Commonwealth of Independent States
The Commonwealth of Independent States is a regional intergovernmental organization of 10 post-Soviet republics in Eurasia formed following the dissolution of the Soviet Union. It has an area of 20,368,759 km² and has an estimated population of 239,796,010; the CIS encourages cooperation in economical and military affairs and has certain powers to coordinate trade, finance and security. It has promoted cooperation on cross-border crime prevention; the CIS has its origins in the Soviet Union, which replaced the old Russian Empire in 1917 when it was established by the 1922 Treaty and Declaration of the Creation of the USSR by the Russian SFSR, Byelorussian SSR and Ukrainian SSR. When the USSR began to fall in 1991, the founding republics signed the Belavezha Accords on 8 December 1991, declaring the Soviet Union would cease to exist and proclaimed the CIS in its place. A few days the Alma-Ata Protocol was signed, which declared that Soviet Union was dissolved and that the Russian Federation was to be its successor state.
The Baltic states, which regard their membership in the Soviet Union as an illegal occupation, chose not to participate. Georgia withdrew its membership in 2008. Ukraine, which participated as an associate member, ended its participation in CIS statutory bodies on 19 May 2018. Eight of the nine CIS member states participate in the CIS Free Trade Area. Three organizations are under the overview of the CIS, namely the Collective Security Treaty Organization, the Eurasian Economic Union. While the first and the second are military and economic alliances, the third aims to reach a supranational union of Russia and Belarus with a common government, currency and so on. In March 1991, Mikhail Gorbachev, the president of the Soviet Union, proposed a federation by holding a referendum to preserve the Union as the Union of Sovereign States; the new treaty signing never happened as the Communist Party hardliners staged an attempted coup in August that year. Following the events of August's failed coup, the republics had declared their independence fearing another coup.
A week after the Ukrainian independence referendum was held, which kept the chances of the Soviet Union staying together low, the Commonwealth of Independent States was founded in its place on 8 December 1991 by the Byelorussian SSR, the Russian SFSR, the Ukrainian SSR, when the leaders of the three republics met at the Belovezhskaya Pushcha Natural Reserve, about 50 km north of Brest in Belarus, signed the "Agreement Establishing the Commonwealth of Independent States", known as the Creation Agreement. The CIS announced that the new organization would be open to all republics of the former Soviet Union, to other nations sharing the same goals; the CIS charter stated that all the members were sovereign and independent nations and thereby abolished the Soviet Union. On 21 December 1991, the leaders of eight additional former Soviet Republics signed the Alma-Ata Protocol which can either be interpreted as expanding the CIS to these states or the proper foundation or refoundation date of the CIS, thus bringing the number of participating countries to 11.
Georgia joined two years in December 1993. At this point, 12 of the 15 former Soviet Republics participated in the CIS; the three Baltic states did not, reflecting their governments' and people's view that the post-1940 Soviet occupation of their territory was illegitimate. The CIS and Soviet Union legally co-existed with each other until 26 December 1991, when Soviet President Gorbachev stepped down dissolving the Soviet Union; this was followed by Ivan Korotchenya becoming Executive Secretary of the CIS on the same day. After the end of the dissolution process of the Soviet Union and the Central Asian republics were weakened economically and faced declines in GDP. Post-Soviet states underwent economic privatisation; the process of Eurasian integration began after the break-up of the Soviet Union to salvage economic ties with Post-Soviet republics. On 22 January 1993, the Charter of the CIS were signed, setting up the different institutions of the CIS, their functions, the rules and statutes of the CIS.
The Charter defined that all countries having ratified the Agreement on the Establishment of the CIS and its relevant Protocol would be considered to be founding states of the CIS, as well as that only countries ratifying the Charter would be considered to be member states of the CIS. Other states can participate as associate members or observers, if accepted as such by a decision of the Council of Heads of State to the CIS. All the founding states, apart from Ukraine and Turkmenistan, ratified the Charter of the CIS and became member states of it. Ukraine and Turkmenistan kept participating in the CIS, without being member states of it. Ukraine became an associate member of the CIS Economic Union in April 1994, Turkmenistan became an associate member of the CIS in August 2005. Georgia left the CIS altogether in 2009 and Ukraine stopped participating in 2018. During a speech at Moscow State University in 1994, the President of Kazakhstan, Nursultan Nazarbayev, suggested the idea of creating a "common defense" space within the CIS Nazarbayev idea was seen as a way to bolster trade, boost investments in the region, serve as a counterweight to t
Holden Special Vehicles
Holden Special Vehicles is the designated performance vehicle partner of Australian marque, Holden. Established in 1987 and based in Clayton, the company modified Holden models such as the standard-wheelbase Commodore, long-wheelbase Caprice and commercial Ute for domestic and export sale. Over the years, Holden Special Vehicles had modified other non-Holden cars within the General Motors portfolio, in low volumes. Cars produced by Holden Special Vehicles have, in the main, been marketed under the HSV brand name. However, in the early years, some have retailed under the Holden name in Australia whereas most cars for export have retailed under different names. Holden and Tom Walkinshaw Racing – an operation owned by Scottish racing-car driver and entrepreneur Tom Walkinshaw – established HSV as a joint venture in 1987. HSV replaced the Holden Dealer Team special-vehicles operation run by Peter Brock, after Holden severed its ties with HDT in February 1987 following the Energy Polarizer and "HDT Director" controversies.
With the more recent demise of TWR's global companies, HSV still remains a partnership between Holden and Walkinshaw, the joint ownership company being Premoso Pty Ltd. Over the years, HSV has built an array of modified vehicles, most of which have been based on Holden models powered by either Holden or GM sourced V8 engines; the first car developed by HSV was the Holden VL Commodore SS Group A SV of 1988, badged and sold by Holden for Group A touring car racing homologation purposes. It went on to win the 1990 Bathurst 1000 race; the first car developed and sold as an HSV was the SV88. HSV will begin converting Chevrolet Camaro muscle cars and Silverado pick-ups from left-hand-drive to right-hand-drive to GM's factory standards from the middle of 2018; the cars will be sold with a factory warranty via selected Holden dealerships. To cope with the expansion, HSV will move into new premises in Clayton, in early 2018, it expects to boost job numbers from 130 to 150 staff once production ramps up.
The following is an alphabetical listing of the most notable and popular nameplates used by HSV. AvalancheThe HSV Avalanche is an all-wheel drive crossover SUV, produced from 2003 to 2005. Based on the Holden Adventra LX8 crossover wagon, the Avalanche range incorporated a dual-cab utility model known as the Avalanche XUV, derived from the Holden Crewman Cross8; the Avalanche has been built over the following series: Y Series Z Series ClubSportThe HSV Clubsport or ClubSport is a full size sports sedan that has represented the brand's highest volume seller since its introduction in 1990. It was based on the mainstream Commodore range and has been the entry-level HSV model except between 1995 and 1998, when that role was filled by the Manta range. In 1999, HSV introduced a higher specification known as the "R8"; the Clubsport has been built over the following series: VN VP VR VS VT VX Y Series Z Series E Series Gen-F CoupéThe HSV Coupé is a high performance grand tourer, produced from 2001 to 2006.
It was based on the Coupé adaptation of the third generation Holden Commodore. Its standard model range included the GTO and GTS. In 2004, the GTS was discontinued and the all-wheel drive Coupé4 introduced. Limited edition models included the GTO GTO Signature; the Coupé has been built over the following series: VX VX Series II VZ GrangeThe HSV Grange is a full size luxury sedan and it was based on the luxury Holden Statesman and Caprice twins. The Grange has represented the HSV brand's most top of luxury offering to date. Since 1997, this nameplate has replaced both Caprice models; the Grange has been built over the following series: VS WH Y Series Z Series E Series Gen-F GTSThe HSV GTS is a full size high performance sedan, based on the mainstream Commodore range. Excluding the special V6-engined editions sold in New Zealand in the VN and VP series, the proper and original V8-engined GTS was introduced in Australia in 1992 with the VP series; the GTS has represented the HSV brand's most powerful offering to date.
With the exception of the Z Series, when it was not part of the range, the GTS has been built over the following series: In 1990, HSV built special V6-engined GTS models for New Zealand in the VN and VP series. VP VR VS VT VX Y Series E Series Gen-F MalooThe HSV Maloo is a performance utility, produced since 1990 and was based on the Holden Ute, its distinguishing features have been high-performance V8 engines and full body kits. The name "Maloo" means "thunder" in an Aboriginal language, it is said that former HSV managing director, John Crennan, coined the name for the vehicle after reading a book on Aboriginal Australians. In 2001, HSV introduced a higher "R8" specification. In June 2006, a regular production Z Series Maloo R8 broke the record for the world's fastest production performance pickup, at 271 km/h, beating the previous record holder, a Dodge Ram SRT-10 by 22 km/h; the Maloo has been built over the following series: VG VP VR VS VU Y Series Z Series E Series Gen-F The most powerful and developed version was the Gen-F 430 kW GTS Maloo, launched in November 2014.
GM Korea Company is South Korea's third largest automobile manufacturer and a subsidiary of General Motors. GM Korea's roots go back to the former Daewoo, split from its parent company, Daewoo Group, in 2001, it has 3 manufacturing facilities in South Korea as well as a vehicle assembly facility in Vietnam. In addition, GM Korea provides region and brand-specific vehicle assembly kits for assembly by GM affiliates in the United States, Brazil, Colombia and Mexico. In 2008, GM Korea built more than 1.9 million vehicles, including CKD products. It now produces vehicles and kits for Chevrolet and Buick that are offered in more than 150 markets on six continents. GM Korea has design, research & development facilities that are involved in development for various GM products, above all small-size cars. GM Korea's roots go back to the remnants of the Korean War and Shinjin Motors, which launched its business by rebuilding scrapped US military vehicles. Shinjin Motor was first established as National Motor in 1937 in Bupyeong-gu, Japanese Korea.
After changing its name to Saenara Motor in 1962, Saenara Motor was bought by Shinjin Industrial in 1965, which changed its name to Shinjin Motor after establishing a partnership with Toyota. After Toyota's withdrawal in 1972, Shinjin Motor changed its name to GM Korea in 1972 with General Motors purchasing a 50% stake in the company from Toyota in 1972. Korean Development Bank, the company's creditor, took over management in 1976 as the company found itself unable to cope with competition from Hyundai and Kia. After the Daewoo Group gained control in 1982, the name was changed once more to Daewoo Motor. In the early 1990s the company started to expand throughout the world; until 1996 all Daewoo cars were based on GM-designed models. After the Asian financial crisis reached South Korea in 1997, Daewoo took over the troubled SUV manufacturer SsangYong in 1998, but ran into financial trouble and was forced to sell the company off in 2001 to GM affiliate SAIC. In 2001, General Motors bought most of Daewoo Motor's assets to form GM Daewoo Technology.
The new company started operations on October 17, 2002, with GM and its partners Suzuki and SAIC holding a stake of 66.7% with investments of US$400 million. The GM holding was formally purchased by GM Holden Ltd which holds a seat on the board and is responsible for GM Daewoo; the remaining equity stake of 33.3% was held by Korea Development Bank and several other Korean creditors with investments of US$197 million. The deal did not include 15 plants, including Daewoo's oldest plant in Bupyeong-gu, now operated under the name Incheon Motor Company as a supplier to GM Daewoo. In 2004, Tata Motors purchased Daewoo Truck from GM. In February 2005, GM invested US$49 million to raise its share in the company to 48.2%. In 2010, General Motors owned 82.9%, SAIC 9.9%, the Daewoo Motor Creditors Committee the remaining 7.2%. On November 25, 2003, the design center was relocated to the new two-story building at the Bupyeong-gu headquarters; the first car to be produced under the GM Daewoo nameplate was the 2002 Daewoo Lacetti, replacing the Nubira.
This car was developed in South Korea under the Daewoo Motor era, but it became a GM world car, sold under many different marques all around the globe. After a few years without any new cars to present, in 2005, GM Daewoo introduced the Holden-based Statesman luxury car replacing the discontinued Daewoo Chairman; the third generation of Matiz was introduced, refreshed by the GM Daewoo design team, an evolution of the four-door Kalos appeared: the Gentra. In early 2006, GM Daewoo presented the replacement of the Magnus. GM Daewoo's official press releases says that Tosca is an acronym for "Tomorrow Standard Car"; the end of the same year, GM Daewoo introduced the Winstorm, its first proper sport utility vehicle, which was, as the Lacetti, sold worldwide under different brands and names including Opel, Chevrolet, GMC and Holden, Saturn before the demise of that brand in 2010. It featured a common rail Diesel engine for the first time in a Daewoo vehicle, in addition to regular four and six cylinder gasoline engines.
The diesel engine design is licensed from the Italian engine maker VM Motori. 2007 saw the introduction of the Lacetti and Kalos hatchback facelift's wagon version, becoming the Gentra X. For 2008, GM Daewoo introduced the first Korean-branded roadster: the G2X sports car, a badge-engineered Pontiac Solstice/Saturn Sky, based on the GM Kappa platform, started to sell the Opel Antara under the name of Winstorm MaXX; the Statesman flagship was replaced by the new Veritas, now based on the Holden Caprice V. Late 2008 and early 2009 were a major period for GM Daewoo with the introduction of the all-new Lacetti Premiere, based on the Chevrolet Cruze, a important compact car for GM divisions worldwide; the newly rechristened third generation of the Matiz was added to the range in 2009 as the Chevrolet Spark. 2010 saw Alpheon, a local version of the Buick LaCrosse. On January 20, 2011, General Motors announced that GM Daewoo would be renamed GM Korea "to reflect heightened status in global operations of GM," effective March 2011.
Most of the former Daewoo products were rebadged as Chevrolets. GM's luxury division Cadillac is available in South Korea. In 2011 the Daewoo Tosca was replaced by a locally built version of the Chevrolet Malibu. More the lowest incomes behind a lower levels of sales, had to
Uz-DaewooAuto was a joint venture founded in 1992 between the Uzbek state owned UzAvtosanoat. The company began production of vehicles on 19 July 1996, at the new assembly plant located in Asaka; the company produced vehicles under the brand name Uz-Daewoo and became important in the markets of the CIS area. The initiative to establish the Uzbek automobile industry goes back to the early 1990s and the administration of State President Islam Abdugʻaniyevich Karimov. GM Uzbekistan is the successor of Uz-DaewooAuto since March 2008, although the company continued selling cars under the Uz-Daewoo brand until October 2015, when it was replaced with the new Ravon brand. Daewoo Damas Daewoo Tico Daewoo Nexia Daewoo Matiz Daewoo Gentra Following Daewoo's collapse in 2001, resulting change of ownership, GM Uzbekistan was established in March 2008 as a new replacement joint venture, the Nexia and Matiz were sold under the Chevrolet badge together with an extended range of GM Korea Chevrolet models produced at the Asaka factory.
The joint venture is owned by General Motors Corporation. GM Uzbekistan produced 106,334 units during the first half of 2011. Uz-DaewooAvto homepage
Cadillac is a division of the American automobile manufacturer General Motors that designs and builds luxury vehicles. Its major markets are the United States and China. Cadillac vehicles are distributed in 34 additional markets worldwide. Cadillac automobiles are at the top of the luxury field within the United States. In 2017, Cadillac's U. S. sales were 156,440 vehicles and its global sales were 356,467 vehicles. Cadillac is among the first automobile brands in the world, second in the United States only to fellow GM marque Buick; the firm was founded from the remnants of the Henry Ford Company in 1902. It was named after Antoine de la Mothe Cadillac, who founded Michigan; the Cadillac crest is based on his coat of arms. By the time General Motors purchased the company in 1909, Cadillac had established itself as one of America's premier luxury carmakers; the complete interchangeability of its precision parts had allowed it to lay the foundation for the modern mass production of automobiles. It was at the forefront of technological advances, introducing full electrical systems, the clashless manual transmission and the steel roof.
The brand developed three engines, with its V8 setting the standard for the American automotive industry. Cadillac had the first U. S. car to win the Royal Automobile Club of the United Kingdom's Dewar Trophy by demonstrating the interchangeability of its component parts during a reliability test in 1908. It won the trophy again in 1912 for incorporating electric starting and lighting in a production automobile. Cadillac was formed from the remnants of the Henry Ford Company. After a dispute between Henry Ford and his investors, Ford left the company along with several of his key partners in March 1902. Ford's financial backers William Murphy and Lemuel Bowen called in engineer Henry M. Leland of Leland & Faulconer Manufacturing Company to appraise the plant and equipment in preparation for liquidating the company's assets. Instead, Leland persuaded the pair to continue manufacturing automobiles using Leland's proven single-cylinder engine. A new company called the Cadillac Automobile Company was established on 22 August 1902, re-purposing the Henry Ford Company factory at Cass Street and Amsterdam Avenue.
It was named after French explorer Antoine Laumet de La Mothe, sieur de Cadillac, who had founded Detroit in 1701. Cadillac's first automobiles, the Runabout and Tonneau, were completed in October 1902, they were two-seat horseless carriages powered by a 10 hp single-cylinder engine. They were identical to the 1903 Ford Model A. Many sources state. Cadillac displayed the new vehicles at the New York Auto Show in January 1903, where the vehicles impressed the crowds enough to gather over 2,000 firm orders. Cadillac's biggest selling point was precision manufacturing, therefore, reliability. Runabout Rear-entrance tonneau Special bodies The Cadillac Automobile Company merged with Leland & Faulconer Manufacturing, forming The Cadillac Motor Company in 1905. From its earliest years, Cadillac aimed for precision engineering and stylish luxury finishes, causing its cars to be ranked amongst the finest in the United States. Cadillac was the first volume manufacturer of a enclosed car, in 1906. Cadillac participated in the 1908 interchangeability test in the United Kingdom, was awarded the Dewar Trophy for the most important advancement of the year in the automobile industry.
In 1909, Cadillac was purchased by the General Motors conglomerate. Cadillac became General Motors' prestige division, devoted to the production of large luxury vehicles; the Cadillac line was GM's default marque for "commercial chassis" institutional vehicles, such as limousines, ambulances and funeral home flower cars, the last three of which were custom-built by aftermarket manufacturers. It became positioned at the top of GM's vehicle hierarchy, above Buick, Oldsmobile and Chevrolet. In 1912, Cadillac was the first automobile manufacturer to incorporate an electrical system enabling starting and lighting. In 1915, Cadillac introduced a 90-degree flathead V8 engine with 70 horsepower at 2400 rpm and 180 pound force-feet of torque, allowing its cars to attain 65 miles per hour; this was faster. Cadillac pioneered the dual-plane V8 crankshaft in 1918. In 1928 Cadillac introduced the first clashless Synchro-Mesh manual transmission, utilizing constant mesh gears. In 1930 Cadillac implemented the first V-16 engine, with a 45-degree overhead valve, 452 cubic inches, 165 horsepower, one of the most powerful and quietest engines in the United States.
The development and introduction of the V8, V16 and V-12 helped to make Cadillac the "Standard of the World". A model of the V8 engine, with overhead valves, set the standard for the entire American automotive industry in 1949. In July 1917, the United States Army needed a dependable staff car and chose the Cadillac Type 55 Touring Model after exhaustive tests on the Mexican border. 2,350 of the cars were supplied for use in France by officers of the American Expeditionary Force in World War I. General Motors of Canada had built Cadillacs from 1923 until 1936 and LaSalles from 1927 until 1935. Pre-World War II Cadillacs were well-built, mass-produced luxury cars aimed at an upper-class market. In the 1930s, Cadillac added cars with V12 and V16 engines to their range, many of which were fi
CAMI Automotive is wholly owned by General Motors Canada. The plant occupies 570 acres and has 1,700,000 square feet of floor space of which 400,000 square feet was added in 2016 as part of a $560 million investment. CAMI uses the CAMI Production System, a set of operating philosophies that guide team members in manufacturing vehicles; the basis of the system is working in teams performing standardized work. This is based on the Japanese production system, built on a team concept. Prior to December 2009, ownership of CAMI was split 50-50% between Suzuki and General Motors of Canada Ltd. the former withdrew from the venture after it stopped production of its XL7 models at CAMI in June 2009 due to poor sales. CAMI was an independently incorporated joint venture of automobile manufacturing in Ingersoll, Ontario and formed the third step of GM's three-pronged initiative of the mid-1980s to capture and practice the Japanese mystique of automotive management; the other two were United Australian Automobile Industries between Toyota and Holden in Australia, NUMMI in California with Toyota and GM, the latter a wholly owned alternative to apply its learnings into practice.
CAMI is now the sole survivor. In Nov 2009, GM announced to invest US$85 million investment at the plant, raising production by 40,000 vehicles to 240,000 by adding a third shift, resulting in the recall of about 150 laid-off autoworkers in preparation of the 2010 Chevrolet Equinox and GMC Terrain. From 2013 the plant has produced vehicles based on GM's Theta platform for crossover SUVs. In 2013 GM announced a US$200 million investment for a new body shop and flexible manufacturing equipment and tooling to support future production. In early 2015, GM announced to invest US$450 million in the plant in preparation for production of the next generation Chevrolet Equinox; the amount included C$190 million at C$370 million in vendor tooling with suppliers. In January 2017, GM announced it would cut 625 workers as a result of shifting production of the second generation GMC Terrain to Mexico and phasing out the second generation Chevrolet Equinox earlier than planned. CAMI Automotive has 2,800 hourly and 300 salaried employees in early 2017 before the layoff.
CAMI supplied unfinished bodies of Chevrolet Equinox to GM's Oshawa Car Assembly for painting and final assembly. The arrangement ended after the production of the second generation Chevrolet Equinox ceased in 2017. In response to the Terrain's shifting and due to the production of the Equinox in two plants in Mexico, workers went on a strike demanding CAMI become the main assembly point of the Equinox; the strike ended in October 16, 2017. In the 2005 Harbour Report, CAMI was ranked No. 3 in truck assembly in the Small SUV category of the 45 auto assembly plants in North America. Recognized as the most efficient plant in North America four years in a row J. D. Power Silver Plant Award for the Americas – June 2014 Landfill Free status achieved in January 2014 Clean50 -'Leaders in Sustainability' Top 15 Project winner - September 2015 Best GMNA Plant in Wiring Warranty Performance – February 2014 The plant produces the Chevrolet Equinox; the GMC Terrain was produced until the middle of 2017 when production of the all-new 2018 GMC Terrain was transferred to San Luis Potosi Assembly.
1986 - CAMI Automotive established 1989 - Production of J1, M2 begins 1993 - Total CAMI production reaches 500,000. 1994 - Production of M3 begins. 1996 - Total CAMI production reaches 1.5 million vehicles. 1998 - Production of J2 begins and CAMI receives ISO 9002 registration for its Quality Management System. 2000 - CAMI receives ISO 14001 registration for its Environmental Management System. 2003 - Total CAMI production reaches 11.5 million vehicles. 2004 - Production of Chevrolet Equinox begins. 2005 - Production of Pontiac Torrent begins. 2006 - Production of Suzuki XL7 begins. 2009 - Production of Suzuki XL7 put on indefinite hold. 2009 - Production of GMC Terrain begins. 2009 - Suzuki withdraws from venture. 2016 - Plant expansion 2017 - Production start of third generation Equinox. United Australian Automobile Industries — A similar joint venture in Australia between Toyota and GM-Holden from 1989 to 1996. NUMMI — A similar joint venture in United States between Toyota and General Motors from 1984 to 2009.
Buick is a division of the American automobile manufacturer General Motors. It has the distinction of being among the first American marques of automobiles, was the company that established General Motors in 1908. Before the establishment of General Motors, GM founder William C. Durant had served as Buick's general manager and major investor. Buick has the distinction of being the first production automobile maker in the world to equip its cars with overhead valve engines, which it did in 1904. For much of its existence in the North American market, Buick has been marketed as a premium automobile brand, selling large and luxury vehicles positioned above GM's mainstream brands, while below the flagship luxury Cadillac division. In addition to wealthier buyers, Buick has had a reputation of appealing to older buyers. In 2015, Buick sold a record for the brand; the main market is China. Buicks are sold in the United States and Mexico. Buick is one of the oldest automobile brands in the world and the oldest in the United States..
The first two Buick automobiles were made in 1899 and 1900 at the "Buick Auto-Vim and Power Company" by chief-engineer Walter Marr, but company owner David Dunbar Buick was reluctant to begin making automobiles, being satisfied with stationary and marine engine production, so Marr left Buick in 1901 to found his own automobile company under his own name. His replacement was Eugene Richard, who applied for a patent in 1902 for Marr's valve-in-head engine, which patent, number 771,095, was awarded to Richard in the name of Buick in 1904. In 1903, the third Buick automobile was made, this time by Richard, but in 1904 Buick, whose company was now called "Buick Motor Company", moved to Flint and Richard stayed behind. Marr was rehired in Flint as chief engineer; that year, 37 Buick automobiles were made, production increasing to 750 in 1905, 1,400 in 1906, 4,641 in 1907, 8,800 in 1908, taking the number one spot away from close competitors Oldsmobile and Maxwell. David Buick incorporated his company as the Buick Motor Company on May 19, 1903, in Detroit, Michigan.
Buick had been financed by friend and fellow automobile enthusiast, Benjamin Briscoe, who in September, 1903 sold control of the business to James H. Whiting, of Flint Wagon Works, in Flint, Michigan. Whiting moved Buick to Flint that summer, to a location across the street from his factory, with the idea of adding Buick's engines to his wagons. David Buick stayed on as a manager, re-hired Walter Marr as chief engineer; the engine Buick and Marr developed for this automobile was a two-cylinder valve-in-head engine of 159 cubic inches, with each cylinder horizontal and opposed to the other by 180 degrees. Whiting built only a few automobiles in 1904, by bringing Buick engines across the street where his workers shoehorned them into his wagons, before running out of capital, causing him to bring in William C. Durant that year as controlling investor. Durant spent the next four years turning Buick into the biggest-selling automobile brand in the US. Durant was co-owner in Flint, with Josiah Dallas Dort, of the Durant-Dort Carriage Company, the largest carriage-making company in the country and one of the largest in the world.
Durant moved most production to the former Durant-Dort Imperial Wheel plant in Jackson, Michigan in 1905. Buick continued car production in Jackson through 1907; the Jackson plant continued production with Buick trucks through 1912. David Buick sold his stock upon departure in 1906, died in modest circumstances 25 years later. In 1907, Durant agreed to supply motors to R. S. McLaughlin in Canada, an auto maker, in 1908 he founded General Motors. Between 1899 and 1902, two prototype vehicles were built in Detroit, Michigan by Walter Lorenzo Marr; some documentation exists of the 1901 or 1902 prototype with tiller steering similar to the Oldsmobile Curved Dash. In mid-1904, another prototype was constructed for an endurance run, which convinced Whiting to authorize production of the first models offered to the public; the architecture of this prototype was the basis for the Model B. The first Buick made for sale, the 1904 Model B, was built in Flint, Michigan at a re-purposed factory, known as the Flint Wagon Works.
There were 37 Buicks made that none of which survive. There are, two replicas in existence: the 1904 endurance car, at the Buick Gallery & Research Center in Flint, a Model B assembled by an enthusiast in California for the division's 100th anniversary. Both of these vehicles use various parts from Buicks of that early era, as well as fabricated parts; these vehicles were each constructed with the two known surviving 1904 engines. The early success of Buick is attributed to what they called the valve-in-head engine, now known as the overhead valve, engine patented by Eugene Richard and developed by Richard and Marr; the Model F weighed 1,800 lbs. The creation of General Motors is attributed in part to the success of Buick, so it can be said Marr and Richard's designs directly led to GM; the power tr