A. J.. Immingham - A Lincolnshire Railway Centre. Ludborough, Lincolnshire: Lincolnshire Wolds Railway Society. ISBN 0995461007; the Robinson J63 0-6-0ST Locomotives.
GCR Class 1B
The GCR Class 1B was a class of 2-6-4T locomotives on the Great Central Railway. They were notable as the first locomotives of the 2-6-4T wheel arrangement to be used by a British standard-gauge railway. In 1906, the Great Central Railway had inherited nine 0-6-4T locomotives from the Lancashire and East Coast Railway, of class D; these had been designed to the specifications of Robert A. Thom, the locomotive superintendent of the LD&EC, for hauling coal trains from northern Derbyshire and Nottinghamshire to the docks at Grimsby, they were built by Kitson & Co in 1904 and 1906, performed well. When further locomotives were required for similar duties, opportunity was taken to produce an updated design; the 1B class locomotives were designed by the GCR's locomotive superintendent John G. Robinson, with assistance from Thom, after a period as assistant works manager at the GCR's Gorton locomotive works, was now Robinson's assistant; the chief design improvement was the fitment of a larger boiler incorporating a superheater.
The LD&EC Class D bogie was retained, but the increased weight made it necessary to add a carrying axle at the front. Unlike the LD&EC engines, the 1B class was built at Gorton, where twenty were built between 1914 and 1917, they were described by an engineering journal as'one of the handsomest tank engines to have made their appearance anywhere in recent years', although not everybody agreed. By the time that the first few were in service, the coal traffic for which they had been designed was dwindling, their GCR numbers were 272–276, 336–345, 366–370, which under the London and North Eastern Railway were increased by 5000 between 1924 and 1926. Classified 1B by the GCR, the LNER assigned class L1, altered to L3 in May 1945, because the Thompson Class L1 were about to appear. All were renumbered to 9050–9069 by the LNER during 1946. Withdrawal occurred between 1947 and 1955 and none have been preserved
The cylinder is the power-producing element of the steam engine powering a steam locomotive. The cylinder is made pressure-tight with a piston. Cylinders were cast in cast iron and in steel; the cylinder casting includes other features such as mounting feet. The last big American locomotives incorporated the cylinders as part of huge one-piece steel castings that were the main frame of the locomotive. Renewable wearing surfaces were provided by cast-iron bushings; the way the valve controlled the steam entering and leaving the cylinder was known as steam distribution and shown by the shape of the indicator diagram. What happened to the steam inside the cylinder was assessed separately from what happened in the boiler and how much friction the moving machinery had to cope with; this assessment was known as "engine performance" or "cylinder performance". The cylinder performance, together with the boiler and machinery performance, established the efficiency of the complete locomotive; the pressure of the steam in the cylinder was measured as the piston moved and the power moving the piston was calculated and known as cylinder power.
The forces produced in the cylinder moved the train but were damaging to the structure which held the cylinders in place. Bolted joints came loose, cylinder castings and frames cracked and reduced the availability of the locomotive. Cylinders may be arranged in several different ways. On early locomotives, such as Puffing Billy, the cylinders were set vertically and the motion was transmitted through beams, as in a beam engine; the next stage, for example Stephenson's Rocket, was to drive the wheels directly from steeply inclined cylinders placed at the back of the locomotive. Direct drive became the standard arrangement, but the cylinders were moved to the front and placed either horizontal or nearly horizontal; the front-mounted cylinders could be placed either outside. Examples: Inside cylinders, Planet locomotive Outside cylinders, GNR Stirling 4-2-2In the 19th and early 20th centuries, inside cylinders were used in the UK, but outside cylinders were more common in Continental Europe and the United States.
The reason for this difference is unclear. From about 1920, outside cylinders became more common in the UK but many inside-cylinder engines continued to be built. Inside cylinders give a more stable ride with less yaw or "nosing" but access for maintenance is more difficult; some designers used inside cylinders for aesthetic reasons. The demand for more power led to the development of engines with four cylinders. Examples: Three cylinders, SR Class V, LNER Class A4, Merchant Navy class Four Cylinders, LMS Princess Royal Class, LMS Coronation Class, GWR Castle Class On a two-cylinder engine the cranks, whether inside or outside, are set at 90 degrees; as the cylinders are double-acting this gives four impulses per revolution and ensures that there are no dead centres. On a three-cylinder engine, two arrangements are possible: cranks set to give six spaced impulses per revolution – the usual arrangement. If the three cylinder axes are parallel, the cranks will be 120 degrees apart, but if the centre cylinder does not drive the leading driving axle, it will be inclined, the inside crank will be correspondingly shifted from 120 degrees.
For a given tractive effort and adhesion factor, a three-cylinder locomotive of this design will be less prone to wheelslip when starting than a 2-cylinder locomotive. Outside cranks set at 90 degrees, inside crank set at 135 degrees, giving six unequally spaced impulses per revolution; this arrangement was sometimes used on three-cylinder compound locomotives which used the outside cylinders for starting. This will give evenly spaced exhausts. Two arrangements are possible on a four-cylinder engine: all four cranks set at 90 degrees. With this arrangement the cylinders act in pairs, so there are four impulses per revolution, as with a two-cylinder engine. Most four-cylinder engines are of this type, it is cheaper and simpler to use only one set of valve gear on each side of the locomotive and to operate the second cylinder on that side by means of a rocking shaft from the first cylinder's valve spindle since the required valve events at the second cylinder are a mirror image of the first cylinder.
Pairs of cranks set at 90 degrees with the inside pair set at 45 degrees to the outside pair. This gives eight impulses per revolution, it increases weight and complexity, by requiring four sets of valve gear, but gives smoother torque and reduces the risk of slipping. This was unusual in British practice but was used on the SR Lord Nelson class; such locomotives are distinguished by their exhaust beats, which occur at twice the frequency of a normal 2- or 4-cylinder engine. The valve chests or steam chests which contain the slide valves or piston valves may be located in various positions. If the cylinders are small, the valve chests may be located between the cylinders. For larger cylinders the valve chests are on top of the cylinders but, in early locomotives, they were sometimes underneath the cylinders; the valve chests are on top of the cylinders but, in older locomotives, the valve chests were sometimes located alongside the cylinders and inserted through slots in the frames. This meant that, while the cylinders were outside, the valves were inside a
The leading wheel or leading axle or pilot wheel of a steam locomotive is an unpowered wheel or axle located in front of the driving wheels. The axle or axles of the leading wheels are located on a leading truck. Leading wheels are used to help the locomotive negotiate curves and to support the front portion of the boiler; the leading bogie does not have simple rotational motion about a vertical pivot, as might first be thought. It must be free to slip sideways to a small extent, some kind of springing mechanism is included to control this movement and give a tendency to return to centre; the sliding bogie of this type was patented by William Adams in 1865. The first use of leading wheels is attributed to John B. Jervis who employed them in his 1832 design for a locomotive with four leading wheels and two driving wheels. In the Whyte system of describing locomotive wheel arrangements, his locomotive would be classified as a 4-2-0: That is to say, it had four leading wheels, two driving wheels, no trailing wheels.
In the UIC classification system, which counts axles rather than wheels and uses letters to denote powered axles, the Jervis would be classified 2A. Locomotives without leading trucks are regarded as unsuitable for high speed use; the British Railway Inspectorate condemned the practice in 1895, following an accident involving two 0-4-4s at Doublebois, Cornwall, on the Great Western Railway. Other designers, persisted with the practice and the famous 0-4-2 Gladstone class passenger expresses of the London and South Coast Railway remained in trouble-free service until 1933. A single leading axle increases stability somewhat, while a four-wheel leading truck is essential for high-speed operation; the highest number of leading wheels on a single locomotive is six, as seen on the 6-2-0 Crampton type and the Pennsylvania Railroad's 6-4-4-6 S1 duplex locomotive and 6-8-6 S2 steam turbine. Six-wheel leading trucks were not popular; the Cramptons were built in the 1840s, but it was not until 1939 that the PRR used one on the S1.
AAR wheel arrangement Adams axle Trailing wheel UIC classification of locomotive axle arrangements Whyte notation
On a steam locomotive, a driving wheel is a powered wheel, driven by the locomotive's pistons. On a conventional, non-articulated locomotive, the driving wheels are all coupled together with side rods. On diesel and electric locomotives, the driving wheels may be directly driven by the traction motors. Coupling rods are not used, it is quite common for each axle to have its own motor. Jackshaft drive and coupling rods were used in the past but their use is now confined to shunting locomotives. On an articulated locomotive or a duplex locomotive, driving wheels are grouped into sets which are linked together within the set. Driving wheels are larger than leading or trailing wheels. Since a conventional steam locomotive is directly driven, one of the few ways to'gear' a locomotive for a particular performance goal is to size the driving wheels appropriately. Freight locomotives had driving wheels between 40 and 60 inches in diameter; some long wheelbase locomotives were equipped with blind drivers.
These were driving wheels without the usual flanges, which allowed them to negotiate tighter curves without binding. The driving wheels on express passenger locomotives have come down in diameter over the years, e.g. from 8 ft 1 in on the GNR Stirling 4-2-2 of 1870 to 6 ft 2 in on the SR Merchant Navy Class of 1941. This is. On locomotives with side rods, including most steam and jackshaft locomotives, the driving wheels have weights to balance the weight of the coupling and connecting rods; the crescent-shaped balance weight is visible in the picture on the right. In the Whyte notation, driving wheels are designated by numbers in the set; the UIC classification system counts the number of axles rather than the number of wheels and driving wheels are designated by letters rather than numbers. The suffix'o' is used to indicate independently powered axles; the number of driving wheels on locomotives varied quite a bit. Some early locomotives had as few as two driving wheels; the largest number of total driving wheels was 24 on the 2-8-8-8-4 locomotives.
The largest number of coupled driving wheels was 14 on the ill-fated AA20 4-14-4 locomotive. The term driving wheel is sometimes used to denote the drive sprocket which moves the track on tracked vehicles such as tanks and bulldozers. Many American roots artists, such as The Byrds, Tom Rush, The Black Crowes and the Canadian band Cowboy Junkies have performed a song written by David Wiffen called "Driving Wheel", with the lyrics "I feel like some old engine/ That's lost my driving wheel."These lyrics are a reference to the traditional blues song "Broke Down Engine Blues" by Blind Willie McTell, 1931. It was directly covered by Bob Dylan and Johnny Winter. Many versions of the American folk song "In the Pines" performed by artists such as Leadbelly, Mark Lanegan, Nirvana reference a decapitated man's head found in a driving wheel. In addition, it is that Chuck Berry references the locomotive driving wheel in "Johnny B. Goode" when he sings, "the engineers would see him sitting in the shade / Strumming with the rhythm that the drivers made."