General Motors Company referred to as General Motors, is an American multinational corporation headquartered in Detroit that designs, manufactures and distributes vehicles and vehicle parts, sells financial services, with global headquarters in Detroit's Renaissance Center. It was founded by William C. Durant on September 16, 1908 as a holding company; the company is the largest American automobile manufacturer, one of the world's largest. As of 2018, General Motors is ranked #10 on the Fortune 500 rankings of the largest United States corporations by total revenue. General Motors manufactures vehicles in 37 countries, it owns or holds controlling interest in foreign brands such as Holden, Wuling and Jiefang. Annual worldwide sales volume reached a milestone of 10 million vehicles in 2016. In addition to its twelve brands, General Motors holds a 20% stake in IMM, a 77% stake in GM Korea, it has a number of joint-ventures, including Shanghai GM, SAIC-GM-Wuling and FAW-GM in China, GM-AvtoVAZ in Russia, GM Uzbekistan, General Motors India, General Motors Egypt, Isuzu Truck South Africa.
General Motors does business in more than 140 countries. General Motors is divided into four business segments: GM North America, GM International Operations, GM Cruze, GM Financial; the company operates a mobility division called Maven, which operates car-sharing services in the United States, is studying alternatives to individual vehicle ownership. GM Defense is General Motors' military defense division, catering to the needs of the military for advanced technology and propulsion systems for military vehicles. General Motors led global vehicle sales for 77 consecutive years from 1931 through 2007, longer than any other automaker, in 2012 was among the world's largest automakers by vehicle unit sales. General Motors acts in most countries outside the U. S. via wholly owned subsidiaries, but operates in China through 10 joint ventures. GM's OnStar subsidiary provides vehicle safety and information services. In 2009, General Motors shed several brands, closing Saturn and Hummer, emerged from a government-backed Chapter 11 reorganization.
In 2010, the reorganized GM made an initial public offering, one of the world's top five largest IPOs to date, returned to profitability that year. General Motors Company was formed with an escrow account set up by R S McLaughlin for 15 years of Buick Motors in 1907 on September 16, 1908, in Flint, Michigan, as a holding company controlled by William C. Durant, owner of Buick. At the beginning of the 20th century, there were fewer than 8,000 automobiles in the U. S. and Durant had become a leading manufacturer of horse-drawn vehicles in Flint helped by his purchase of the Carriage Gear patent from the McLaughlin family in Canada, in the 1880s and 1890s, before making his foray into the automotive industry in 1904 by purchasing the fledgling Buick Motor Company. GM's co-founder was Charles Stewart Mott, whose carriage company was merged into Buick prior to GM's creation in 1918. Over the years, Mott became the largest single stockholder in The USA, spent his life with his Mott Foundation, which has benefited the city of Flint, his adopted home.
GM acquired Oldsmobile that year. In 1909, Durant brought in Cadillac, Elmore and several others. In 1909, GM acquired the Reliance Motor Truck Company of Owosso and the Rapid Motor Vehicle Company of Pontiac, the predecessors of GMC Truck. Durant, along with R. S. McLaughlin, lost control of GM in 1910 to a bankers who held the Escrow account' trust, because of the large amount of debt taken on in its acquisitions, coupled with a collapse in new vehicle sales; the next year, Durant started the Chevrolet Motor Car Company in the U. S. and in Canada in 1915, through this, he and McLaughlin in Canada secretly purchased a controlling interest in GM. Durant regained control of the company after one of the most dramatic proxy wars in U. S. business history. Durant reorganized General Motors Holding Company into General Motors Company in 1916, merging Chevrolet with GM and allying General Motors of Canada Limited in 1918 after McLaughlin Traded his Outstanding Stocks for GM stocks to allow the Corporation in the USA.
Shortly thereafter, he again lost control, this time for good, after the new vehicle market collapsed. Alfred P. Sloan was picked to take charge of the corporation, led it to its post-war global dominance when the seven manufacturing facilities operated by Chevrolet before Chevrolet acquired the company began to contribute to GM operations; these facilities were added to the individual factories that were exclusive to Cadillac, Oldsmobile and other companies acquired by the corporation. This unprecedented growth of GM would last into the early 1980s, when it employed 349,000 workers and operated 150 assembly plants in the USA. On July 10, 2009, General Motors emerged from government backed Chapter 11 reorganization after an initial filing on June 8, 2009. Through the Troubled Asset Relief Program the US Treasury invested $49.5 billion in General Motors and recovered $39 billion when it sold its shares on December 9, 2013 resulting in a loss of $10.3 billion. The Treasury invested an additional $17.2 billion into GM's former financing company, GMAC.
The shares in Ally were sold on December 2014 for $19.6 billion netting $2.4 billion. A study by the Center for Automotive Research found that the GM bailout saved 1.2 million jobs and preserved $34.9 billion in tax revenue. In 2009 General Motors of Canada Limited was not part of the General Motors Chapter 11 Bankruptcy, the company shed several brands
Société de transport de Montréal
The Société de transport de Montréal is a public transport agency that operates transit bus, rapid transit services in Montreal, Canada. Established in 1861 as Montreal City Passenger Railway Company, it has grown to comprise four subway lines with a total of 68 stations, as well as over 186 bus routes and 23 night routes; the STM operates the second most used urban mass transit system in Canada after the Toronto Transit Commission, the third most used rapid transit system in North America, after the New York City Subway and the Mexico City Metro. As of 2011, the average daily ridership is 2,524,500 passengers: 1,403,700 by bus, 1,111,700 by rapid transit and 9,200 by paratransit service; the Société de transport de Montréal was created in 2002 to replace the Société de Transport de la Communauté Urbaine De Montréal. Several other public transport companies existed prior to the creation of the STM. From 1861 to 1886, the Montreal City Passenger Railway Company operated a small network of horse-drawn trams.
In 1886, the company changed its name to Montreal Street Railway Company. The first electric tram was nicknamed the Rocket; the company underwent another name change in 1893: MSTR became the MTR for Montreal Island Beltline Railway. A year the network was electrified and in 1894, the last horse-drawn tram was taken out of service. From 1910 to 1911 the company was renamed Montreal Public Service Corporation before changing again to Montreal Tramways Company. Although they were put into service in 1919, buses only began to be used starting in 1925, with the creation of several regular lines. In 1937, the first trolley buses were used. In 1939, the company had 929 trams, 224 buses and 7 trolley buses, serving about 200 million passengers per year; the replacement of tram lines by buses began in 1951, when a law was passed by the provincial government transferred the overall management of transport in Montreal to a public organization, the Commission de transport de Montréal. The last tram was withdrawn from service in 1959.
The Metro was inaugurated in 1966 and the same year saw the end of the trolley bus service. The CTM became the Commission de transport de la communauté urbaine de Montréal in January 1970, in 1985, rebranded itself again by becoming the Société de Transport de la Communauté Urbaine De Montréal. Commuter trains ceased to be the managed by the STCUM in 1996 and responsibility for this service was transferred to the newly created Agence métropolitaine de transport, it was not until 2002, at the time of the time of the merger of Montreal with other municipalities on the Island of Montreal that the Société de transport de Montreal was created, taking the place of the STCUM. From 1861 to 1959, Montreal had an extensive streetcar system; the streetcar network had its beginnings with the horsecar era of the Montreal City Passenger Railway in 1861. That private company would become the Montreal Street Railway in 1886 and the Montreal Tramways Company in 1911; the assets of the company were taken over by the city-owned Montreal Transportation Commission in 1951.
The STM was involved in the operation of regional transit services. The first such service was a set of bus routes inherited from the October 1980 expropriation of a private bus company called Metropolitan Provincial Inc; these regional bus routes operated from downtown Montreal to the western part of the Island of Montreal, as well as to off-island points located west, south-west, north east of the Island of Montreal. By the end of 1985, the STM had exited the regional bus business to focus on its core territory. Most of the regional bus routes were passed to private operators who provided services under contract to newly formed intermunicipal transit councils; the second regional service involved the management of two commuter train lines. On July 1, 1982, the CTCUM and the Canadian National Railway entered into an agreement to integrate the Montreal-Deux Montagnes commuter train line into the regular CTCUM bus and Metro network; the CTCUM paid CN to staff and maintain the trains, while it set the fares and schedules.
Passengers travelling within the CTCUM operating territory were able to transfer between the trains and the bus or Metro, no fare supplement was required to make a bus/Metro to train transfer. On October 1, 1982, a similar agreement with the Canadian Pacific Railway went into effect and CP's Montreal-Rigaud commuter train line was integrated into the CTCUM network. On January 1, 1996, responsibility for the commuter trains was transferred to the Agence métropolitaine de transport, a Quebec provincial government agency formed to coordinate all public transportation in the metropolitan Montreal region. Fares for the Metro and buses are integrated, a ticket entitling the passenger to a complete trip, regardless of the mode of transportation used or the number of transfers required; the tickets come in various forms: magnetized tickets and monthly magnetized cards and magnetized cards for bus transfers are inserted in the appropriate card readers at turnstiles in the Metro, in the terminals present when boarding the bus.
Tickets for reduced fares must be presented upon entry. The entire STM network can be accessed with the same fares, with the exception of the Metro stations located in Laval and Longueuil. Rates are partially integrated with those of the Réseau de transport métropolitain. There are five intermodal sta
GM New Look bus
The GM New Look bus commonly known by the nickname "Fishbowl", is a transit bus introduced in 1959 by the Truck and Coach Division of General Motors and produced until 1986. More than 44,000 New Look buses were built, its high production figures and long service career made it an iconic North American transit bus. The design is listed as U. S. Patent D182,998 by William P. Strong. 44,484 New Look buses were built over the production lifespan, of which 33,413 were built in the U. S. and 11,071 were built in Canada. Separated by general type, the production figures comprised 510 29-foot city buses; the total production of New Looks was 3,271 suburban coaches. Other than demonstrators, Washington, D. C. was the first city to take delivery of any GM New Look buses TDH-5301s built in 1959 for O. Roy Chalk's D. C. Transit System, which operated in Washington, D. C. and the suburbs of Maryland and Virginia. Several different models were introduced over the following years, modifications made to the design. See the section below, headed "Description".
Production of the New Look in the U. S. ceased in 1977. Production continued after this, however, at General Motors Diesel Division in Canada, due to the RTS design being rejected by Canadian transit agencies, with the name plate changing from "GM" to "GMC". Few were produced after 1983 due to the GMDD's introduction of the Classic in that year; the last New Looks to be built were an order for Santa Monica Municipal Bus Lines of Santa Monica, California in 1986. The completion of that order brought a final end to New Look production in April 1986. A few transit systems are still operating them to this day, nearly 60 years after introduction and more than 30 years after mass production ended; the last American-built New Look GM buses were ordered by the city of Wausau, which placed an order for twelve 35-foot transit buses, model T6H-4523N, the last of, delivered in March 1977. The GM Buffalo bus, a group of intercity bus models built between 1966 and 1980, shared many mechanical and body parts with the fishbowl models, were discontinued by the Pontiac, Michigan plant shortly after the RTS replaced fishbowl model production there.
GM sold the rights to produce both Classic and RTS models to other manufacturers, exited the heavy-duty transit and intercity markets for full-sized buses, although production of some medium-duty and light-duty chassis products sold in these markets continued. Like GM's over-the-road buses, including the Greyhound Scenicruiser, the air-sprung New Look did not have a traditional ladder frame. Instead it used an airplane-like stressed-skin construction in which an aluminum riveted skin supported the weight of the bus; the wooden floor kept the bus's shape. The engine cradle was hung off the back of the roof; as a result, the GM New Look weighed less than competitors' city buses. All New Look buses were powered by Detroit Diesel 71-series two-cycle Diesel engines; the original engine was the 6V71. GM buses used; the transmission angled off at a 45-or-so degree angle to connect to the rear axle. The engines were canted backwards for maintenance access; the entire engine-transmission-radiator assembly was mounted on a cradle that could be removed and replaced, allowing the bus to return to service with minimal delay when the powertrain required major maintenance.
All New Looks were powered by the 6V-71. GM resisted V8 power but gave in to pressure from customers. Original transmission choices were a four-speed non-synchronized manual transmission with solenoid reverse and the Allison Automatic VH hydraulic transmission; the latter was a one-speed automatic transmission which drove the wheels through a torque converter. At sufficient speed a clutch bypassed the torque converter and the engine drove the rear wheels directly. A option was the VS-2, similar to the VH but with a two-speed planetary gearset with three modes: Hydraulic and direct-overdrive; the last batch of American-built New Looks and most Canadian-built New Looks from 1977 through 1987 use the Allison V730 transmission, a traditional three-speed automatic with a lockup torque converter. These four transmissions were the only V-drive transmissions made. New Looks were available in both Suburban versions. Transits were traditional city buses with two doors; the floor beneath the seats was higher than the center aisle to accommodate the luggage bays.
There were "Suburban-style" transits which had forward-facing seats on raised platforms that gave the appearance of a dropped center aisle. GM refused to install lavatories on its buses; the New Look was built in 35 ft and 40 ft lengths and 96 and 102 in widths. 35 and 40
Orion VII (Toronto Transit Commission bus)
The TTC Orion VII buses are standard semi low-floor transit buses used for public transport operated by the Toronto Transit Commission built by Orion International in Toronto, Canada. They are the most common buses in the TTC fleet; this model was manufactured for the TTC by Orion International in Mississauga and Oriskany, New York. These buses are the first ones to be purchased by the TTC in the 21st century. Built with a stainless steel frame, low-floor front and high floor back, the Orion VII addressed many of the issued the Orion Vs and VIs faced, including poor construction quality, poor metals that corroded prematurely, inadequate passenger capacity, inadequate accessibility, excessive emissions; the Orion VIIs use a stainless steel design. They are accessible, feature Luminator Horizon LED destination signs for greater visibility, have more seats and floor space than other low-floor bus on the market, employ clean-burning diesel engines; the buses were delivered from 2002 to 2012. They replaced other older models.
Around 2001, a contract numbered "C32Y01883" was awarded to bus manufacturers for 220 diesel buses to replace an aged part of the TTC's existing fleet. Thirteen companies were issued copies of the proposal documents, but only four companies expressed interest during the proposal period: Nova Bus, New Flyer, Orion. Neoplan withdrew because it was concerned about its inability to comply with the proposal requirement that the buses be made of stainless steel. Nova Bus opted out to focus on fulfilling a backlog of orders in Quebec. New Flyer and Orion were proponents on the proposal as the RFP was cancelled and negotiated with the two companies. Orion's proposal consisted of a bus with an 18-year design life, the Orion VII which launched that year. New Flyer proposed 100 D40LFs and 120 D40i "Invero" buses for the 2003 and 2004 order, but because both models used carbon steel, Orion met the TTC requirements and was awarded the contract. In 2002, the TTC purchased 482 diesel buses, split into three batches.
These buses ran. Some noticeable modifications would be the removal of the stop request strips which were mounted on the walls; because of the engine, there was a raised middle seat in the back row and the fleet came pre-equipped with UWE connectors, which allowed the bus to be stored outside rather than inside a garage where the line connected to the bus supplies the bus with heat, to keep the interior and engine warm. Several complaints included frequent breakdowns; the TTC placed another order with Orion for 180 clean diesel buses between 2006 and 2007. These clean diesels buses run on Cummins ISL, they are nearly identical with a few key differences. These buses feature a new engine and more natural sounding exhaust note, are equipped with bike racks, have a lack of raised middle seat in the back row, are more powerful, have a better power-to-weight ratio leading to better and smoother acceleration; the front doors have two top windows slighter in length, while the rear doors close and have LED lights as well.
These are the first buses having no UWE connectors differed from the first three batches. In addition, 100 buses run on an EPA 2007 Cummins ISL engine with ULSD engine, has a different vent, they ordered 150 diesel-electric hybrid units in 2006. These run on a BAE series hybrid. Performance is superb with quick acceleration and a smooth ride; the sound the electric motor makes is compared to that of a jet plane. In 2007, the Next Generation buses were ordered by the TTC as hybrids, incorporating features that were found to be desired by customers. Most notably, the rear seating arrangement was reconfigured from eight forward-facing seats to six perimeter seats due to numerous complaints of lack of space on the previous VII orders. Additional stanchions and stop-request buttons in the rear section of the bus and padded seat bottoms throughout were implemented. Facing problems with lead-acid batteries, TTC has been buying diesel buses since 2010 because the batteries on hybrids were proving too "hit and miss".
They were converted to lithium ion between 2009 and 2010. Following the retirement of the last GM New Look buses in December 2011, the Orion VIIs made up 70% of the entire TTC fleet, whose 170 routes are accessible. TTC had received the last 62 Orion VIIs for 2012, although the RFP proposal tenders were responded for 40-foot bus orders in 2013 and 2016 with 60-foot articulated bus orders in 2013, 2014, 2015 from Orion, New Flyer, or Nova Bus. Orion was closed as Daimler reconfigured its operations in North America, was therefore automatically withdrawn from the bid. Nova Bus received the next order; the contract was awarded on August 2012 to Nova Bus for 153 60-foot articulated buses. In 2002, the TTC ordered 220 units for delivery between 2003 and 2004, with an option for an additional 250 units in 2005; the TTC picked up the option in 2003 with an additional 12 units added in 2005 as a compensation for Orion failing to deliver the 2003 and 2004 orde
Toronto Transit Commission
The Toronto Transit Commission is a public transport agency that operates bus, subway and paratransit services in Toronto, Canada. It is the oldest and largest of the urban transit service providers in the Greater Toronto Area, with numerous connections to systems serving its surrounding municipalities. Established as the Toronto Transportation Commission in 1921, the TTC owns and operates four rapid transit lines with 75 stations, over 149 bus routes, 11 streetcar lines. On an average weekday in 2019, 1.69 million passengers made 2.76 million unlinked trips on the TTC, with the number of trips about evenly divided between the subways and buses and streetcars. The TTC operates door-to-door paratransit service for the elderly and disabled, known as Wheel-Trans; the TTC is the most used urban mass transit system in all of Canada, the third largest in North America, after the New York City Transit Authority and Mexico City Metro. Public transit in Toronto started in 1849 with a operated transit service.
In years, the city operated some routes, but in 1921 assumed control over all routes and formed the Toronto Transportation Commission to operate them. During this period, streetcars provided the bulk of the service. In 1954, the TTC adopted its present name, opened the first subway line, expanded its service area to cover the newly formed municipality of Metropolitan Toronto; the system has evolved to feature a wide network of surface routes with the subway lines as the backbone. On February 17, 2008, the TTC made many service improvements, reversing more than a decade of service reductions and only minor improvements. In addition to buses and subways, the TTC operated the Toronto Island ferry service from 1927 to 1962, when it was transferred to the Metro Parks and Culture department; the TTC operated a suburban and regional intercity bus operator, Gray Coach Lines, from 1927 to 1990. Gray Coach used interurban coaches to link Toronto to points throughout southern Ontario. In addition, Gray Coach operated tour buses in association with Gray Line Tours.
The main terminal was the Metropolitan Toronto Bus Terminal on Elizabeth Street north of Dundas Street, downtown. In 1954, Gray Coach expanded further when it acquired suburban routes from independent bus operators not merged with the TTC as it expanded to cover Metro Toronto. By the 1980s, Gray Coach faced fierce competition in the interurban service in the GTA; the TTC sold Gray Coach Lines in 1990 to Stagecoach Holdings, which split the operation between Greyhound Canada and the government of Ontario three years later. The Gloucester subway cars, the first version of TTC subway cars, known as "red rockets" because of their bright red exterior, have been retired; the name lives on as the TTC uses the phrase to advertise the service, such as "Ride the Rocket" in advertising material, "Rocket" in the names of some express buses, the new "Toronto Rocket" subway cars, which began revenue operation on July 21, 2011. Another common slogan is "The Better Way"; the TTC has recovered about 70% of its operating costs from the fare box in recent years.
From its creation in 1921 until 1971, the TTC was self-supporting both for capital and operations. Through the Great Depression and World War II, it accumulated reserves that allowed it to expand after the war, both with subways and major steady growth of its bus services into the suburbs, it was not until 1971 that the Metro government and the province started to provide operational subsidies, required due to rising costs of delivering transit to low-density suburbs in Metro Toronto and large wage increases. Deficits and subsidies soared throughout the 1970s and 1980s, followed by service cuts and a period of ridership decline in the 1990s attributable to recession; when the Harris Progressive Conservatives ended the provincial subsidies, the TTC cut back service with a significant curtailment put into effect on February 18, 1996, an increased financial burden was placed on the municipal government. Since the TTC has been in financial difficulties. Service cuts were averted in 2007, when Toronto City Council voted to introduce new taxes to help pay for city services, including the TTC.
As a result, the TTC became the largest transit operator in Anglo-America not to receive provincial/state subsidies. The TTC has received federal funding for capital projects from as early as 2009; the TTC is considered one of the costliest transit systems per fare price in North America. For the 2011 operating year, the TTC had a projected operating budget of $1.45 billion. Revenue from fares covered 70% of the budget, whereas the remaining 30% originated from the city. In 2009 through 2011, provincial and federal subsidies amounted to 0% of the budget. In contrast to this, STM Montreal receives 10% of its operating budget from the provincial government, Ottawa Transpo receives 9% of its funding from the province; the fairness of preferentially subsidizing transit in specific Canadian cities has been questioned by citizens. Buses are a large part of TTC operations today. Before about 1960 however, they played a minor role compared to streetcars. Buses began to operate in the city in 1921, became necessary for areas without streetcar service.
After an earlier experiment in the 1920s, trolley buses were used on a number of routes starting in 1947, but all trolley bus routes were converted to bus operation between 1991 and 1993. The TTC always used the term "trolley coach" to refer to its trackless electric vehicles. Hundreds of old buses have been replaced with the low-floor Orion V
Detroit Diesel Corporation is an American diesel engine manufacturer headquartered in Detroit, United States and a subsidiary of Daimler Trucks North America, itself a wholly owned subsidiary of the German Daimler AG. The company manufactures heavy-duty engines and chassis components for the on-highway and vocational commercial truck markets. Detroit Diesel has built more than 5 million engines since 1938, more than 1 million of which are still in operation worldwide. Detroit Diesel's product line includes engines, axles and Virtual Technician. Detroit engines and axles are used in several models of truck manufactured by Daimler Trucks North America. Detroit Diesel consists of two divisions; the off-highway division, owned by Tognum, is a wholly owned subsidiary of Engine Holding GmbH, a joint venture of Daimler AG and Rolls-Royce Group plc. The on-highway division is owned by Daimler AG. April 1938: General Motors started diesel engine manufacturing operations in Detroit under the Detroit Diesel Engine Division, re-organized its Winton Engine Corporation as the Cleveland Diesel Engine Division.
Cleveland Diesel produced larger diesel engines for locomotive and stationary use. Detroit Diesel started production with the smaller mobile Series 71 two-cycle engines that the GM Research Division had developed. GM formed the General Motors Diesel Division as a marketing and customer service structure for its Detroit and Cleveland diesel products. 1939: Series 71 engines installed in buses manufactured by Yellow Coach. World War II: Tanks, landing craft, road building equipment and standby generators needed compact, two-cycle engines. By 1943, Detroit Diesel employed more than 1,400 of them women. Together, these employees produced 57,892 engines in 1943. Detroit Diesel launches Series 110 engines used in construction equipment, rail cars, power generation. 1950s: Wide use of GM's Detroit Diesel engines in military applications aided their acceptance in commercial applications. Detroit Diesel developed heavy-duty engines for long-distance trucks. GMDD began to develop a worldwide distribution network of independent, authorized distributors and dealers to provide parts and service for Detroit and Cleveland Diesel products.
1957: Detroit Diesel introduced the Series 53 engine, put the Series 71 engine into use for both on-highway and off-road use. All engines within a Series were designed so that a vast majority of parts were interchangeable, facilitating production of many models of various horsepower by adding cylinders. 1960 and after: For the next 20 years, the Detroit Diesel and Allison Divisions grew, tripling sales during the 1960s alone. 1962: Production and marketing of remaining Cleveland Diesel products moved to GM's Electro-Motive Division, leaving Detroit Diesel Engine Division the remaining partner of GMDD. 1965: GMDD structures absorbed into the Detroit Diesel Engine Division, formally ending GMDD as a separate entity. Detroit Diesel introduces the Series 149 engine for use in workboats, push boats, 100 ton-plus mining trucks. 1970: General Motors consolidated Detroit Diesel with the allied transmission and gas turbine businesses of the Allison Division, forming the Detroit Diesel-Allison Division.
1974: The Series 92 engine was introduced, called the Fuel Squeezers. During the energy crisis, turbine engines became uncompetitive. 1980: Detroit Diesel-Allison produced its first four-cycle engine. A few years in the early 1980s diesel engine production split off as Detroit Diesel Division while turbine engines remained as Allison Division. 1987: The Series 60 — the four-cycle heavy-duty engine for which the company is well known — was introduced. It was the first production engine to have integrated electronic controls as a standard feature; the Series 60 was cleaner and more fuel-efficient than previous heavy-duty engines, became the biggest selling heavy-duty diesel engine in the North American Class 8 truck market. 1988 January 1: A joint venture between Penske Corporation and General Motors created Detroit Diesel Corporation. Penske had a 60% majority ownership in the new venture and the CEO was former racecar driver Roger Penske. 1993 October: Detroit Diesel Corporation had grown its on-highway heavy-duty market share to 33% from 3% only a few years earlier.
The company made an initial public offering of common stock, becoming a publicly traded company listed on the New York Stock Exchange under the stock symbol "DDC". That same year, Detroit Diesel launched the first Detroit Diesel natural gas engine. 1999: Detroit Diesel built its 4 millionth engine. 2000: In October 2000, DaimlerChrysler bought Detroit Diesel Corporation. 2000: Off-highway engines combined with MTU Friedrichshafen to form MTU America The on-highway division of Detroit Diesel was retained by DaimlerChrysler as part of Daimler Trucks North America. 2005: Detroit Diesel Corporation invested $350 million to refurbish and retool its plant for future business. 2006: MTU Friedrichshafen, including the off-highway part of Detroit Diesel in the US, was acquired by the EQT Partners investment group. A new company, Tognum GmbH, was formed as a holding company for the brands held by Daimler Trucks and MTU Friedrichshafen. Both companies use the'Detroit Diesel' name and corporate logo. 2007: Detroit Diesel Corporation launches its DD engine platform with the DD15 Engine.
2008: Detroit Diesel Corporation was recognized for its Brownfield Redevelopment efforts, won the national EPA Phoenix Award for its plant. 2009: The 1 millionth Series 60 engine was sold. 2010: An additional $190 million investment
York University Busway
The York University Busway is a bus-only roadway in Toronto, Canada which stretches 1.8 km from Finch West station to Dufferin Street. It is used by the Toronto Transit Commission's 939B Finch Express bus route; the busway was constructed in 2009 as part of a series of bus-only roadways and bus lanes stretching 6.5 km from Sheppard West station to York University to serve the 196 York University Rocket bus rapid transit route. After the opening of the Toronto–York Spadina Subway Extension on December 17, 2017, route 196 was discontinued and the other segments of bus infrastructure were repurposed; the busway was proposed in 2004 as a series of busways and bus lanes connecting Downsview Station to York University, to increase speed and reliability on Route 196 York University Rocket. The primary components of the work were a busway within York University, a busway within the Finch Hydro Corridor, painted bus lanes on Dufferin Street / Allen Road. Groundbreaking occurred on July 25, 2008, with completion planned for the fall 2009 school term.
During construction, it was discovered that a gas pipeline was closer to the surface than had been thought, so the busway in the hydro corridor had to be redesigned to accommodate it. This caused it to be delayed, the only part, open for the fall 2009 school term was the busway within York University, which started operation on September 6, 2009. Route 196 buses continued to use Keele and Sheppard avenues; the final cost of the busway was $37.8 million, of which $18.4 million was contributed by the City of Toronto, $9.7 million was contributed each from the Government of Canada and the Province of Ontario. The York University Busway was opened on November 20, 2009 and route 196 was rerouted immediately. Other TTC routes using the busway were rerouted a week later; the busway increased the average speed of route 196 by 41% from 23.3 km/h to 32.8 km/h, making it the third fastest TTC route at rush hour, after Line 3 Scarborough and route 192 Airport Rocket. Due to the savings in time from using the busway, service frequency on route 196 was increased from every 2 minutes 15 seconds to every 2 minutes while reducing the number of buses operating on the route from 20 to 16.
The 196 York University Rocket operated express from York University to Sheppard West Station, making two intermediate stops on Murray Ross Parkway at Keele Street, on Dufferin Street at Finch Avenue. Some buses continued beyond Sheppard West Station to Sheppard-Yonge station, operating in mixed traffic along Sheppard Avenue. From north to south, the route of the 196 consisted of: York University Commons - Bus only road and bus terminal: 0.6 km York Boulevard - Mixed traffic: 0.2 km "busway" - Dedicated bus only road within York University: 1.0 km Murray Ross Parkway - Mixed traffic: 0.1 km York University Busway - Dedicated bus only road within Finch Hydro Corridor: 2.1 km Allen Road / Dufferin Street - Painted bus lanes on arterial road: 2.7 kmTotal Length: ~6.5 km In addition to route 196, other TTC routes used portions of the bus infrastructure, including TTC routes 105 Dufferin North, 117 Alness, 41E Keele Express. On May 1, 2011, York Region Transit's Viva Orange route began using the entire length of the York University Busway infrastructure from York University to Sheppard West.
On March 28, 2016, TTC route 199 Finch Rocket was extended westward to York University from its previous terminus at Finch Station as the 199B Finch Rocket. It traveled along the York University Busway from Dufferin Street and Finch Avenue to York University. In early 2010, the "busway on hydro corridor" was given the official name "York University Busway". In 2016, the portion of busway between Keele Street and Tangiers Road was closed and demolished to make way for the parking lot of the new Finch West station. Route 196 was rerouted via Tangiers Road for the remainder of its existence. On December 17, 2017, TTC subway Line 1 was extended from Sheppard West station to Vaughan Metropolitan Centre station, including a stop at York University station; as a result, bus route 196 York University Rocket was discontinued. Routes 199B Finch Rocket and 41E Keele Express were both cut back to Finch West station rather than continuing to York University, as a result the busway within York University became disused.
In September 2018, route 199B was renamed 939B Finch Express. In November 2018, route 41E was replaced by 941 Keele Express; the bus lanes along Dufferin Street / Allen Road were converted to High Occupancy Vehicle lanes in early 2018, as the remaining TTC and YRT bus services were not deemed worthy of a dedicated lane. The portion of busway between York Boulevard and Ian MacDonald Boulevard was closed in Summer 2018 to allow the expansion of Seymour Schulich Building; the York University Busway consists of a single lane in each direction with concrete Ontario Tall Wall barriers along the side. Where at the intersections with Tangiers Road and with Alness Street, traffic signals are equipped with transit signal priority to allow buses to pass through without stopping. To facilitate left turns from the curbside bus lanes on Dufferin Street onto the hydro corridor busway, there is a jughandle controlled by traffic signals. Between Tangiers Road and Alness Street, the busway crosses GO Transit's Barrie line at grade.
TTC route 939B Finch Express uses the entire York University Busway from Dufferin Street to Finch West station. But eastbound service from Finch West station exits the busway at Alness Street to head south to Finch Avenue in advance of Dufferin Street; as a result, the busway between Dufferin Street an