GE Aviation, a subsidiary of General Electric, is headquartered in Evendale, outside Cincinnati. GE Aviation is among the top aircraft engine suppliers, offers engines for the majority of commercial aircraft. GE Aviation is part of the General Electric conglomerate, one of the world's largest corporations; the division operated under the name of General Electric Aircraft Engines until September 2005. GE Aviation's main competitors in the engine market are Pratt & Whitney. GE operates two joint ventures with Safran Aircraft Engines of France, CFM International and CFM Materials. General Electric had a long history in steam turbine work. In 1903 they hired Sanford Alexander Moss, who started the development of turbosuperchargers at GE; this led to a series of record-breaking flights over the next ten years. At first the role of high-altitude flight was limited, but in the years prior to WWII they became standard equipment on all military aircraft. GE was a world leader in this technology; this work made them the natural industrial partner to develop jet engines when Frank Whittle's W.1 engine was demonstrated to Hap Arnold in 1941.
A production license was arranged in September, several of the existing W.1 test engines shipped to the US for study, where they were converted to US manufacture as the I-A. GE started production of improved versions. Early jet engine work took place at GE's Syracuse, NY and Lynn, MA plants, but soon concentrated at the Lynn plants. On 31 July 1945 the Lynn plant became the "Aircraft Gas Turbine Division". GE was unable to deliver enough engines for Army and Navy demand, production of the I-40 was handed to Allison Engines in 1944. After the war ended, the Army canceled its orders for GE-built J33s and turned the entire production over to Allison, the Syracuse plant closed; these changes in fortune led to debate within the company about carrying on in the aircraft engine market. However, the engineers at Lynn pressed ahead with development of a new engine, the TG-180, designated J35 by the US military. Development funds were allotted in 1946 for a more powerful version of the same design, the TG-190.
This engine emerged as the famed General Electric J47, which saw great demand for several military aircraft. J47 production ran to 30,000 engines by the time the lines closed down in 1956. Further development of the J47 by Patrick Clarke in 1957 led to the J73, from there into the much more powerful J79; the J79 was GE's second "hit", leading to a production run of 17,000 in several different countries. The GE and Lockheed team that developed the J79 and the F-104 Mach 2 fighter aircraft received the 1958 Collier Trophy for outstanding technical achievement in aviation. Other successes followed, including the T58, T64 turboshaft engines, J85 and F404 turbojets; the TF39 was the first high-bypass turbofan engine. Entered into the C-5 Galaxy contest in 1964 against similar designs from Curtiss-Wright and Pratt & Whitney, GE's entry was selected as the winner during the final down-select in 1965; this led to a civilian model, the CF6, offered for the Lockheed L-1011 and McDonnell Douglas DC-10 projects.
Although Lockheed changed their engine to the Rolls-Royce RB211, the DC-10 continued with the CF6, this success led to widespread sales on many large aircraft including the Boeing 747. Another military-to-civilian success followed when GE was selected to supply engines for the S-3 Viking and Fairchild Republic A-10 Thunderbolt II, developing a small high-bypass engine using technologies from the TF39; the resulting TF34 was adapted to become the CF34, whose wide variety of models powers many of the regional jets flying today. In the early 1970s, GE was selected to develop a modern turboshaft engine for helicopter use, the T700, it has been further developed as the CT7 turboprop engine for regional transports. In 1974 GE entered into an agreement with Snecma of France, forming CFM International to jointly produce a new mid-sized turbofan, which emerged as the CFM56. A 50/50 joint partnership was formed with a new plant in OH to produce the design. At first sales were difficult to come by, the project was due to be cancelled.
Only two weeks before this was to happen, in March 1979, several companies selected the CFM56 to re-engine their existing Douglas DC-8 fleets. By July 2010, CFM International had delivered their 21,000th engine of the CFM56 family, with an ongoing production rate of 1250 per year, against a four-year production backlog; the success of the CFM led GE to join in several similar partnerships, including Garrett AiResearch for the CFE CFE738, Pratt & Whitney on the Engine Alliance GP7000, more Honda for the GE Honda Aero Engines small turbofan project. GE continued development of their own lines, introducing new civilian models like the GE90, military designs like the General Electric F110. Then-GEAE were selected by Boeing to power its new 787. GE Aviation's offering is the GEnx, a development of the GE90. GE Aviation has a two-year exclusivity on the Boeing 747-8; the Lynn facility continues to assemble jet engines for the United States Department of Defense
Boiler (power generation)
A boiler or steam generator is a device used to create steam by applying heat energy to water. Although the definitions are somewhat flexible, it can be said that older steam generators were termed boilers and worked at low to medium pressure but, at pressures above this, it is more usual to speak of a steam generator. A boiler or steam generator is used; the form and size depends on the application: mobile steam engines such as steam locomotives, portable engines and steam-powered road vehicles use a smaller boiler that forms an integral part of the vehicle. A notable exception is the steam-powered fireless locomotive, where separately-generated steam is transferred to a receiver on the locomotive; the steam generator or boiler is an integral component of a steam engine when considered as a prime mover. However it needs to be treated separately, as to some extent a variety of generator types can be combined with a variety of engine units. A boiler incorporates a furnace in order to burn the fuel and generate heat.
The generated heat is transferred to water to make the process of boiling. This produces saturated steam at a rate which can vary according to the pressure above the boiling water; the higher the furnace temperature, the faster the steam production. The saturated steam thus produced can either be used to produce power via a turbine and alternator, or else may be further superheated to a higher temperature. Any remaining heat in the combustion gases can either be evacuated or made to pass through an economiser, the role of, to warm the feed water before it reaches the boiler. For the first Newcomen engine of 1712, the boiler was little more than large brewer's kettle installed beneath the power cylinder; because the engine's power was derived from the vacuum produced by condensation of the steam, the requirement was for large volumes of steam at low pressure hardly more than 1 psi The whole boiler was set into brickwork which retained some heat. A voluminous coal fire was lit on a grate beneath the dished pan which gave a small heating surface.
In models, notably by John Smeaton, heating surface was increased by making the gases heat the boiler sides, passing through a flue. Smeaton further lengthened the path of the gases by means of a spiral labyrinth flue beneath the boiler; these under-fired boilers were used in various forms throughout the 18th Century. Some were of round section. A longer version on a rectangular plan was developed around 1775 by Watt; this is what is today known as a three-pass boiler, the fire heating the underside, the gases passing through a central square-section tubular flue and around the boiler sides. An early proponent of the cylindrical form was the British engineer John Blakey, who proposed his design in 1774. Another early proponent was the American engineer, Oliver Evans, who rightly recognised that the cylindrical form was the best from the point of view of mechanical resistance and towards the end of the 18th Century began to incorporate it into his projects. Inspired by the writings on Leupold's "high-pressure" engine scheme that appeared in encyclopaedic works from 1725, Evans favoured "strong steam" i.e. non condensing engines in which the steam pressure alone drove the piston and was exhausted to atmosphere.
The advantage of strong steam as he saw it was that more work could be done by smaller volumes of steam. To this end he developed a long cylindrical wrought iron horizontal boiler into, incorporated a single fire tube, at one end of, placed the fire grate; the gas flow was reversed into a passage or flue beneath the boiler barrel divided to return through side flues to join again at the chimney. Evans incorporated his cylindrical boiler into several engines, both mobile. Due to space and weight considerations the latter were one-pass exhausting directly from fire tube to chimney. Another proponent of "strong steam" at that time was Richard Trevithick, his boilers worked at 40–50 psi and were at first of hemispherical cylindrical form. From 1804 onwards Trevithick produced a small two-pass or return flue boiler for semi-portable and locomotive engines; the Cornish boiler developed around 1812 by Richard Trevithick was both stronger and more efficient than the simple boilers which preceded it. It consisted of a cylindrical water tank around 27 feet long and 7 feet in diameter, had a coal fire grate placed at one end of a single cylindrical tube about three feet wide which passed longitudinally inside the tank.
The fire was tended from one end and the hot gases from it travelled along the tube and out of the other end, to be circulated back along flues running along the outside a third time beneath the boiler barrel before being expelled into a chimney. This was improved upon by another 3-pass boiler, the Lancashire boiler which had a pair of furnaces in separate tubes side-by-side; this was an important improvement since each furnace could be stoked at different times, allowing one to be cleaned while the o
The water-water energetic reactor, or VVER is a series of pressurised water reactor designs developed in the Soviet Union, now Russia, by OKB Gidropress. VVER were developed before the 1970s, have been continually updated; as a result, the name VVER is associated with a wide variety of reactor designs spanning from generation I reactors to modern generation III+ designs. Power output ranges with designs of up to 1700 MWe in development. VVER power stations have been installed in Russia and the former Soviet Union, but in China, Germany and Iran. Countries that are planning to introduce VVER reactors include Bangladesh, Egypt and Turkey; the earliest VVERs were built before 1970. The VVER-440 Model V230 was the most common design; the V230 employs six primary coolant loops each with a horizontal steam generator. A modified version of VVER-440, Model V213, was a product of the first nuclear safety standards adopted by Soviet designers; this model includes added emergency core cooling and auxiliary feedwater systems as well as upgraded accident localization systems.
The larger VVER-1000 was developed after 1975 and is a four-loop system housed in a containment-type structure with a spray steam suppression system. VVER reactor designs have been elaborated to incorporate automatic control, passive safety and containment systems associated with Western third generation nuclear reactors; the VVER-1200 is the version offered for construction, being an evolution of the VVER-1000 with increased power output to about 1200 MWe and providing additional passive safety features. In 2012, Rosatom stated that in the future it intended to certify the VVER with the British and U. S. regulatory authorities, though was unlikely to apply for a British licence before 2015. The Russian abbreviation VVER stands for'water-water energy reactor'; the design is a type of pressurised water reactor. The main distinguishing features of the VVER compared to other PWRs are: Horizontal steam generators Hexagonal fuel assemblies No bottom penetrations in the pressure vessel High-capacity pressurisers providing a large reactor coolant inventoryReactor fuel rods are immersed in water kept at 15 MPa pressure so that it does not boil at the normal operating temperatures.
Water in the reactor serves both as a coolant and a moderator, an important safety feature. Should coolant circulation fail, the neutron moderation effect of the water diminishes, reducing reaction intensity and compensating for loss of cooling, a condition known as negative void coefficient. Versions of the reactors are encased in massive steel pressure shells. Fuel is low enriched uranium dioxide or equivalent pressed into pellets and assembled into fuel rods. Reactivity is controlled by control rods; these rods are made from a neutron absorbing material and, depending on depth of insertion, hinder the chain reaction. If there is an emergency, a reactor shutdown can be performed by full insertion of the control rods into the core; as stated above, the water in the primary circuits is kept under a constant elevated pressure to avoid its boiling. Since the water transfers all the heat from the core and is irradiated, the integrity of this circuit is crucial. Four main components can be distinguished: Reactor vessel: Water flows through the fuel rod assemblies which are heated by the nuclear chain reaction.
Volume compensator: To keep the water under constant but controlled pressure, the volume compensator regulates the pressure by controlling the equilibrium between saturated steam and water using electrical heating and relief valves. Steam Generator: In the steam generator, the heat from the primary coolant water is used to boil the water in the secondary circuit. Pump: The pump ensures the proper circulation of the water through the circuit. To provide for the continued cooling of the reactor core in emergency situations the primary cooling is designed with redundancy; the secondary circuit consists of different subsystems: Steam Generator: Secondary water is boiled taking heat from the primary circuit. Before entering the turbine remaining water is separated from the steam. Turbine: The expanding steam drives a turbine, which connects to an electrical generator; the turbine is split into low pressure sections. To prevent condensation steam is reheated between these sections. Reactors of the VVER-1000 type deliver 1 GW of electrical power.
Condenser: The steam is cooled and allowed to condense, shedding waste heat into a cooling circuit. Deaerator: Removes gases from the coolant. Pump: The circulation pumps are each driven by their own small steam turbine. To increase efficiency of the process, steam from the turbine is taken to reheat coolant before the deaerator and the steam generator. Water in this circuit is not supposed to be radioactive; the tertiary cooling circuit is an open circuit diverting water from an outside reservoir such as a lake or river. Evaporative cooling towers, cooling basins or ponds transfer the waste heat from the generation circuit into the environment. In most VVERs this heat can be further used for residential and industrial heating. Operational examples of such systems are Bohunice NPP supplying heat to the towns of Trnava and Hlohovec, Temelín NPP supplying heat to a nearby town 5 km
Enhanced oil recovery
Enhanced oil recovery called tertiary recovery, is the extraction of crude oil from an oil field that cannot be extracted otherwise. EOR can extract 30% to 60% or more of a reservoir's oil, compared to 20% to 40% using primary and secondary recovery. According to the US Department of Energy, there are three primary techniques for EOR: thermal, gas injection, chemical injection. More advanced, speculative EOR techniques are sometimes called quaternary recovery. There are three primary techniques of EOR: gas injection, thermal injection, chemical injection. Gas injection, which uses gases such as natural gas, nitrogen, or carbon dioxide, accounts for nearly 60 percent of EOR production in the United States. Thermal injection, which involves the introduction of heat, accounts for 40 percent of EOR production in the United States, with most of it occurring in California. Chemical injection, which can involve the use of long-chained molecules called polymers to increase the effectiveness of waterfloods, accounts for about one percent of EOR production in the United States.
In 2013, a technique called Plasma-Pulse technology was introduced into the United States from Russia. This technique can result in another 50 percent of improvement in existing well production. Gas injection or miscible flooding is presently the most-commonly used approach in enhanced oil recovery. Miscible flooding is a general term for injection processes that introduce miscible gases into the reservoir. A miscible displacement process maintains reservoir pressure and improves oil displacement because the interfacial tension between oil and water is reduced; this refers to removing the interface between the two interacting fluids. This allows for total displacement efficiency. Gases used include natural gas or nitrogen; the fluid most used for miscible displacement is carbon dioxide because it reduces the oil viscosity and is less expensive than liquefied petroleum gas. Oil displacement by carbon dioxide injection relies on the phase behavior of the mixtures of that gas and the crude, which are dependent on reservoir temperature and crude oil composition.
In this approach, various methods are used to heat the crude oil in the formation to reduce its viscosity and/or vaporize part of the oil and thus decrease the mobility ratio. The increased heat increases the permeability of the oil; the heated oil may vaporize and condense forming improved oil. Methods include steam flooding and combustion; these methods improve the displacement efficiency. Steam injection has been used commercially since the 1960s in California fields. In 2011 solar thermal enhanced oil recovery projects were started in California and Oman, this method is similar to thermal EOR but uses a solar array to produce the steam. In July 2015, Petroleum Development Oman and GlassPoint Solar announced that they signed a $600 million agreement to build a 1 GWth solar field on the Amal oilfield; the project, named Miraah, will be the world's largest solar field measured by peak thermal capacity. In November 2017, GlassPoint and Petroleum Development Oman completed construction on the first block of the Miraah solar plant safely on schedule and on budget, delivered steam to the Amal West oilfield.
In November 2017, GlassPoint and Aera Energy announced a joint project to create California's largest solar EOR field at the South Belridge Oil Field, near Bakersfield, California. The facility is projected to produce 12 million barrels of steam per year through a 850MW thermal solar steam generator, it will cut carbon emissions from the facility by 376,000 metric tons per year. Steam flooding is one means of introducing heat to the reservoir by pumping steam into the well with a pattern similar to that of water injection; the steam condenses to hot water. As a result, the oil expands, the viscosity drops, the permeability increases. To ensure success the process has to be cyclical; this is the principal enhanced oil recovery program in use today. Solar EOR is a form of steam flooding that uses solar arrays to concentrate the sun's energy to heat water and generate steam. Solar EOR is proving to be a viable alternative to gas-fired steam production for the oil industry. Fire flooding works best when the oil porosity are high.
Combustion generates the heat within the reservoir itself. Continuous injection of air or other gas mixture with high oxygen content will maintain the flame front; as the fire burns, it moves through the reservoir toward production wells. Heat from the fire helps vaporize reservoir water to steam; the steam, hot water, combustion gas and a bank of distilled solvent all act to drive oil in front of the fire toward production wells. There are three methods of combustion: Dry forward and wet combustion. Dry forward uses an igniter to set fire to the oil; as the fire progresses the oil is pushed away from the fire toward the producing well. In reverse the air injection and the ignition occur from opposite directions. In wet combustion water is turned into steam by the hot rock; this spreads the heat more evenly. The injection of various chemicals as dilute solutions, have been used to aid mobility and the reduction in surface tension. Injection of alkaline or caustic solutions into reservoirs with oil that have organic acids occurring in the oil will result in the production of soap that may lower the interfacial tension enough to increase production.
Injection of a dilute solution of a water-soluble polymer to increas
Schenectady, New York
Schenectady is a city in Schenectady County, New York, United States, of which it is the county seat. As of the 2010 census, the city had a population of 66,135; the name "Schenectady" is derived from a Mohawk word, skahnéhtati, meaning "beyond the pines". Schenectady was founded on the south side of the Mohawk River by Dutch colonists in the 17th century, many from the Albany area, they were prohibited from the fur trade by the Albany monopoly, which kept its control after the English takeover in 1664. Residents of the new village developed farms on strip plots along the river. Connected to the west via the Mohawk River and Erie Canal, Schenectady developed in the 19th century as part of the Mohawk Valley trade and transportation corridor. By 1824 more people worked in manufacturing than agriculture or trade, the city had a cotton mill, processing cotton from the Deep South. Numerous mills in New York had such ties with the South. Through the 19th century, nationally influential companies and industries developed in Schenectady, including General Electric and American Locomotive Company, which were powers into the mid-20th century.
Schenectady was part of emerging technologies, with GE collaborating in the production of nuclear-powered submarines and, in the 21st century, working on other forms of renewable energy. Schenectady is near the confluence of the Mohawk and Hudson rivers, it is in the same metropolitan area as the state capital, about 15 miles southeast. In December 2014, the state announced that the city was one of three sites selected for development of off-reservation casino gambling, under terms of a 2013 state constitutional amendment; the project would redevelop an ALCO brownfield site in the city along the waterfront, with hotels, housing and a marina in addition to the casino. When first encountered by Europeans, the Mohawk Valley was the territory of the Mohawk nation, one of the Five Nations of the Iroquois Confederacy, or Haudenosaunee, they had occupied territory in the region since at least 1100 AD. Starting in the early 1600s the Mohawk moved their settlements closer to the river and by 1629, they had taken over territories on the west bank of the Hudson River that were held by the Algonquian-speaking Mahican people.
In the 1640s, the Mohawk had all on the south side of the Mohawk River. The easternmost one was Ossernenon, located about 9 miles west of New York; when Dutch settlers developed Fort Orange in the Hudson Valley beginning in 1614, the Mohawk called their settlement skahnéhtati, meaning "beyond the pines," referring to a large area of pine barrens that lay between the Mohawk settlements and the Hudson River. About 3200 acres of this unique ecosystem are now protected as the Albany Pine Bush; this word entered the lexicon of the Dutch settlers. The settlers in Fort Orange used skahnéhtati to refer to the new village at the Mohawk flats, which became known as Schenectady. In 1661, Arent van Curler, a Dutch immigrant, bought a big piece of land on the south side of the Mohawk River. Other colonists were given grants of land by the colonial government in this portion of the flat fertile river valley, as part of New Netherland; the settlers recognized that these bottomlands had been cultivated for maize by the Mohawk for centuries.
Van Curler took the largest piece of land. As most early colonists were from the Fort Orange area, they may have anticipated working as fur traders, but the Beverwijck traders kept a monopoly of legal control; the settlers here turned to farming. Their 50-acre lots were unique for the colony, "laid out in strips along the Mohawk River", with the narrow edges fronting the river, as in French colonial style, they relied on rearing wheat. The proprietors and their descendants controlled all the land of the town for generations acting as government until after the Revolutionary War, when representative government was established. From the early days of interaction, early Dutch traders in the valley had unions with Mohawk women, if not always official marriages, their children were raised within the Mohawk community, which had a matrilineal kinship system, considering children born into the mother's clan. Within Mohawk society, biological fathers played minor roles; some mixed-race descendants, such as Jacques Cornelissen Van Slyck and his sister Hilletie van Olinda, who were of Dutch and Mohawk ancestry, became interpreters and intermarried with Dutch colonists.
They gained land in the Schenectady settlement. They were among the few métis who seemed to move from Mohawk to Dutch society, as they were described as "former Indians", although they did not always have an easy time of it. In 1661 Jacques inherited what became known as Van Slyck's Island from his brother Marten, given it by the Mohawk. Van Slyck family descendants retained ownership through the 19th century; because of labor shortages in the colony, some Dutch settlers brought African slaves to the region. In Schenectady, they used them as farm laborers; the English imported slaves and continued with agriculture in the river valley. Traders in Albany kept control of the fur trade after the takeover by the English. In 1664 th
Reuters is an international news organization. It has nearly 200 locations around the world; until 2008, the Reuters news agency formed part of an independent company, Reuters Group plc, a provider of financial market data. Since the acquisition of Reuters Group by the Thomson Corporation in 2008, the Reuters news agency has been a part of Thomson Reuters, making up the media division. Reuters transmits news in English, German, Spanish, Russian, Arabic, Japanese and Chinese, it was established in 1851. The Reuter agency was established in 1851 by Paul Julius Reuter in Britain at the London Royal Exchange. Paul Reuter worked at a book-publishing firm in Berlin and was involved in distributing radical pamphlets at the beginning of the Revolutions in 1848; these publications brought much attention to Reuter, who in 1850 developed a prototype news service in Aachen using homing pigeons and electric telegraphy from 1851 on in order to transmit messages between Brussels and Aachen, in what today is Aachen's Reuters House.
Upon moving to England, he founded Reuter's Telegram Company in 1851. Headquartered in London, the company covered commercial news, serving banks, brokerage houses, business firms; the first newspaper client to subscribe was the London Morning Advertiser in 1858. Afterwards more newspapers signed up, with Britannica Encyclopedia writing that "the value of Reuters to newspapers lay not only in the financial news it provided but in its ability to be the first to report on stories of international importance." Reuter's agency built a reputation in Europe and the rest of the world as the first to report news scoops from abroad. Reuters was the first to report Abraham Lincoln's assassination in Europe, for instance, in 1865. In 1872, Reuters expanded into the far east, followed by South America in 1874. Both expansions were made possible by advances in overland telegraphs and undersea cables. In 1883, Reuters began transmitting messages electrically to London newspapers. In 1923, Reuters began using radio to transmit a pioneering act.
In 1925, The Press Association of Great Britain acquired a majority interest in Reuters, full ownership some years later. During the world wars, The Guardian reported that Reuters "came under pressure from the British government to serve national interests. In 1941 Reuters deflected the pressure by restructuring itself as a private company." The new owners formed the Reuters Trust. In 1941, the PA sold half of Reuters to the Newspaper Proprietors' Association, co-ownership was expanded in 1947 to associations that represented daily newspapers in New Zealand and Australia; the Reuters Trust Principles were put in place to maintain the company's independence. At that point, Reuters had become "one of the world's major news agencies, supplying both text and images to newspapers, other news agencies, radio and television broadcasters." At that point, it directly or through national news agencies provided service "to most countries, reaching all the world's leading newspapers and many thousands of smaller ones," according to Britannica.
In 1961, Reuters scooped news of the erection of the Berlin Wall. Reuters was one of the first news agencies to transmit financial data over oceans via computers in the 1960s. In 1973, Reuters "began making computer-terminal displays of foreign-exchange rates available to clients." In 1981, Reuters began making electronic transactions on its computer network and afterwards developed a number of electronic brokerage and trading services. Reuters was floated as a public company in 1984, when Reuters Trust was listed on the stock exchanges such as the London Stock Exchange and NASDAQ. Reuters published the first story of the Berlin Wall being breached in 1989; the share price grew during the dotcom boom fell after the banking troubles in 2001. In 2002, Brittanica wrote that most news throughout the world came from three major agencies: the Associated Press and Agence France-Presse. Reuters merged with Thomson Corporation in Canada in 2008. In 2009, Thomson Reuters withdrew from the LSE and the NASDAQ, instead listing its shares on the Toronto Stock Exchange and the New York Stock Exchange.
The last surviving member of the Reuters family founders, Baroness de Reuter, died at age 96 on 25 January 2009. The parent company Thomson Reuters is headquartered in Toronto, provides financial information to clients while maintaining its traditional news-agency business. In 2012, Thomson Reuters appointed Jim Smith as CEO; every major news outlet in the world subscribed to Reuters as of 2014. Reuters operated in more than 200 cities in 94 countries in about 20 languages as of 2014. In July 2016, Thomson Reuters agreed to sell its intellectual property and science operation for $3.55 billion to private equity firms. In October 2016, Thomson Reuters announced relocations to Toronto; as part of cuts and restructuring, in November 2016, Thomson Reuters Corp. eliminated 2,000 worldwide jobs out of its around 50,000 employees. Reuters employs 600 photojournalists in about 200 locations worldwide. Reuters journalists use the Reuters Handbook of Journalism as a guide for fair presentation and disclosure of relevant interests, to maintain the values of integrity and freedom upon which their reputation for reliability, accuracy and exclusivity relies.
In May 2000, Kurt Schork, an American reporter, was killed in an ambush while on assignment in Sierra Leone. In April and August 2003, news cameramen Taras Protsyuk and Mazen Dana were killed in separate incidents by U. S. troops in Iraq. In July 2007, Namir Noor-Eldeen and Saeed Chmagh were killed when they w
Petrochemicals are chemical products derived from petroleum. Some chemical compounds made from petroleum are obtained from other fossil fuels, such as coal or natural gas, or renewable sources such as corn, palm fruit or sugar cane; the two most common petrochemical classes are aromatics. Oil refineries produce aromatics by fluid catalytic cracking of petroleum fractions. Chemical plants produce olefins by steam cracking of natural gas liquids like propane. Aromatics are produced by catalytic reforming of naphtha. Olefins and aromatics are the building-blocks for a wide range of materials such as solvents and adhesives. Olefins are the basis for polymers and oligomers used in plastics, fibers, elastomers and gels. Global ethylene and propylene production are about 115 million tonnes and 70 million tonnes per annum, respectively. Aromatics production is 70 million tonnes; the largest petrochemical industries are located in the Western Europe. There is substantial inter-regional petrochemical trade.
Primary petrochemicals are divided into three groups depending on their chemical structure: Olefins includes Ethene, Propene and butadiene. Ethylene and propylene are important sources of industrial plastics products. Butadiene is used in making synthetic rubber. Aromatics includes Benzene and xylenes, as a whole referred to as BTX and obtained from petroleum refineries by extraction from the reformate produced in catalytic reformers using Naphtha obtained from petroleum refineries. Benzene is a raw material for dyes and synthetic detergents, benzene and toluene for isocyanates MDI and TDI used in making polyurethanes. Manufacturers use xylenes to produce synthetic fibers. Synthesis gas is a mixture of carbon hydrogen used to make ammonia and methanol. Ammonia is used to make the fertilizer urea and methanol is used as a solvent and chemical intermediate. Steam crackers are not to be confused with steam reforming plants used to produce hydrogen and ammonia. Methane, ethane and butanes obtained from natural gas processing plants.
Methanol and formaldehyde. In 2007, the amounts of ethylene and propylene produced in steam crackers were about 115 Mt and 70 Mt, respectively; the output ethylene capacity of large steam crackers ranged up to as much as 1.0 – 1.5 Mt per year. The adjacent diagram schematically depicts the major hydrocarbon sources and processes used in producing petrochemicals. Like commodity chemicals, petrochemicals are made on a large scale. Petrochemical manufacturing units differ from commodity chemical plants in that they produce a number of related products. Compare this with specialty chemical and fine chemical manufacture where products are made in discrete batch processes. Petrochemicals are predominantly made in a few manufacturing locations around the world, for example in Jubail & Yanbu Industrial Cities in Saudi Arabia, Texas & Louisiana in the US, in Teesside in the Northeast of England in the United Kingdom, in Rotterdam in the Netherlands, in Jamnagar & Dahej in Gujarat, India. Not all of the petrochemical or commodity chemical materials produced by the chemical industry are made in one single location but groups of related materials are made in adjacent manufacturing plants to induce industrial symbiosis as well as material and utility efficiency and other economies of scale.
This is known in chemical engineering terminology as integrated manufacturing. Speciality and fine chemical companies are sometimes found in similar manufacturing locations as petrochemicals but, in most cases, they do not need the same level of large scale infrastructure and therefore can be found in multi-sector business parks; the large scale petrochemical manufacturing locations have clusters of manufacturing units that share utilities and large scale infrastructure such as power stations, storage tanks, port facilities and rail terminals. In the United Kingdom for example, there are 4 main locations for such manufacturing: near the River Mersey in Northwest England, on the Humber on the East coast of Yorkshire, in Grangemouth near the Firth of Forth in Scotland and in Teesside as part of the Northeast of England Process Industry Cluster. To demonstrate the clustering and integration, some 50% of the United Kingdom's petrochemical and commodity chemicals are produced by the NEPIC industry cluster companies in Teesside.
In 1835, Henri Victor Regnault, a French chemist left vinyl chloride in the sun and found white solid at the bottom of the flask, polyvinyl chloride. In 1839 Eduard Simon, discovered polystyrene by accident by distilling storax. In 1856, William Henry Perkin discovered Mauveine. In 1888, Friedrich Reinitzer, an Austrian plant scientist observed cholesteryl benzoate had two different melting points. In 1909, Leo Hendrik Baekeland invented bakelite made from formaldehyde. In 1928 synthetic fuels invented using Fischer-Tropsch process. In 1929, Walter Bock invented synthetic rubber Buna-S, made up of styrene and butadiene and used to make car tires. In 1933, Otto Röhm polymerized the first acrylic glass methyl methacrylate. In 1935, Michael Perrin invented polyethylene. After World War II, polypropylene was discovered in the early 1950s. In 1937, Wallace Hume Carothers invented nylon. In 1946, he invented Polyester. Polyethylene terephthalate bottles are made from paraxylene. In 1938, Otto Bayer invented polyurethane.
In 1941, Roy Plu