EMD G22C Series
The EMD G22 Series were first introduced in 1968 to replace the popular G12 along with various improvements. They carried a low per axle weight on their Flexicoil Type-GC trucks and were the first model series to have a low nose as a standard option as well; the G22 series now carried a U or W suffix after the model designation to indicate the type of traction motors. A C indicated six axle trucks; the designations could apply to any kind of export locomotive design of EMD or another licensee of EMD as long as the electrical & mechanical gear was left unaltered. With the introduction of the 645 engine for export models in 1967, the model designation numbers changed by adding 10. To meet customer demands of a six axle version of the popular G12, EMD created the GR12, longer and taller to accommodate the six axle Type-GC trucks. Although the orders lacked for the GR12 due to the weight and size of the locomotive, EMD revised and designed the lighter G22 series model to accommodate the Flexicoil Type-C truck and introducing the new EMD 645 series engine.
With relocation of the batteries within the carbody and increasing the fuel tank capacity, the G22C series was the same length to that of its four axle counterpart, the G22. Production with smaller orders. Several models were introduced: G22CW G22CU G22CU-2 GL22C GL22C-2 The EMD G22CW was first introduced in 1969. Unlike its predecessor GR12, the G22CW now carried a CW suffix which indicated that this model had six axles and traction motors that could fit from standard gauge rails to 5 ft 6 in gauge rails; the G22CW found most of its popularity in Argentina and Sri Lanka, as the largest order were each placed by them with 15 units. Production spanned from July 1976 to November 1990 The EMD G22CU first appeared in 1969. Designed for the narrow gauge market, the G22CU now carried a CU suffix which indicated that this model had six axles and traction motors that could fit from one meter gauge to 5 ft 6 in gauge rails; the G22CU found most of its popularity in Pakistan. Production spanned from February 1969 to June 1982.
Beginning on January 1, 1972, export locomotives now had the option to carry EMD Dash 2 electronics, adding the suffix to the locomotive model. Only Argentina and Taiwan purchased the G22CU-2. Production spanned from March 1992 to August 2001 When most second and third world railroads couldn’t operate standard EMD Locomotives due to their weight, EMD introduced the L suffix which indicated the locomotive had a lightweight frame; the locomotive designation was now changed to GL22C. However, as these locomotives had a much lighter frame, the application of the U or W suffixes no longer applied. Production spanned from December 1971 to May 1977 Being the rarest of the G22C series, the GL22C-2 model combined a lightweight frame and the new EMD Dash 2 electronics. Production was only for with the Queensland Rail being the sole purchaser. New Zealand DF Class 30 Togo Rail S. A CC class 1651 to 1653. Only two general variations have been noticed during the G22C production. Phase 1: Larger frame sill, air reservoir slung under skirting.
Phase 2: Smaller frame sill, air reservoir exposed, two horizontal bars along intake grilles. There have been various as-modifications on railroads as well, but are excluded due to various degrees of completion on the modification; the G22CU/G22CW model is represented in HO Scale by Frateschi trains of Brazil. Due to the accommodation of the motor, the model is not accurate. List of GM-EMD locomotives List of GMD Locomotives EMD G22CU Brazilian Miracle RFFSA ASTARSA Electro-Motive Division Export GM Models Astilleros Argentinos Rio de la Plata S. A. GM Export Models Material Y Construcciones S. A. GM Export Models Henschel und Sohn GmbH GM Export Models Equipamentos Villares S. A. GM Export Models General Motors Diesel Division Export Models Frateschi G22CU HO Scale Model GM G22CU Data Sheet EMD G22CU Article in Portuguese
Electric current collectors are used by trolleybuses, electric locomotives or EMUs to carry electrical power from overhead lines or electrical third rails to the electrical equipment of the vehicles. Those for overhead wires are roof-mounted devices, those for third rails are mounted on the bogies, they have one or more spring-loaded arms that press a collector or contact shoe against the rail or overhead wire. As the vehicle moves, the contact shoe slides along the wire or rail to draw the electricity needed to run the vehicle's motor; the current collector arms are electrically conductive but mounted insulated on the vehicle's roof, side or base. An insulated cable connects the collector with the transformer or motor; the steel rails of the tracks act as the electrical return. Electric vehicles that collect their current from an overhead line system use different forms of one- or two-arm pantograph collectors, bow collectors or trolley poles; the current collection device presses against the underside of the lowest wire of an overhead line system, called a contact wire.
Most overhead supply systems are either DC or single phase AC, using a single wire with return through the grounded running rails. Three phase AC systems use a pair of overhead wires, paired trolley poles. Electric railways with third rails, or fourth rails, in tunnels carry collector shoes projecting laterally, or vertically, from their bogies; the contact shoe may slide on the bottom or on the side. The side running contact shoe is used against the guide bars on rubber-tired metros. A vertical contact shoe is used on ground-level power supply systems, stud contact systems and fourth rail systems. A pair of contact shoes was used on underground current collection systems; the contact shoe on a stud contact system is called a ski collector. The ski collector moves vertically to accommodate slight variations in the height of the studs. Contact shoes may be used on overhead conductor rails, on guide bars or on trolley wires. Most railways use three rails. TRUCK
Railway electrification system
A railway electrification system supplies electric power to railway trains and trams without an on-board prime mover or local fuel supply. Electric railways use electric locomotives to haul passengers or freight in separate cars or electric multiple units, passenger cars with their own motors. Electricity is generated in large and efficient generating stations, transmitted to the railway network and distributed to the trains; some electric railways have their own dedicated generating stations and transmission lines but most purchase power from an electric utility. The railway provides its own distribution lines and transformers. Power is supplied to moving trains with a continuous conductor running along the track that takes one of two forms: overhead line, suspended from poles or towers along the track or from structure or tunnel ceilings. Both overhead wire and third-rail systems use the running rails as the return conductor but some systems use a separate fourth rail for this purpose. In comparison to the principal alternative, the diesel engine, electric railways offer better energy efficiency, lower emissions and lower operating costs.
Electric locomotives are usually quieter, more powerful, more responsive and reliable than diesels. They have an important advantage in tunnels and urban areas; some electric traction systems provide regenerative braking that turns the train's kinetic energy back into electricity and returns it to the supply system to be used by other trains or the general utility grid. While diesel locomotives burn petroleum, electricity can be generated from diverse sources including renewable energy. Disadvantages of electric traction include high capital costs that may be uneconomic on trafficked routes. Different regions may use different supply voltages and frequencies, complicating through service and requiring greater complexity of locomotive power; the limited clearances available under overhead lines may preclude efficient double-stack container service. Railway electrification has increased in the past decades, as of 2012, electrified tracks account for nearly one third of total tracks globally. Electrification systems are classified by three main parameters: Voltage Current Direct current Alternating current Frequency Contact system Third rail Fourth rail Overhead lines Overhead lines plus linear motor Four rail system Five rail systemSelection of an electrification system is based on economics of energy supply and capital cost compared to the revenue obtained for freight and passenger traffic.
Different systems are used for intercity areas. Six of the most used voltages have been selected for European and international standardisation; some of these are independent of the contact system used, so that, for example, 750 V DC may be used with either third rail or overhead lines. There are many other voltage systems used for railway electrification systems around the world, the list of railway electrification systems covers both standard voltage and non-standard voltage systems; the permissible range of voltages allowed for the standardised voltages is as stated in standards BS EN 50163 and IEC 60850. These take into account the number of trains drawing their distance from the substation. Increasing availability of high-voltage semiconductors may allow the use of higher and more efficient DC voltages that heretofore have only been practical with AC. 1,500 V DC is used in Japan, Hong Kong, Republic of Ireland, France, New Zealand, the United States. In Slovakia, there are two narrow-gauge lines in the High Tatras.
In the Netherlands it is used on the main system, alongside 25 kV on the HSL-Zuid and Betuwelijn, 3000 V south of Maastricht. In Portugal, it is used in Denmark on the suburban S-train system. In the United Kingdom, 1,500 V DC was used in 1954 for the Woodhead trans-Pennine route; the system was used for suburban electrification in East London and Manchester, now converted to 25 kV AC. It is now only used for the Wear Metro. In India, 1,500 V DC was the first electrification system launched in 1925 in Mumbai area. Between 2012-2016, the electrification was converted to 25 kV 50 Hz AC, the countrywide system. 3 kV DC is used in Belgium, Spain, the northern Czech Republic, Slovenia, South Africa, former Soviet Union countries and the Netherlands. It was used by the Milwaukee Road from Harlowton, Montana to Seattle-Tacoma, across the Continental Divide and including extensive branch and loop lines in Montana, by the Delaware, Lackawanna & Western Railroad in the United States, the Kolkata suburban railway in India, before it was converted to 25 kV 50 Hz AC. DC volt
M-10003 to M-10006
The Union Pacific Railroad's M-10003, M-10004, M-10005, M-10006 were four identical diesel-electric streamliner train 2-car power sets delivered in May and July 1936 from Pullman-Standard, with prime movers from the Winton Engine division of General Motors Corporation and General Electric generators, control equipment and traction motors. One was for the City of San Francisco, two were for the City of Denver, one was a spare set intended for both routes. In 1939, M-10004 was split and converted into additional boosters for the other sets, now renumbered CD-05, CD-06, CD-07, all running on the City of Denver; the M-10001 power car became the other third booster. In this form, the three power sets ran until they were replaced by E8 locomotives in 1953, at which point they were scrapped; the M-10003 through M-10006 represented the final development of the custom streamlined trainset on the Union Pacific. They followed; as separable and interchangeable cab/booster power sets, they set the path that EMC was to follow with introduction of their E series locomotive sets the following year.
Union Pacific was able to maintain daily service on the Chicago-Denver run for seventeen years by dedicating three locomotive sets to that service and re-purposing power units from M-10001 and M-10004 to provide additional power and keep at least two of the locomotive sets in running condition at any given time. These power sets had stylistic elements in common with the Illinois Central's Green Diamond unit, completed just previous to them. Abandoning the "turret cab" styling of M-10000 through M-10002, these units adopted a new "automobile design" elevated cab, as with the Green Diamond, behind a longer nose than that of the Diamond, they shared a divided front air intake grille that dominated the nose, edged in shining stainless steel. Beneath, the pilot was edged and barred in stainless steel like the Diamond's; the Diamond kept the headlight at the top of the cab, while with these power sets a large headlight tipped the nose. The IC121 Diamond was a single power unit setup with a smaller articulated trainset, in that regard had more in common with the earlier M-10001.
The copious round porthole-style windows on the power units became a "trademark" feature of Union Pacific locomotives for a number of years. The big shiny noses and portholes were imitated in the styling of UP's E2 locomotives from 1937; each power car had a 1,200 hp V16 Winton 201-A engine, a pair of two-axle powered trucks. The rear truck of the first power car and the lead truck of the second power car carried a span bolster to which both power cars were articulated, so they made one unified locomotive of B-B+B-B configuration and a total of 2,400 hp. M-10004 was matched with a trainset of tapered cross-section, low profile articulated cars of the type built for the earlier M-1000x trainsets; the first cars had been built in anticipation of another tapered turret cab locomotive, but Union Pacific decided instead to cancel the proposed turret cab, expand the set to nine cars, match it with a more powerful locomotive set of the newer design. The lounge car of the M-10004 set was built with a food preparation facility occupying its blind rear, revised with a new layout and porthole style rear windows between the train's City of San Francisco and City of Los Angeles service periods.
The M-10005 and M-10006 trainsets were built straight-sided to increase interior space, semi-articulated, shorter by two sleeper cars than the M-10004 set. All of the M-1000x trainsets were lower profile than standard passenger railcars; the most significant change to the City of Denver power sets came in 1939, when they were converted from two-car, 2,400 hp sets to three three-car, 3,600 hp sets using power equipment from M-10001 and M-10004. Other changes included a gyrating signal light installed below the main headlight after the Second World War, the loss of the stainless steel trim on the pilot, the addition of the Chicago and North Western Railway herald to the nose in addition to the Union Pacific one, changed nose-side badges for the route; the original Armour Yellow and Leaf Brown livery was changed incrementally to the modern livery of Armour Yellow and Harbor Mist Gray roof and base, with red trim striping separating the main colors. Color footage of the M-10004 passenger cars in Armour Yellow and Slate Gray livery can be viewed here.
That same footage shows two boosters in the power set, indicating service as City of Denver with the expanded M-10003 power set, an eleven car consist, expanded from the original nine car consist with cars from either the M-10001 or M-10002 set. Slate gray was replaced with Harbor Mist Gray at some point after the mid-1940s. A publicity photo of M-10005 from 1949 shows the trainset with a Harbor Mist Gray roof and a single headlight; the demands of long distance high speed City train service taxed the ability of the M-1000x fleet to meet them. The original 2400 hp power sets with Winton 201A Diesel engines were underpowered for their service requirements and had a short lifespan for mechanical parts, with at best 100,000 miles between piston replacements; that translated to a little over twenty round-trip coast runs and just under fifty round-trip Denver runs. These shortcomings led to various measures including equipment replacements, 50% redundancy in locomotives assigned to the Denver run, consolidating the motive power of locomotive sets for a 50% boost in power for the remaining sets, using a locomotive set built for full-size trains instead of the type matched with the trainset.
Despite the earlier number, the M-10003 was the last completed of the four. This was because the numb
The M-10000 was an early American streamlined passenger trainset that operated for the Union Pacific Railroad from 1934 until 1941. It was built by the Pullman Company, was the first streamlined passenger train to be delivered in the United States, the second to enter regular service after the Pioneer Zephyr of the Chicago and Quincy Railroad; the M-10000 car design built upon the efforts of William Bushnell Stout, a pioneer of all-metal construction for airplanes who adapted metal fuselage design to the Railplane, a lightweight self-propelled railcar built by Pullman-Standard in 1932. The tapered car cross-section, lightweight tubular aluminum space frame construction, Duralumin skin of the Railplane were carried over into the M-10000 design; the streamlined body was developed from a series of wind tunnel tests that were carried out at the University of Michigan. The M-10000 was a three-car trainset, with a combined power/baggage/railway post office car and two trailing passenger coaches; the power car measured 71 feet 9 inches long, followed by coaches measuring a 71 feet.
Including the space between cars, the trainset had a total length of 204 feet 5 inches, with a width of 9 feet 3 inches and a height of 11 feet 11.5 inches at the cab. The aluminum carbodies were constructed to a monocoque design without the structural frame typical of contemporary equipment, the trainset's total weight of 85 tonnes was about the same as a single passenger coach of the time; the two passenger coaches each had a capacity of 60 people. The train was powered by a single 600 horsepower spark-ignited distillate engine built by Winton, a subsidiary of the Electro-Motive Corporation, driving a generator that powered two traction motors on the leading truck of the power car. A diesel engine had been specified, but a suitable model was not ready at the time of M-10000's construction. Union Pacific ordered M-10000 from Pullman in May 1933 at a cost of $230,997, following an analysis of passenger traffic that concluded new, more cost effective equipment than heavyweight passenger cars and steam locomotives was required for maintaining profitability on low-traffic routes.
The trainset was delivered on February 12, 1934, was sent on a publicity tour across the US for the rest of the year, during which about a million people toured it. On January 31, 1935, M-10000 was placed in revenue service, operating as the City of Salina between Kansas City and Salina, Kansas, it operated until December 1941, by which time its engine required replacement, deemed prohibitively expensive. The trainset was scrapped the following year, with its aluminum contributed to wartime construction. Wegman, Mark. American Passenger Trains and Locomotives Illustrated. Minneapolis, MN: Voyageur Press. ISBN 978-0-7603-3475-1. "The Iron Horse Goes Modern" Popular Mechanics, September 1933 -- detailed article on Union Pacific engineering research that lead to the M-10000 "Tuning Up A Streamliner" Popular Mechanics, November 1935 pp. 718-719 improvements resulting in the M-10001 Winchester, Clarence, ed. "The Union Pacific Streamlined Express", Railway Wonders of the World, pp. 33–39, contemporary description of the train
The EMD G16 is a diesel locomotive built by General Motors in the USA and under licence by Clyde Engineering in Australia and MACOSA in Spain. It has been used in Australia, Egyptian Railways, Hong Kong, Israel Railways, Spain, Yugoslav Railways and on the successor Croatian Railways, Slovenian Railways, Serbian Railways, Macedonian Railways, Railways of Republika Srpska, Kosovo Railways and Railways of Bosnia and Herzegovina Federation; the Victorian Railways bought six G16C locomotives locally built by Clyde Engineering, known as the X class. They are now operated by Pacific National. In Brazil 41 locomotives were imported; the first eleven were introduced in 1962 and numbered 601–612, the remaining thirty locomotives were imported in 1964–66. Thirty-seven locomotives still operating trains of the Vitória a Minas Railroad. EMD supplied Egyptian Railways with 61 G16s in 1960–61 and 17 G16Ws in 1964–65. During the Six-Day War Israel captured Egyptian Railways 3304, 3329 and 3361 which were appropriated into Israel Railways stock as numbers 161–163.
All have now been withdrawn from service but 163 is preserved at the Israel Railway Museum. In Hong Kong there are four locomotives imported for the Kowloon-Canton Railway, it would be used by MTR Corporation upon the merger. The first three were built by EMD in the USA, introduced in 1961 and numbered 56–58; the fourth was built by Clyde Engineering in Australia, introduced in 1966 and numbered 59. All were equipped with Co-Co wheel arrangements. 59 was rebuilt with a 16-645E engine. The No.57 retired in 2009 and others still in use as of 2012. In order to replace steam on the numerous light rail branches operated by the Nacionales de Mexico, EMD export models G12 and G16 were obtained. A total of 24 G16 units were built by EMD for the NdeM, all equipped with dynamic brakes and introduced between 08/1958 and 07/1960, their running numbers being 7300 to 7323; the first 13 units had close clearance cabs, the last 11 units were delivered in 1960 and received a standard cab. Nr.7323 was pictured in 1963 with a standard cab, but appeared in 1974 with a close clearance cab, indicating that this unit was either rebuilt or more renumbered.
The RENFE Class 1900 known as RENFE Class 319 were to the G16 design. A further 93 locomotives were built under license using the same components but as twin-cab machines with a different external appearance and internal arrangement of components; the EMD G16 was one of the most used diesel locomotives in Yugoslavia. The type is colloquially nicknamed "Kenedi" after the US President John F. Kennedy. After the breakup in 1991, the locomotives were passed on to successor states: In Croatia the locomotive is classified HŽ series 2061; as of 2007, the series has been withdrawn from service. Six modified units of the series 2061 is the series 2043. In Serbia and Herzegovina, Macedonia and Slovenia have all kept the JŽ-era designation series 661. Today there are around 15 operational series 661 with Serbian Railways; those locomotives are used on non-electrified railways to haul freight trains, but the passenger trains. Kosovo Railways operates three former JŽ series 661. A fourth locomotive is out of service.
They no longer carry a type designation, instead they were just numbered 001 to 004. They are used to haul clay trains. Locomotives 661-203 began a rebuilding program in 2008, undertaken by TŽV Gredelj in association with Electro-Motive Diesel; the locomotives were converted to twin cab designs. The resulting new loco has EMD model code JT38CW-DC. Rolling stock of the Croatian Railways 2061 G16 at zeljeznice.net