Terrestrial television is a type of television broadcasting in which the television signal is transmitted by radio waves from the terrestrial transmitter of a television station to a TV receiver having an antenna. The term terrestrial is more common in Europe and Latin America, while in the United States it is called broadcast or over-the-air television; the term "terrestrial" is used to distinguish this type from the newer technologies of satellite television, in which the television signal is transmitted to the receiver from an overhead satellite, cable television, in which the signal is carried to the receiver through a cable. Terrestrial television was the first technology used for television broadcasting, with the first public television broadcast from Schenectady, NY, in January, 1928; the BBC began broadcasting in 1929 and by 1930 many radio stations had a regular schedule of experimental television programmes. However, these early experimental systems had insufficient picture quality to attract the public, due to their mechanical scan technology, television did not become widespread until after World War II with the advent of electronic scan television technology.
The television broadcasting business followed the model of radio networks, with local television stations in cities and towns affiliated with television networks, either commercial or government-controlled, which provided content. Television broadcasts were in black and white until the transition to color television in the 1950s and 60s. There was no other method of television delivery until the 1950s with the beginnings of cable television and community antenna television. CATV was only a re-broadcast of over-the-air signals. With the widespread adoption of cable across the United States in the 1970s and 1980s, viewing of terrestrial television broadcasts has been in decline. A slight increase in use began after the 2009 final conversion to digital terrestrial television broadcasts, which offer HDTV image quality as an alternative to CATV for cord cutters. Following the ST61 conference, UHF frequencies were first used in the UK in 1964 with the introduction of BBC2. In UK, VHF channels were kept on the old 405-line system, while UHF was used for 625-line broadcasts.
Television broadcasting in the 405-line system continued after the introduction of four analogue programmes in the UHF bands until the last 405-line transmitters were switched off on January 6, 1985. VHF Band III was used in other countries around Europe for PAL broadcasts until planned phase out and switchover to digital television; the success of analogue terrestrial television across Europe varied from country to country. Although each country had rights to a certain number of frequencies by virtue of the ST61 plan, not all of them were brought into service. In 1941, the first NTSC standard was introduced by the National Television System Committee; this standard defined a transmission scheme for a black and white picture with 525 lines of vertical resolution at 60 fields per second. In the earl of the first tragic 1950s, this standard was superseded by a backwards-compatible standard for color television; the NTSC standard was being used in the Americas as well as Japan until the introduction of digital terrestrial television.
While Mexico have ended all its analogue television broadcasts and the US and Canada have shut down nearly all of their analogue TV stations, the NTSC standard continues to be used in the rest of Latin American countries while testing their DTT platform. In the late 1990s and early 2000s, the Advanced Television Systems Committee developed the ATSC standard for digital high definition terrestrial transmission; this standard was adopted by many American countries, including the United States, Dominican Republic, Mexico, El Salvador and Honduras. The Pan-American terrestrial television operates on analog channels 2 through 6, 7 through 13, 14 through 51. Unlike with analog transmission, ATSC channel numbers do not correspond to radio frequencies. Instead, a virtual channel is defined as part of the ATSC stream metadata so that a station can transmit on any frequency but still show the same channel number. Additionally, free-to-air television repeaters and signal boosters can be used to rebroadcast a terrestrial television signal using an otherwise unused channel to cover areas with marginal reception.
Analog television channels 2 through 6, 7 through 13, 14 through 51 are only used for LPTV translator stations in the U. S. Channels 52 through 69 are still used by some existing stations, but these channels must be vacated if telecommunications companies notify the stations to vacate that signal spectrum. By convention, broadcast television signals are transmitted with horizontal polarization. Terrestrial television broadcast in Asia started as early as 1939 in Japan through a series of experiments done by NHK Broadcasting Institute of Technology. However, these experiments were interrupted by the beginning of the World War II in the Pacific. On February 1, 1953, NHK began broadcasting. On August 28, 1953, Nippon TV, the first commercial television broadcaster in Asia was launched. Meanwhile, in the Philippines, Alto Broadcasting System, the
GMA Pinoy TV
GMA Pinoy TV is a Filipino television channel incorporated in February 2004 by GMA Network and its subsidiaries, GMA International and GMA Worldwide Inc. It was launched in 2005 in Japan and the USA, as a 24-hour international Filipino television station; the channel is targeted towards their families in the Philippines. The network airs shows produced by GMA Network. Drawing on programming from its flagship station in the Philippines, the network's programs can be seen worldwide; the programming of GMA Pinoy TV consists of shows from the Philippines from GMA Network as well as aired shows, documentaries and sports events from the Philippines. Most weekend shows are up to date, with the exception of some shows that air on a one-episode delay basis. GMA Pinoy TV was first launched in Japan on March 2005, it was launched in several parts of the United States in the same year, such as San Francisco, Los Angeles, the states of the East Coast. The official GMA Pinoy TV launch in America happened in San Francisco on 23 July 2005 and was aired on SOP the following Sunday, 31 July 2005.
In 2006, the so-called Filipino colors—red and yellow—were used for the graphics and since December 2006, the on-screen graphics of GMA Pinoy TV is being changed every Christmas season. In 2008, GMA Pinoy TV was known for the program Dyesebel. Due to the success of the program, GMA Pinoy TV launched a billboard in Daly City, there for the entirety of the show; the logo was seen in the upper right and left corners at varied times. It was settled in 2007. In 2007, GMA Pinoy TV was known better known because of Marimar. Due to the success of the program, GMA Pinoy TV once changed graphics, used from 2007 to October 2010. An associated second channel, GMA Life TV, was launched in March 2008 and soon grew to 109,000 subscribers. GMA Pinoy TV had 225,000 subscribers as of September 2009; the percent of subscribers has gone up 34 % according to Inc.. In 2010, an amount of PhP253 million for the 1st Quarter of 2010's revenues was posted in the Annual Stockholders Meeting of GMA Network for GMA Pinoy TV and GMA Life TV.
In May 2010, GMA Network were acclaimed for their performance of covering the elections. The said election coverage was aired live on GMA Pinoy TV on 9 May. Based on the September 2010 report posted by the Corporate Communications Department of GMA Network, GMA Pinoy TV had a total of 256,000 subscribers while its sister channel, GMA Life TV had 122,000 subscribers. On 10 October 2010, GMA Pinoy TV changed graphics with a theme that recognizes and is towards Pinoys all over the world, it has a globe symbolizing how far GMA Pinoy TV has gone since the start. In Christmas 2010, GMA Pinoy TV used the slogan "Isang Maligayang at Masaganang Paskong Pinoy, Kapuso." This was the first time that GMA Pinoy TV used another Christmas slogan besides the GMA Network Christmas 2010 slogan, "Isang Pagkilala sa Puso ng Pilipino Ngayong Pasko." For the 3rd Quarter of 2010, GMA Pinoy TV had around 261,000 subscribers posted. As of December 2010, GMA Pinoy TV and GMA Life TV has expanded into the following: Chicago, Illinois.
C. Maryland, Virginia. In a report published showing GMA Network's revenues for 2010 with a total of PhP 14.299 billion, GMA Life TV has 125,000 subscribers while GMA Pinoy TV has an accounted 274,000 subscribers. In 2011, the delays of the shows on GMA Pinoy TV receded from months of delay to two days delay for primetime shows and three days delay for afternoon dramas. On the first quarter of 2011, GMA Pinoy TV and its home network in the Philippines revealed a new logo with minor changes; the "GMA" letters part is seen to be more embossed and the logo has a "glow" effect. On 28 February 2011 for the first time in GMA International's history, two programs that started airing on GMA Pinoy TV that were still running with new episodes were switched over to GMA Life TV, where it will air its new episodes to occupy free time slots; this led to replays of other Kapuso shows. The shows included Love ni Mister, Love ni Misis. On 10 March 2011, GMA Pinoy TV and GMA Life TV expanded more in the United States in Florida.
The Florida counties that are part of the extension include Brevard, Lake, Orange, Seminole and Volusia. On 5 April 2011, though launched in the Philippines on 27 March 2011, GMA Pinoy TV launched the 2011 summer slogan of GMA "Halo-Halo Ang Summer Saya"; this took some time to launch on GMA Pinoy TV because significant edits were made in which some of the programs on the original version were not slated to air on GMA Pinoy TV like Man vs. Beast but beside that, the international version of the station ID still included planned shows of Summer 2011. In April 2011, GMA Pinoy TV is now being broadcast by COX Communications in Arizona, areas like Tucson and Arizona, on Channel 482. In a report dated 16 May 2011 regarding the consolidated gross revenues of GMA Network, Inc. in the 1st quarter of 2011, it is noted that GMA Pinoy TV's subscriptions grew by 10 percent and GMA Life TV's subscriptions grew by 2 percent. This consisted of PhP 230 million worth of subscription revenues. In another recent report with regards to GMA Network's consolidated revenues in the 2nd quarter of 2011, GMA Pinoy TV's subscribers grew to 27
Channel V Philippines
Channel Philippines is a 24-hour music-entertainment television network owned by STAR TV and Fox Networks Group Philippines in partnership with TV Xtreme Broadcasting Company and Northern Star Productions as network provider. Channel was first launched in 1994 in the Philippines, as MTV Asia made the decision to split from STAR TV and form its own satellite TV channel in Asia, it began airing on UHF Channel 23, licensed to Ermita Electronics Corporation, as the Philippines' first UHF TV station devoted to re-broadcasting a foreign satellite channel after MTV Asia was started as a music channel in 1992. It was started as the "Next Generation of Music". Channel in the Philippines aired only a few of the English-language shows like The Ride, Over The Edge, By Demand, Sigaw Manila but aired several of their Mandarin Chinese or Indian counterparts. In 1995, the station launched the first Channel V Philippines VJ Hunt for aspiring Filipino VJs; the channel left UHF 23 on July 1996, when EEC turned over to AMCARA Broadcasting Network, an ABS-CBN affiliate, creating Studio 23.
Before GMA Network launched Citynet Television in August 1995, GMA Network signed a contract with Star TV Network to broadcast selected taped Channel International TV shows from 1995 until its closure in March 1999. This programming made Trey Farley, Joey Mead, Amanda Griffin, Michael Zerrudo and the late Francis Magalona former VJ-TV hosts of part-Filipino descent, familiar to Citynet viewers. From 1998 until its closure in March 1999, Asian Top 20 Countdown was the only rebroadcast Channel show. On December 15, 1999, STAR TV leased the airtime of Citynet to launch Channel Philippines through EMC known as Entertainment Music Channel. Part of the strategy to localize Channel was with programming produced both by Star TV and GMA through Alta Productions and Probe Productions, Inc; the marketing image was shifted from music to more live-action products. Idents from this time frame used the brackets in the name, it dimensionalized the name Channel, making it into an object that could became an environment for its broadcast design and a stage for live events.
Additional shifts in programming occurred at the relaunch a shift to genre-specific rather than continuous hits, with special graphics for each set. In the middle of 2001, Channel V Philippines shut down due to the intense competition from MTV Philippines provided by Nation Broadcasting Corporation, a PLDT sister company, when PLDT bought a controlling stake of GMA Network; the channel was shut down on July 25, 2001. Eight years STAR TV and Makisig Network/Herma Group Inc announced an agreement to expand Channel in the Philippines and to launch Tagalog-language content geared toward youth audiences, with an emphasis on local VJs, Pinoy music, local bands and artists. Makisig now included Channel International in its basic tier of cable channels, expanding the reach of the channel to more than 600,000 households across the Philippines; the channel's program mix is 60% Hong Kong satellite feed and 40% local feed versions of the more popular programs. Local content includes Pinoy music; the channel's creative director is Jose Javier Reyes.
Makisig continued to expand the reach of Channel, moving it down from channel 59 to 25 on SkyCable and adding online content. On March 26, 2011, Philippines went temporarily off-the-air after its CEO Ilocos Sur representative Ronald Singson, was jailed in Hong Kong for possession of illegal drugs, its international counterpart took its place temporarily until April 25, 2011, when it returned on Destiny Cable through Northern Star Productions. On July 13, 2012 Channel Philippines ended its final broadcast due to unknown reasons revert to Channel Asia. In 2015, Fox Networks Group's Philippine branch took over the rights on Philippines branding, but this time as a sponsor for its upcoming concerts and events and using local feed for the teaser or promos to other Fox Networks Group Philippines' channels and special programming such as Fusion Music Festivals. Note: Some of the Channel V International programs air on V Philippines with the V orange logo except from V Philippines produced programs only airs during night time, early morning and during commercials.
Backtrack Pinas Bente Uno Boys Night Out Circuit TV Dyip Ni Juan Encore Filipino Poker Tour Hits All You Can In Command The G Spot PopKorn Scene and Heard Philippines Sound Reel V Buzz V Life V Scene V Trends V Tunes Pinas V'd Out V Tunes Pinas Live Luis "Chavit" Singson – Owner, Northern Star Production Rommel Singson – Channel Head Cora Dacong – overall in charge of production Arnel Balauro – Production Manager Jed Velasco – Events Head, Sales/Advertising Francis Quilantang – Production Head Joanna Cayanan – Head Writer Kimm Hadap – Events and Marketing Coordinator Kerstie Sorbito – Writer Angela Realica – Marketing Josh Garcia – Marketing Judith Evaristo - Sales Director Angelo Valenzuela - Sales Manager Pam Reyes - Events and Marketing Manager Arnel Balauro – Production Manager Francis Quilantang – Production Head Kerstie Sorbito – Writer Angela Realica – Marketing OfficerMary Joy Simeon-Sales and Marketing Officer Cliff Ho Megan Young Sanya
Tower of Power (transmitter)
Tower of Power is a 777 ft, 100,000 watt TPO communications tower of GMA Network located in Tandang Sora, Barangay Culiat, Quezon City. It serves as a transmitter facility for flagship stations DZBB-TV 7 and DWLS 97.1. The site has a transmitter facility leased by ZOE Broadcasting Network for its flagship DZOE-TV 11, the originating station of GMA News TV; the Tower of Power was constructed on a huge vacant lot in the 3rd Quarter of 1987, as a new edifice for the network and for the preparation for Rainbow Satellite broadcast to replace an old surplus 50-kilowatt transmitter located at the old RBS building in EDSA, to clear TV and FM reception. The tower's construction uses 600 tons of steel from a local steel mill, costing PHP 170 Million pesos for the building of this tower. Antennas are provided to enhance signal strength. After several months of planning, the tower completed in October 1988 and on November 7, 1988, the tower was opened by then-President Corazon Aquino and the GMA Network board of directors.
A grand TV special was started after the inauguration. The slogan GMA-7-POWER was used from November 7 to December 1, 1988 as a station ID; the Tower of Power uses its high-gain corner reflector antennas and UHF panel antennas to produce a wide coverage of Analog and Digital TV reception in Metro Manila, Region 3 and 4-A. It is including Bulacan, Zambales, Bataan, Nueva Ecija, Batangas, Quezon and Rizal in both grades A and B for the broadcasts of DZBB-TV and DZOE-TV. For FM radio, DWLS's signal strength utilized by a circular bay Jampro FM antenna provides listeners with clear FM reception of 25 kilowatts and to spread out in Metro Manila and nearby provinces as well, it serves as a repeater for the transmissions of Channel 27 in Cebu and Davao to relay Channel 11's programmes. The transmitter facility houses television and FM radio transmitters for DZBB-TV, DZOE-TV and DWLS containing sets of transmitter equipment imported by Harris and RCA of the United States, JVC of Japan. At the same time, the satellite downlink facility housed all satellite broadcasts directly to the United States and other countries to produce foreign programmes.
GMA Network DZBB-TV DWLS DZOE-TV Millennium Transmitter List of famous transmission sites List of tallest towers in the world
Epifanio de los Santos Avenue referred to by its acronym EDSA, is a limited-access circumferential highway around Manila, the capital of the Philippines. It is the main thoroughfare in Metro Manila passing through 6 of the capital region's 17 local government units, from north to south, Quezon City, San Juan, Mandaluyong and Pasay. Named after academic Epifanio de los Santos, the road links the North Luzon Expressway at the Balintawak Interchange in the north to the South Luzon Expressway at the Magallanes Interchange in the south, as well as the major financial districts of Makati Central Business District, Ortigas Center and Araneta Center, it is the most congested highway in the metropolis, stretching some 23.8 kilometers. The avenue is a component of Circumferential Road 4 of Manila's arterial road network, National Route 1 of the Philippine highway network and Asian Highway 26 of the Asian highway network; the locations around the avenue were marked with great economic and industrial growth, proven by the fact that all but 2 industrial centers in the Metropolis are directly accessible from the thoroughfare.
The decent economic growth of the areas around the avenue adds a significant volume of traffic on the avenue, in recent estimates, an average of 2.34 million vehicles go through it every day. The avenue is a divided carriageway consisting of 12 lanes, 6 in either direction, with the elevated railroad Manila Metro Rail Transit System serving as its median. Although it is not an expressway, traffic rules and speed limits are implemented to the vehicles that pass along it, it is operated by the Metro Manila Development Authority and is maintained and being repaired by the Department of Public Works and Highways. EDSA starts from the Bonifacio Monument Roundabout in Gracepark, adjacent to the Apolonio Samson Road, the western side of the C-4 Road; the roundabout is the marker of the 1896 Revolution by Andres Bonifacio. The 1.7 kilometers of the road are in Caloocan. The Avenue will enter Quezon City through the Balintawak District, after an intersection with the North Luzon Expressway in the Balintawak Interchange.
EDSA crosses much of the northern part of Quezon City, passing through the Project 6 and Muñoz districts. It curves southwards after crossing the North Avenue-West Avenue Intersection in the Triangle Business Park. On the north side of EDSA is the SM City North EDSA. In front of it is the Eton Centris or Centris Walk. ABS-CBN Broadcasting Center and its transmitter can be seen from EDSA and continues southwards turning westwards until it leaves the Triangle Park after crossing the East Avenue-Timog Avenue Intersection, where the GMA Network Center is located, it continues through the district of Cubao, entering the Araneta Center after crossing the Aurora Boulevard Tunnel. In Cubao, several malls and offices are located, most notably the Smart Araneta Coliseum, the biggest coliseum in Southeast Asia; the Avenue curves southwards and enters the Santolan and Socorro districts, where the twin military bases of Camp Rafael Crame and Camp Aguinaldo, are located. The Greenhills Shopping Center and the Eastwood City are located nearby.
EDSA continues on its route and serves as the boundary of the cities of San Juan and Quezon City. The People Power Monument can be seen on the north side of EDSA in the White Plains Avenue junction. After the 11 kilometers of EDSA in Quezon City, the Avenue will leave the city and enter the City of Mandaluyong. EDSA enters Mandaluyong after crossing the borders of the Ortigas Center. In the Ortigas Center, some notable buildings around the area are the Philippine Overseas Employment Administration building, Robinsons Galleria, SM Megamall, Forum Robinsons, the bronze EDSA Shrine, a memorial church to the 1986 Revolution, it curves smoothly westwards after it crosses the Pioneer Street, crosses the Pasig River via the Guadalupe Bridge and leaving the City of Mandaluyong. It enters the city of Makati after crossing the Pasig River, passing through the districts of Guadalupe and Magallanes. In Guadalupe, EDSA provides access to the Rockwell Center, a major mixed-use business park in Makati; the highway provides quick access to the city of Taguig and the Bonifacio Global City nearby.
After crossing Buendia Avenue, the highway enters the Ayala Center, an important commercial district in the Philippines, where the Greenbelt and Glorietta shopping centers are located. The road curves eastwards, continues on a straight route to the city of Pasay, passing the South Luzon Expressway through Magallanes Interchange. EDSA enters Pasay shortly after crossing SLEX in Makati. In Pasay, the highway provides access to the Ninoy Aquino International Airport via a flyover. EDSA will pass to Pasay Rotonda and continues on a straight route until it crosses to Roxas Boulevard. After crossing Roxas Boulevard, it enters to Bay City reclamation area, where the large SM Mall of Asia is located. EDSA's terminus is at a rotunda in front of the Globe of the SM Mall of Asia; the lead agency that manages the flow of traffic along EDSA is the Metropolitan Manila Development Authority, a government agency under the Office of the President of the Philippines and is advised by the Metro Manila Mayors League.
One of the MMDA's traffic management schemes, in effect on EDSA, among other major thoroughfares in the metropolis, is the Uniform Vehicular Volume Reduction Program. Many have observed that the cause of many traffic jams on EDSA are erring jeepneys. Subsequently, buses have been the target of other traffic management pro
Chief executive officer
The chief executive officer or just chief executive, is the most senior corporate, executive, or administrative officer in charge of managing an organization – an independent legal entity such as a company or nonprofit institution. CEOs lead a range of organizations, including public and private corporations, non-profit organizations and some government organizations; the CEO of a corporation or company reports to the board of directors and is charged with maximizing the value of the entity, which may include maximizing the share price, market share, revenues or another element. In the non-profit and government sector, CEOs aim at achieving outcomes related to the organization's mission, such as reducing poverty, increasing literacy, etc. In the early 21st century, top executives had technical degrees in science, engineering or law; the responsibility of an organization's CEO are set by the organization's board of directors or other authority, depending on the organization's legal structure.
They can be far-reaching or quite limited and are enshrined in a formal delegation of authority. Responsibilities include being a decision maker on strategy and other key policy issues, leader and executor; the communicator role can involve speaking to the press and the rest of the outside world, as well as to the organization's management and employees. As a leader of the company, the CEO or MD advises the board of directors, motivates employees, drives change within the organization; as a manager, the CEO/MD presides over the organization's day-to-day operations. The term refers to the person who makes all the key decisions regarding the company, which includes all sectors and fields of the business, including operations, business development, human resources, etc; the CEO of a company is not the owner of the company. In some countries, there is a dual board system with two separate boards, one executive board for the day-to-day business and one supervisory board for control purposes. In these countries, the CEO presides over the executive board and the chairman presides over the supervisory board, these two roles will always be held by different people.
This ensures a distinction between management by the executive board and governance by the supervisory board. This allows for clear lines of authority; the aim is to prevent a conflict of interest and too much power being concentrated in the hands of one person. In the United States, the board of directors is equivalent to the supervisory board, while the executive board may be known as the executive committee. In the United States, in business, the executive officers are the top officers of a corporation, the chief executive officer being the best-known type; the definition varies. In the case of a sole proprietorship, an executive officer is the sole proprietor. In the case of a partnership, an executive officer is a managing partner, senior partner, or administrative partner. In the case of a limited liability company, executive officer is any manager, or officer. A CEO has several subordinate executives, each of whom has specific functional responsibilities referred to as senior executives, executive officers or corporate officers.
Subordinate executives are given different titles in different organizations, but one common category of subordinate executive, if the CEO is the president, is the vice-president. An organization may have more than one vice-president, each tasked with a different area of responsibility; some organizations have subordinate executive officers who have the word chief in their job title, such as chief operating officer, chief financial officer and chief technology officer. The public relations-focused position of chief reputation officer is sometimes included as one such subordinate executive officer, but, as suggested by Anthony Johndrow, CEO of Reputation Economy Advisors, it can be seen as "simply another way to add emphasis to the role of a modern-day CEO – where they are both the external face of, the driving force behind, an organisation culture". In the US, the term chief executive officer is used in business, whereas the term executive director is used in the not-for-profit sector; these terms are mutually exclusive and refer to distinct legal duties and responsibilities.
Implicit in the use of these titles, is that the public not be misled and the general standard regarding their use be applied. In the UK, chief executive and chief executive officer are used in both business and the charitable sector; as of 2013, the use of the term director for senior charity staff is deprecated to avoid confusion with the legal duties and responsibilities associated with being a charity director or trustee, which are non-executive roles. In the United Kingdom, the term director is used instead of chief officer". Business publicists since the days of Edward Bernays and his client John D. Rockefeller and more the corporate publicists for Henry Ford, promoted the concept of the "celebrity CEO". Business journalists have adopted this approach, which assumes that the corporate achievements in the arena of manufacturing, wer
The Philippines the Republic of the Philippines, is an archipelagic country in Southeast Asia. Situated in the western Pacific Ocean, it consists of about 7,641 islands that are categorized broadly under three main geographical divisions from north to south: Luzon and Mindanao; the capital city of the Philippines is Manila and the most populous city is Quezon City, both part of Metro Manila. Bounded by the South China Sea on the west, the Philippine Sea on the east and the Celebes Sea on the southwest, the Philippines shares maritime borders with Taiwan to the north, Vietnam to the west, Palau to the east, Malaysia and Indonesia to the south; the Philippines' location on the Pacific Ring of Fire and close to the equator makes the Philippines prone to earthquakes and typhoons, but endows it with abundant natural resources and some of the world's greatest biodiversity. The Philippines has an area of 300,000 km2, according to the Philippines Statistical Authority and the WorldBank and, as of 2015, had a population of at least 100 million.
As of January 2018, it is the eighth-most populated country in Asia and the 12th most populated country in the world. 10 million additional Filipinos lived overseas, comprising one of the world's largest diasporas. Multiple ethnicities and cultures are found throughout the islands. In prehistoric times, Negritos were some of the archipelago's earliest inhabitants, they were followed by successive waves of Austronesian peoples. Exchanges with Malay, Indian and Chinese nations occurred. Various competing maritime states were established under the rule of datus, rajahs and lakans; the arrival of Ferdinand Magellan, a Portuguese explorer leading a fleet for the Spanish, in Homonhon, Eastern Samar in 1521 marked the beginning of Hispanic colonization. In 1543, Spanish explorer Ruy López de Villalobos named the archipelago Las Islas Filipinas in honor of Philip II of Spain. With the arrival of Miguel López de Legazpi from Mexico City, in 1565, the first Hispanic settlement in the archipelago was established.
The Philippines became part of the Spanish Empire for more than 300 years. This resulted in Catholicism becoming the dominant religion. During this time, Manila became the western hub of the trans-Pacific trade connecting Asia with Acapulco in the Americas using Manila galleons; as the 19th century gave way to the 20th, the Philippine Revolution followed, which spawned the short-lived First Philippine Republic, followed by the bloody Philippine–American War. The war, as well as the ensuing cholera epidemic, resulted in the deaths of thousands of combatants as well as tens of thousands of civilians. Aside from the period of Japanese occupation, the United States retained sovereignty over the islands until after World War II, when the Philippines was recognized as an independent nation. Since the unitary sovereign state has had a tumultuous experience with democracy, which included the overthrow of a dictatorship by a non-violent revolution; the Philippines is a founding member of the United Nations, World Trade Organization, Association of Southeast Asian Nations, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation forum, the East Asia Summit.
It hosts the headquarters of the Asian Development Bank. The Philippines is considered to be an emerging market and a newly industrialized country, which has an economy transitioning from being based on agriculture to one based more on services and manufacturing. Along with East Timor, the Philippines is one of Southeast Asia's predominantly Christian nations; the Philippines was named in honor of King Philip II of Spain. Spanish explorer Ruy López de Villalobos, during his expedition in 1542, named the islands of Leyte and Samar Felipinas after the then-Prince of Asturias; the name Las Islas Filipinas would be used to cover all the islands of the archipelago. Before that became commonplace, other names such as Islas del Poniente and Magellan's name for the islands San Lázaro were used by the Spanish to refer to the islands; the official name of the Philippines has changed several times in the course of its history. During the Philippine Revolution, the Malolos Congress proclaimed the establishment of the República Filipina or the Philippine Republic.
From the period of the Spanish–American War and the Philippine–American War until the Commonwealth period, American colonial authorities referred to the country as the Philippine Islands, a translation of the Spanish name. Since the end of World War II, the official name of the country has been the Republic of the Philippines. Philippines has gained currency as the common name since being the name used in Article VI of the 1898 Treaty of Paris, with or without the definite article. Discovery in 2018 of stone tools and fossils of butchered animal remains in Rizal, Kalinga has pushed back evidence of early hominins in the archipelago to as early as 709,000 years. However, the metatarsal of the Callao Man, reliably dated by uranium-series dating to 67,000 years ago remains the oldest human remnant found in the archipelago to date; this distinction belonged to the Tabon Man of Palawan, carbon-dated to around 26,500 years ago. Negritos were among the archipelago's earliest inhabitants, but their first settlement in the Philippines has not been reliably dated.
There are several opposing theories regarding the origins of ancient Filipinos. F. Landa Jocano theorizes. Wilhelm Solheim's Island Origin Theory postulates that the peopling of the archipelago transpired via trade networks originating in the Sundaland area around