London and North Eastern Railway
The London and North Eastern Railway was the second largest of the "Big Four" railway companies created by the Railways Act 1921 in Britain. It operated from 1 January 1923 until nationalisation on 1 January 1948. At that time, it was divided into the new British Railways' Eastern Region, North Eastern Region, the Scottish Region; the company was the second largest created by the Railways Act 1921. The principal constituents of the LNER were: Great Eastern Railway Great Central Railway Great Northern Railway Great North of Scotland Railway Hull and Barnsley Railway North British Railway North Eastern RailwayThe total route mileage was 6,590 miles; the North Eastern Railway had the largest route mileage of 1,757 miles, whilst the Hull and Barnsley Railway was 106.5 miles. It covered the area east of London, it included the East Coast Main Line from London to Edinburgh via York and Newcastle upon Tyne and the routes from Edinburgh to Aberdeen and Inverness. Most of the country east of the Pennines was including East Anglia.
The main workshops were in Doncaster, with others at Darlington and Stratford, London. The LNER inherited four of London's termini: Fenchurch Street (ex-London and Blackwall Railway. In addition, it ran suburban services to Broad Moorgate; the LNER owned: 7,700 locomotives, 20,000 coaching vehicles, 29,700 freight vehicles, 140 items of electric rolling stock, 6 electric locomotives and 10 rail motor cars 6 turbine and 36 other steamers, river boats and lake steamers, etc. In partnership with the London and Scottish Railway, the LNER was co-owner of the Midland and Great Northern Joint Railway, the UK's biggest joint railway, much of which competed with the LNER's own lines; the M&GNJR was incorporated into the LNER in 1936. In 1933, on the formation of the London Passenger Transport Board, the LNER acquired the remaining operations of the Metropolitan Railway Company; the LNER was the majority partner in the Cheshire Lines Committee and the Forth Bridge Railway Company. It depended on freight from heavy industry in Yorkshire, the north east of England and Scotland, its revenue was reduced by the economic depression for much of the early part of its existence.
In a bid to improve financial efficiency, staffing levels reduced from 207,500 in 1924 to 175,800 in 1937. For investment to retain freight traffic, new marshalling yards were built in Whitemoor in Cambridgeshire, Hull in Yorkshire to attempt to retain freight traffic. Sir Ralph Wedgwood introduced a Traffic Apprenticeship Scheme to attract graduates, train young managers and provide supervision by assistant general manager Robert Bell for career planning; the company adopted a regional managerial system, with general managers based in London and Edinburgh, for a short time, Aberdeen. For passenger services, Sir Nigel Gresley, the Chief Mechanical Engineer built new powerful locomotives and new coaches. Developments such as the streamlined Silver Jubilee train of 1935 were exploited by the LNER publicity department, embedded the non-stop London to Edinburgh services such as the Flying Scotsman in the public imagination; the crowning glory of this time was the world record speed of 126 miles per hour achieved on a test run by LNER Class A4 4468 Mallard.
In 1929, the LNER chose the typeface Gill Sans as the standard typeface for the company. Soon it appeared on every facet of the company's identity, from metal locomotive nameplates and hand-painted station signage to printed restaurant car menus and advertising posters; the LNER promoted their rebranding by offering Eric Gill a footplate ride on the Flying Scotsman express service. Gill Sans was retained by the Railway Executive in 1949 and was the official typeface until British Rail replaced it in the mid 1960s with Rail Alphabet. Continental shipping services were provided from Harwich Parkeston Quay; the company took up the offer in 1933 of government loans at low interest rates and electrified the lines from Manchester to Sheffield and Wath yard, commuter lines in the London suburban area. The LNER inherited: 8 canals, including the Ashton, Macclesfield, Nottingham & Grantham, Peak Forest Docks and harbours in 20 locations, including Grimsby, Hull, Middlesbrough, some eastern Scottish ports, Harwich and London Other wharves, piers 2 electric tramways 23 hotels A 49% stake in the haulage firm Mutter, Howey & Co.
Ltd. It took shares in a large number of bus companies, including for a time a majority stake in United Automobile Services Ltd. In Halifax and Sheffield, it participated in Joint Omnibus Committees with the LMS and the Corporation. In 1935, with the LMS, Wilson Line of Hull and others it formed the shipping company Associated Humber Lines Ltd. In 1938 it was reported that the LNER, with 800 mechanical horse tractors, was the world's largest owner of this vehicle type; the LNER operated a number of ships. The most common liveries were lined apple green on passenger locomotives and unlined black on freight locomotives, both with gold lettering. Passenger
GER Class R24
The GER Class R24 was a class of 0-6-0 steam tank locomotives designed by James Holden for the Great Eastern Railway. They passed to the London and North Eastern Railway at the grouping in 1923 and received the LNER classification J67; some R24s were rebuilt with higher boiler pressure in which form they were similar to the Class S56. The rebuilt R24s, together with the S56s, were classified J69 by the LNER; these locomotives were similar to the Class T18 locomotives, sharing the same dimensions for most major components. They were all built at the GER's Stratford Works between 1890 and 1901. Eighty-nine locomotives were rebuilt between 1904 and 1921 with 180-pound-force-per-square-inch boilers and increased water capacity. Most were fitted with air brakes and used in suburban and branch line passenger service alongside the Class S56; the 51 locomotives not rebuilt were used for working local goods trains. The first withdrawal was in 1931 due to accident damage. Eleven were withdrawn in 1937, one in 1939.
Thirteen class J69 locomotives were lent to the War Department in October 1939, of which eight had been built as Class R24. They were sold to the War Department in October 1940, where they were used on the Melbourne and Longmoor Military Railways; the remaining locomotives were renumbered 8490–8616 in order of construction. At nationalisation in 1948, they all passed to British Railways. Post-war withdrawals started in 1953, by 1962 all had been retired. LNER Encyclopedia
GER Class T18
The GER Class T18 was a class of fifty 0-6-0 tank steam locomotives designed by James Holden for the Great Eastern Railway. They passed to the London and North Eastern Railway at the grouping in 1923 and received the LNER classification J66; when James Holden took office on the Great Eastern, there were few 0-6-0T locomotives, most shunting being done by 0-4-4T and obsolete tender locomotives. These small locomotives had 16 1⁄2 - 4-foot-0-inch. Coupled wheels and a grate area of 12.4 sq ft. They were rebuilt between 1898 and 1908. Withdrawals started in 1936 when four were sold to Sir Robert McAlpine and Son, the latter concern having five on loan from late 1936 to mid-1938. Three others were sold, with No. 297 going to the Mersey Railway in 1939 as their No. 3 to work ballast trains. By the end of 1940, thirty-one had been withdrawn, the remaining 19 locomotives continued with no further retirements until 1950. In the LNER 1944 renumbering plan, the locomotives were renumbered 8370–8388. Withdrawal restarted in 1950 and all were gone by the end of 1955.
In 1952, Three locomotives, 8370 and 8378, 8382 were transferred to the service list as 32, 36, 31 respectively. Aldrich, C. Langley; the Locomotives of the Great Eastern Railway 1862–1962. Wickford, Essex: C. Langley Aldrich. OCLC 30278831. Allen, D. W.. Fry, E. V. ed. Locomotives of the L. N. E. R. Part 8A: Tank Engines - Classes J50 to J70. Kenilworth: RCTS. ISBN 0-901115-05-3. J. Holden locomotives — Great Eastern Railway Society The Holden J66 0-6-0T Locomotives — LNER Encyclopedia
The Melbourne Line was a railway line which ran from Derby to Ashby de la Zouch. It was used by the British Army and Allied engineers during the Second World War from 1939 until late 1944 to prepare them for the invasion of mainland Europe. Engineers practised the demolition and rebuilding of railways and the running and maintenance of a railway line and its rolling stock. There was a bridge building school at Kings Newton; the section used by the military was between junctions near Ashby-de-la-Zouch in Leicestershire and Chellaston and Swarkestone in Derbyshire. Its principal station was Melbourne, at the hamlet of Kings Newton. Troops camped at Weston-on-Trent from 1940. A suspension bridge linked the camp with Kings Newton over the Trent. In the early stages of the War it was soon realised that the military railway at Longmoor would have to be expanded if the capacity to train the necessary railway personnel was to be met. A second training establishment was sought. Derby Midland was a major railway centre.
The London and Scottish Railway staff college there was about to close and its Principal, Colonel Lionel Manton recommended the nearby rural freight line between Derby and Ashby de la Zouch be used as a training line. On 19 November 1939 the section of the line from Chellaston East Junction to the Smisby Road crossing, just north of Ashby, was handed over to the War Department, it was named the No. 2 Railway Training Centre. The line was named the Melbourne Military Railway after its principal station. South of Chellaston East Junction the railway established its headquarters, consisting of workshops and engine sheds for eight locomotives. After the war this area became a wagon repair depot. At Kings Newton miles of sidings were built; the railway was to be used for individual training but it was used for training complete railway operating companies who would work the line for a week at a time. Two such companies were Canadian. From July 1941 the Melbourne training regime was linked with that at Longmoor.
Basic training took place in Hampshire before transfer to Melbourne where railway engineers undertook eight weeks training and construction engineers undertook 16 weeks training, which included eight weeks at the Kings Newton bridge building school. By the end of 1944 the additional facilities were no longer needed and the line was ready to hand back to the LMS. On 11 July 1940 nine Royal Engineer sappers training on the railway were killed by a German bomb dropped on their billet in Church Street, Melbourne. Eight of them are buried in Melbourne Cemetery. Major traffic on the line consisted of moving military stores to and from Kings Newton and Tonge, coal from the New Lount Colliery and lime from Cloud Hill, Worthington. Eight or more locomotives were in steam daily but most were in poor condition, they used water pumped from the River Trent. The railway track was handed back to the LMS on 1 January 1945 who submitted a bill of £25,265 to the War Department to restore the line but in 1954 the section through Ashby was closed.
In 1958 steam power was replaced by diesel on many local lines and large numbers of redundant steam locomotives were stored at Chellaston quarry. In March 1966 British Railways closed Chellaston Quarry Signal Box and the sidings were lifted in 1967 when the line was returned to single track running. BR closed the line on 21 May 1980. In 1988 the track was lifted and the section between Chellaston East Junction and Worthington was converted into part of National Cycle Route 6. There are several remains of the railway: buffer stops on the Isley Walton Road, pillars from bridge building in the Trent, the concrete bases of buildings, some derelict brick buildings and remains of engine sheds at Chellaston Quarry. Additionally, Ashby Tunnel still survives and the eastern portal is accessible from a cutting in Tunnel Wood, although the western portal and its approach cutting have been infilled. Two locomotives and a coach that ran on the line are now owned by the East Sussex Railway. Longmoor Military Railway – Hampshire Cooper, Alan.
The Melbourne Military Railway: A History of the Railway Training Centre at Melbourne and Kings Newton, 1939–1945. Oakwood Press. ISBN 0-85361-411-3. David Birt materials on the Melbourne Military Railway at Melbourne Public Library, Assembly Rooms, Derbyshire. Catalis Derby Telegraph article about war-time Kings Newton and Weston - 01/04/2013
Bressingham Steam and Gardens
Bressingham Steam & Gardens is a steam museum and gardens located at Bressingham, west of Diss in Norfolk, England. The site has several narrow gauge rail lines and a number of types of steam engines and vehicles in its collection and is the home of the national Dad's Army exhibition; the gardens were established by Alan Bloom MBE at Bressingham Hall. He moved to Bressingham in 1946, after selling his previous 36-acre site at Oakington in Cambridgeshire to raise the capital for the 220 acres in Norfolk, where he hoped to be both a farmer and a nurseryman, he was a plant expert of international renown in the field of hardy perennials. He laid out the Dell garden with its well-known island beds, his son, Adrian Bloom, laid out the Foggy Bottom garden. Much of the site is given over to commercial horticulture. There is a garden centre on the site, trading as Blooms of Bressingham, although the nurseries themselves are not open to the public. Bressingham Gardens and Steam Museum is an independent charitable trust.
Alan Bloom had wanted to create his own trust in 1967, to ensure that the collection would not be dispersed to pay for death duties, but the laws of the time made this difficult, after five years of negotiation, the museum was nearly handed over to the Transport Trust. However, the legislation governing private museums was relaxed just before the handover in 1971, Bloom was able to create his own Trust and thus retain control of it because the collection was of historical and educational importance. There are three railway lines which take visitors around the gardens: This 10 1⁄4 in gauge miniature railway runs through the Dell Garden, giving passengers good views of the various plants; the railway's passenger trains are operated by steam locomotive Alan Bloom, constructed along with the railway. This is a 2 ft narrow gauge railway; the Fen Railway was the first railway to be completed at Bressingham, first opening in 1968. The railway is 2.5 miles in length and crosses the Waveney Valley Railway, running parallel to it for a short distance.
It runs through meadows and passes the now defunct plant nurseries. Locomotives: 15 in gauge miniature railway; the line is 1.5 miles in length. It crosses the Nursery Railway and runs parallel to the 4 ft 8 1⁄2 in standard gauge line for a time. Locomotives: During 2013, a circular track of dual 7 1⁄4 in gauge and 5 in gauge was under construction. Once completed, there will be a total of seven different gauges at Bressingham. NSB NSB Class 21c 2-6-0 No. 377 King Haakon VII. Built in 1919. Last overhauled in 2006. Stored awaiting overhaul. LB&SCR A1 Class 0-6-0T No. 662 Martello. Built in 1875. Operational, boiler ticket expires in 2026. Painted in SR Lined Green. GER Class T26 2-4-0 No. 490. Built in 1894 On static display, on loan from the National Railway Museum. LT&SR 79 Class 4-4-2T No. 80 Thundersley. Built in 1909. On static display, on loan from the National Railway Museum. GER Class S56 0-6-0T No. 87. Built in 1904. On static display, on loan from the National Railway Museum. LSWR B4 class 0-4-0T No 102 Granville.
Built in 1893. On static display. Beckton Gas Works 0-4-0ST No. 25. Built in 1896. On static display. Baddesley Colliery Beyer-Garratt 0-4-0+0-4-0 No. 6841 William Francis. Built in 1937. On static display; this is the last surviving standard gauge Garratt in Britain. DB/NSR Class 52 2-10-0 No. 5865 Peer Gynt. Built in the 1950s. Found in a caved-in tunnel and restored, now on static display. Andrew Barclay 0-4-0F No. 1472 Bluebottle. Built in 1916. Stored out of use. Robert Stephenson and Hawthorns 0-4-0CT No. 7070 Millfield. Built in 1942. Stored out of use. VR Class Tk3 2-8-0 No. 1144. Plinthed. 1,524 mm A variety of steam vehicles are in the collection. Burrell No. 2363 of 1901 Portable. Operational. Youngs Portable of 1910 manufactured locally in Diss. On display. Tidman Centre Engine No. 1891. Merryweather Fire engine no. 3702. Merryweather Fire pump of 1914. Burrell No. 3962 Boxer of 1923 reg no. PW 1714. On display. Burrell No. 3993 Buster of 1924 reg no. CF 5646. Operational. Robey 4 ton Tandem Steam Roller No. 42520 Barkis built in 1925 reg No.
FE 7632. On display. Garrett 5 ton Steam Tractor No. 34641 Bunty, built in 1924 reg no. CF 5913. Operational. Burrell Traction engine No. 3112 Bertha of 1909 reg no. CF 3440. On display. Foster Traction engine No. 2821 Beryl of 1903 reg. no. BE 7448. On display. Fowler Traction engine No. 6188 Beulah of 1890 reg no. MA 8528. On display; the museum is the home of the national Dad's Army collection of vintage vehicles. These are located on a reconstruction of the High Street in the fictional Walmington-on-Sea beside the butcher's shop of Lance-Corporal Jones, Private Frazer's undertaker's shop and Captain Mainwaring's bank office; the vehicles include Jones' van and the dust cart from the 1971 film, Mainwaring's Austin 8 staff car used in the episode The Making of Private Pike, the vintage fire engine used in Brain Versus Brawn and the steamroller'Boxer' and traction engine'Bertha' which appeared in other episodes. Index of steam energy articles The Museum website Blooms of Bressingham
In rail transport, track gauge or track gage is the spacing of the rails on a railway track and is measured between the inner faces of the load-bearing rails. All vehicles on a rail network must have running gear, compatible with the track gauge, in the earliest days of railways the selection of a proposed railway's gauge was a key issue; as the dominant parameter determining interoperability, it is still used as a descriptor of a route or network. In some places there is a distinction between the nominal gauge and the actual gauge, due to divergence of track components from the nominal. Railway engineers use a device, like a caliper, to measure the actual gauge, this device is referred to as a track gauge; the terms structure gauge and loading gauge, both used, have little connection with track gauge. Both refer to two-dimensional cross-section profiles, surrounding the track and vehicles running on it; the structure gauge specifies the outline into which altered structures must not encroach.
The loading gauge is the corresponding envelope within which rail vehicles and their loads must be contained. If an exceptional load or a new type of vehicle is being assessed to run, it is required to conform to the route's loading gauge. Conformance ensures. In the earliest days of railways, single wagons were manhandled on timber rails always in connection with mineral extraction, within a mine or quarry leading from it. Guidance was not at first provided except by human muscle power, but a number of methods of guiding the wagons were employed; the spacing between the rails had to be compatible with that of the wagon wheels. The timber rails wore rapidly. In some localities, the plates were made L-shaped, with the vertical part of the L guiding the wheels; as the guidance of the wagons was improved, short strings of wagons could be connected and pulled by horses, the track could be extended from the immediate vicinity of the mine or quarry to a navigable waterway. The wagons were built to a consistent pattern and the track would be made to suit the wagons: the gauge was more critical.
The Penydarren Tramroad of 1802 in South Wales, a plateway, spaced these at 4 ft 4 in over the outside of the upstands. The Penydarren Tramroad carried the first journey by a locomotive, in 1804, it was successful for the locomotive, but unsuccessful for the track: the plates were not strong enough to carry its weight. A considerable progressive step was made. Edge rails required a close match between rail spacing and the configuration of the wheelsets, the importance of the gauge was reinforced. Railways were still seen as local concerns: there was no appreciation of a future connection to other lines, selection of the track gauge was still a pragmatic decision based on local requirements and prejudices, determined by existing local designs of vehicles. Thus, the Monkland and Kirkintilloch Railway in the West of Scotland used 4 ft 6 in; the Arbroath and Forfar Railway opened in 1838 with a gauge of 5 ft 6 in, the Ulster Railway of 1839 used 6 ft 2 in Locomotives were being developed in the first decades of the 19th century.
His designs were so successful that they became the standard, when the Stockton and Darlington Railway was opened in 1825, it used his locomotives, with the same gauge as the Killingworth line, 4 ft 8 in. The Stockton and Darlington line was immensely successful, when the Liverpool and Manchester Railway, the first intercity line, was built, it used the same gauge, it was hugely successful, the gauge, became the automatic choice: "standard gauge". The Liverpool and Manchester was followed by other trunk railways, with the Grand Junction Railway and the London and Birmingham Railway forming a huge critical mass of standard gauge; when Bristol promoters planned a line from London, they employed the innovative engineer Isambard Kingdom Brunel. He decided on a wider gauge, to give greater stability, the Great Western Railway adopted a gauge of 7 ft eased to 7 ft 1⁄4 in; this became known as broad gauge. The Great Western Railway was successful and was expanded and through friendly associated companies, widening the scope of broad gauge.
At the same time, other parts of Britain built railways to standard gauge, British technology was exported to European countries and parts of North America using standard gauge. Britain polarised into two areas: those that used standard gauge. In this context, standard gauge was referred to as "narrow gauge" to indicate the contrast; some smaller concerns selected other non-standard gauges: the Eastern Counties Railway adopted 5 ft. Most of them converted to standard gauge at an early date, but the GWR's broad gauge continued to grow; the larger railway companies wished to expand geographically, large areas were considered to be under their control. When a new
GER Class D27
The GER Class D27 was a class of 2-2-2 steam tender locomotives designed by James Holden for the Great Eastern Railway. In 1888 Holden experimented by removing the side rods of T19 No. 721 to form a 2-2-2. In 1889 the first of a new class appeared: No. 740, built on a'Locomotive and Machinery' account. This was followed by two batches of ten on the more normal'Letter' account. In 1893, they were built with 18-by-24-inch inside cylinders powered by a 140-pound-force-per-square-inch boiler. They were rebuilt with 18-by-25-inch and 160-pound-force-per-square-inch boilers. One of their main spheres was on the Joint Line working expresses to York. In 1896 the class inaugurated the epic making non-stop run to North Walsham using oil-firing. Rous-Martin found that the singles climbed Brentwood Bank more than the 2-4-0s. See Ahrons. Nine locomotives were withdrawn between 1901 and 1903; the surviving eight locomotives in the 770-series were transferred to the duplicate list in July 1904, had their number prefixed with a "0".
The remaining fourteen were withdrawn between 1904 and 1907. J. Holden locomotives – Great Eastern Railway Society