GLONASS-M

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GLONASS-M[1]
Glonass-M small. CeBIT 2011 Samstag PD 110.jpg
Model of Glonass-M satellite at CeBIT 2011.
DesignerISS Reshetnev
Country of originRussia
OperatorJSC «Navigation-Information Systems»
ApplicationsNavigation
Specifications
Bus3-Axis stabilized Uragan-M[2]
ConstellationGLONASS
Design life7 years[1]
Launch mass1,415 kg (3,120 lb)[1]
Power1250 W[1]
BatteriesNiH2[3]
Equipment3 Cs clocks[3]
FDMA signals: L1OF, L1SF, L2OF and L2SF
CDMA signals: L3OC (s/n 755+)
Space Laser Ranging[3]
RegimeMEO
Production
Built51
Launched47
Operational25
Retired16
Lost6
First launch10 December 2003 (Kosmos 2404)
Last launch3 November 2018 (Kosmos 2529)
Last retirement26 June 2017 (Kosmos 2424)
Related spacecraft
Derived fromGLONASS
← GLONASS GLONASS-K1

GLONASS-M (Russian: ГЛОНАСС-М), also known as Uragan-M (Russian: Ураган-М) (GRAU index 11F654M given to the first two pilot satellites and 14F113 to the rest) are the second generation of Uragan satellite design used as part of the Russian GLONASS radio-based satellite navigation system. Developed by ISS Reshetnev (Reshetnev Information Satellite Systems), it had its debut launch in 2003, and is in the process of being phased out. Its production is expected to finish in 2015 and as of July, 2015, its last launch was expected in late 2017. It is an evolution of the previous Uragan (GRAU Index 11F654) second-generation satellites, improving accuracy, increasing power, extending the design life and adding the FDMA L2OF open signal. The last eight Glonass-M spacecraft in production include the new CDMA L3OC open signal.

Design[edit]

It used a 3-axis stabilized pressurized bus with two solar panels, a propulsion module and a payload module.[4] At 1,415 kilograms (3,120 lb) these are just 2 kg (4.4 lb) heavier than the previous generation, but have 25% more power 1250 W, 230% more design life (7 years), an additional signal (L2OF) and generally improved accuracy.[1] It uses an on-board computer based on a Russian microprocessor reimplementation of the VAX 11/750 architecture: the Angstrem К1839 [ru].[5]

The Uragan-M are usually launched in trios, and due to the close distance, the radios of the three would interfere with each other, meaning that the ground segment can only command one satellite at a time. Setting sun pointing attitude for power and then Earth pointing attitude for communications for a single unit takes about 5 hours. Since the radio contact window with ground control is between 4 and 6 hours, ground control can not control all spacecrafts in a single pass. The on-board computer in the Uragan-M can put the spacecraft in sun pointing mode autonomously, and does many of the start up processes so the ground segment can take control and process the Earth pointing mode.[6]

The payload consists of L-Band navigation signals in 25 channels separated by 0.5625 MHz intervals in 2 frequency bands: 1602.5625 - 1615.5 MHz and 1240 - 1260 MHz. EIRP 25 to 27 dBW. Right hand circular polarized.[7] It transmits the FDMA signals L1OF, L1SF, L2OF and L2SF, with the open L2OF being new to the Uragan series. It uses 3 Cs clocks with a clock stability of 1x10−13 (an 5x improvement over the 5x10−13 clock stability of the previous generation Uragan).[3]

In 2011 ISS Reshetnev announced plans to include the new CDMA signal L3OC, first introduced on Glonass-K series, on Glonass-M satellites flown from 2014; three of these enhanced models were launched between 2014 and 2018 (s/n 755 to 757); the remaining four are kept in reserve and will be launched as needed in case of on-orbit failures prior to planned replacement.[8]

History[edit]

The first generation Uragan spacecraft were created under ban of foreign radiation-hardened components and thus had been an inferior product with just 3 years of expected design life.[9] Given the realized average life was just 22 months, and the fleet should have 24 spacecraft, it was necessary to launch more than 7 spacecraft per year to keep the fleet in good health.[10] To this end, the Uragan-M was designed, with an increased design life of 7 years, thanks to the availability of ITAR controlled parts.[11][12][13]

On December 1, 2001, a first generation GLONASS satellite Kosmos 2382 with new flight control and power systems was launched. This satellite was incorrectly named Uragan-M in a RIA Novosti news message issued days before the launch. When contacted by Novosti Kosmonavtiki magazine Roscosmos spokesman said all three launched satellites were first generation versions but one of them featured new upgraded flight control and power systems.[14] Novosti Kosmonavtiki also pointed out the fact that GLONASS-M project had been approved on August 20th, 2001 just three months before Kosmos 2382 launch. RIA Novosti mistake was widely propagated causing confusion regarding which satellite was the first GLONASS-M satellite.

On December 10, 2003, the first Uragan-M was launched by a Proton-K / Briz-M from Baikonur along two Uragan Block IIv satellites. On December 26, 2004 the second Uragan-M was launched by a Proton-K DM-2, also along two Uragan Block IIv satellites. And on December 25, 2005, two Uragan-M were launched along the last Uragan Block IIv satellites.[15][16]

On December 25, 2006 launched the first trio of only Uragan-M. Two launches by late 2007 meant that six additional Uragan-M were added to the fleet. And another six were successfully launched in 2008. On September 12, 2008 Prime Minister Vladimir Putin signed RF Government Resolution on increasing GLONASS Program financing by 67 billion rubles.[15][16] 2009 saw the launch of a single trio of Uragan-M, and with nine spacecraft planned for 2010, full service availability was expected. Regrettably, the third launch, on 5 December 2010, ended in failure, leaving no on-orbit spares.[17]

On October 2, 2011, the first launch of single Uragan-M satellite was performed by a Soyuz-2.1b/Fregat-M which put Kosmos 2474 on orbit from the Plesetsk Cosmodrome. Another Proton-M launched trio and an additional Soyuz-2.1b/Fregat-M launch put the fleet at full operative capacity with 24 healthy satellites.[18] On April 26, 2013 a Soyuz successfully orbited Kosmos 2485, but the Proton-M mission failed spectacularly taking with it a trio of Uragan-M.[19] During 2014, two satellites were launched by Soyuz in March and June.

On a May 28, 2014 interview, Nikolay Testoyedov — president of ISS Reshetnev — stated that production of GLONASS-M would end in 2015, with GLONASS-K being exclusively produced after that final batch.[20] In a December 14, 2014 interview with GPS World, he stated that while the original idea was to have just two GLONASS-K1 prototypes to be followed by the GLONASS-K2 production, the Western sanctions limited the supply of radiation resistant electronics. And thus, they had decided to launch an additional nine GLONASS-K1 as fleet replacement while they finished the GLONASS-K2 design.[21] In a May, 2015 presentation, Mr. Testoyedov expected the last GLONASS-M to fly in late 2017.[22] On July 30, 2015, ISS Reshetnev announced that it had completed the last GLONASS-M (N° 61) spacecraft and it was putting it in storage waiting for launch, along with an additional eight already built satellites.[23][24] The current production batch (s/n 755+) is an enhanced GLONASS-M that includes an additional transmitter and antenna for the L3OC CDMA signal. After three successful launches until 2018, the last four spacecraft remain in storage and will be launched as needed in case of on-orbit failures prior to planned replacement.[8]

Uragan-M launches[edit]

Statistics[edit]

Ordered Manufactured Launched Operational Not in service Retired Launch failures To be launched
51 51 47 23 2 16 6 4

Launch history[edit]

Satellites[edit]

Satellite Launch date/time (UTC) Carrier rocket Launch site Launch block Satellite type Serial number Orbital plane Slot Status / Retirement Remarks
Kosmos 2404 10 December 2003
13:53
Proton-K
Briz-M
Baikonur
81/24
32 M 701 I 6 18 June 2009
Kosmos 2413 26 December 2004
13:53
Proton-K
DM-2
Baikonur
200/39
33 M 712 I 8 22 November 2012
Kosmos 2418 25 December 2005
05:07
Proton-K
DM-2
Baikonur
81/24
34 M 713 III 24 18 February 2010
Kosmos 2419 M 714 III 17 24 February 2016
Kosmos 2424 25 December 2006
20:18
Proton-K
DM-2
Baikonur
81/24
35 M 715 II 14 26 June 2017
Kosmos 2425 M 716 II 15 Operational
Kosmos 2426 M 717 II 10 Operational
Kosmos 2431 26 October 2007
07:35
Proton-K
DM-2
Baikonur
81/24
36 M 718 III 17 20 October 2011
Kosmos 2432 M 719 III 20 Operational
Kosmos 2433 M 720 III 19 Operational
Kosmos 2434 25 December 2007
19:32
Proton-M
DM-2
Baikonur
81/24
37 M 721 II 13 Operational
Kosmos 2435 M 722 II 14 12 October 2011
Kosmos 2436 M 723 II 12 Operational
Kosmos 2442 25 September 2008
08:49
Proton-M
DM-2
Baikonur
81/24
38 M 724 III 18 12 February 2014
Kosmos 2443 M 725 III 21 8 July 2016
Kosmos 2444 M 726 III 22 28 November 2012
Kosmos 2447 25 December 2008
10:43
Proton-M
DM-2
Baikonur
81/24
39 M 727 I 3 28 November 2012
Kosmos 2448 M 728 I 2 16 October 2013
Kosmos 2449 M 729 I 8 9 September 2012
Kosmos 2456 14 December 2009
10:38
Proton-M
DM-2
Baikonur
81/24
40 M 730 I 1 Operational
Kosmos 2457 M 733 I 6 Operational
Kosmos 2458 M 734 I 5 Operational
Kosmos 2459 1 March 2010
21:19
Proton-M
DM-2
Baikonur
81/24
41 M 731 III 22 Operational
Kosmos 2460 M 732 III 23 Operational
Kosmos 2461 M 735 III 24 Operational
Kosmos 2464 2 September 2010
00:53
Proton-M
DM-2
Baikonur
81/24
42 M 736 II 16 Operational
Kosmos 2465 M 737 II 12 21 November 2016
Kosmos 2466 M 738 II 16 6 June 2016
N/A 5 December 2010
10:25
Proton-M
DM-03
Baikonur
81/24
43 M 739 N/A Failed to orbit
N/A M 740 N/A Failed to orbit
N/A M 741 N/A Failed to orbit
Kosmos 2474 2 October 2011
20:15
Soyuz-2.1b
Fregat-M
Plesetsk
43/4
45S M 742 I 4 Operational
Kosmos 2475 4 November 2011
12:51
Proton-M
Briz-M
Baikonur
81/24
44 M 743 I 8 Operational
Kosmos 2476 M 744 I 3 Operational
Kosmos 2477 M 745 I 7 Operational
Kosmos 2478 28 November 2011
08:25
Soyuz-2.1b
Fregat-M
Plesetsk
43/4
46S M 746 III 17 13 April 2015 Restored the system to fully operational for the first time since late 1995.
Kosmos 2485 26 April 2013
05:23
Soyuz-2.1b
Fregat-M
Plesetsk
43/4
47S M 747 I 2 Operational
N/A 2 July 2013
02:38
Proton-M
DM-03
Baikonur
81/24
47 M 748 N/A Failed to orbit
N/A M 749 N/A Failed to orbit
N/A M 750 N/A Failed to orbit
Kosmos 2494 23 March 2014
22:54
Soyuz-2.1b
Fregat-M
Plesetsk
43/4
48S M 754 III 18 Operational
Kosmos 2500 14 June 2014
17:16
Soyuz-2.1b
Fregat-M
Plesetsk
43/4
49S M 755 III 21 Operational First spacecraft to include CDMA L3OC transmitter and antenna
Kosmos 2514 7 February 2016
00:21
Soyuz-2.1b
Fregat-M
Plesetsk
43/4
50S M 751 III 17 Operational
Kosmos 2516 29 May 2016
08:44
Soyuz-2.1b
Fregat-M
Plesetsk
43/4
51S M 753 II 11 Operational
Kosmos 2522 22 September 2017
00:02
Soyuz-2.1b
Fregat-M
Plesetsk
43/4
52S M 752 II 14 Operational
Kosmos 2527 17 June 2018
21:46
Soyuz-2.1b
Fregat-M
Plesetsk
43/4
53S M 756 I 5 Operational
Kosmos 2529 3 November 2018
20:17
Soyuz-2.1b
Fregat-M
Plesetsk
43/4
54S M 757 II 15 In commissioning

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e Testoyedov, Nikolay (2015-05-18). "Space Navigation in Russia: History of Development" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2015-07-16. Retrieved 2015-07-15.
  2. ^ Krebs, Gunter Dirk (2015-03-06). "Uragan-M (GLONASS-M, 14F113)". Retrieved 2015-07-23.
  3. ^ a b c d "GLONASS Space Segment Status and Modernization" (PDF). ISS Reshetnev. 2012-11-09. Retrieved 2015-07-16.
  4. ^ Zak, Anatoly. "Uragan". RussianSpaceWeb.com. Retrieved 2015-07-23.
  5. ^ "Модула-2 в российском космосе" [Modula-2 in the Russian space]. Archived from the original on 2013-12-10. Retrieved 2015-07-23.
  6. ^ "The GLONASS system space segment" (PDF). Information Satellite Systems. ISS Reshetnev. March 2008. p. 10. Retrieved 2015-07-23.
  7. ^ "Glonass Quicklook". NASA. Retrieved 2015-07-23.
  8. ^ a b Peslyak, Alexey (1 November 2017). "Производитель "Глонасс": в 2021 году создадим импортонезависимый спутник" [GLONASS designer: we will create a completely Russian satellite by 2021] (in Russian). TASS. Retrieved 28 October 2018.
  9. ^ Cheberko, Ivan (2015-05-21). "Из спутников "Глонасс" уберут импортные комплектующие" [GLONASS Satellites to Remove Foreign Components] (in Russian). Izvestia. Retrieved 2015-07-16.
  10. ^ Johnson, Nicholas L. (November 1994). "GLONASS Spacecraft" (PDF). GPS World. p. 51. Retrieved 2015-07-23.
  11. ^ Harvey, Brian (2007). "Military programs". The Rebirth of the Russian Space Program (1st ed.). Germany: Springer. p. 129. ISBN 978-0-387-71354-0.
  12. ^ "Satellite-based navigation" (PDF). Information Satellite Systems. ISS Reshetnev. June 2007. p. 7. Retrieved 2015-07-23.
  13. ^ "Glonass-K – a prospective satellite of the current GLONASS system" (PDF). Information Satellite Systems. ISS Reshetnev. October 2007. p. 10. Retrieved 2015-07-23.
  14. ^ "«Глонасс-М» будет еще не скоро" [GLONASS-M not that soon] (in Russian). Novosti Kosmonavtiki. December 2001. Archived from the original on 7 November 2018. Retrieved 7 November 2018.
  15. ^ a b "Glonass". Russian Forces. 2013-05-01. Retrieved 2013-07-23.
  16. ^ a b "History of GLONASS development". NIS GLONASS. Retrieved 2015-07-23.
  17. ^ "Russia clears Proton to resume flying in December". Spaceflight Now. 2010-12-10. Retrieved 2013-07-23.
  18. ^ Podvig, Pavel (2011-11-28). "Glonass system is almost complete after successful Glonass-M launch". Retrieved 2015-07-23.
  19. ^ Zak, Anatoly. "Proton accident with GLONASS satellites". RussianSpaceWeb.com. Archived from the original on 2015-08-12. Retrieved 2015-07-23.
  20. ^ "Производство ГЛОНАСС-М решено прекратить в 2015 году" [Production of GLONASS-M to be finished in 2015]. 2014-03-28. Retrieved 2015-07-16.
  21. ^ "Sanctions Delay Russia's GLONASS-K2 Program". GPS World. 2014-12-17. Retrieved 2015-07-16.
  22. ^ "First Launch of GLONASS-K2 Satellite Planned for 2018". GPS World. 2015-04-02. Retrieved 2015-07-16.
  23. ^ "Glonass-M – a chapter in the history of satellite navigation". JSC Information Satellite Systems. 2015-07-30. Retrieved 2015-08-13.
  24. ^ "Russia stops manufacturing of Glonass-M navigation satellites". ITAR-TASS. 2015-07-30. Retrieved 2015-08-20.