Grantham rail accident
The Grantham rail accident occurred on 19 September 1906. An evening Sleeping-Car and Mail train from London Kings Cross to Edinburgh Waverley hauled by Ivatt'Atlantic' No 276 derailed, killing 14; the accident was never explained. No reason was established as to why the train did not stop as scheduled, or obey the Caution and Danger signals. Rolt described it as "the railway equivalent of the mystery of the Marie Celeste". Late in the night of 19 September, the Semi-Fast Mail train was due to call at Grantham; the signalman at Grantham south had his Down Distant signal at caution and the signalman at Grantham North had all of his down signals at danger to protect a goods train crossing from the up Nottingham line to the up main line - over the down main line on which the Mail was approaching. It was a clear night with patchy rain, as the Mail roared towards the station and passed the distant signal at caution; when the headlights appeared at the end of the platform, it appeared to be going much too fast to stop.
To the alarm of the postal sorters and the station staff who realised it was the Mail train, it sped towards Grantham North box where the points were set against it. A loud explosion was heard and fire lit up the entire North yard; the locomotive rode the curve, but its long tender derailed on the reverse curve following it and swept away the parapet of an underbridge for 65 yards, before falling off the edge of it. This derailed the locomotive, slung broadside across both tracks; the carriages ran down the embankment after the bridge, only the last three remained undamaged. Many explanations were put forward, such as the driver going mad, being drunk, taken ill or having a fight with the fireman; the evidence of the signalman at Grantham was that he had seen both men standing looking forward through the cab front windows calmly. The platform staff were sure that the brakes on the train were not applied and that it was travelling at over 40 mph. One possibility is that the driver had a seizure or "micro-sleep" and the inexperienced fireman did not realise until too late.
Another, proposed in 2006 in the Railway Magazine, is a brake failure due to incorrect procedures when the engine was changed at the previous stop, Peterborough. The fireman was a trainee and might have failed to reconnect the brake pipe or open the train brake cock. Automatic vacuum brakes were fitted on all passenger trains, so if any air entered the brake pipes due to a failed connection, the brakes would be automatically applied; the mystery remains, not least because a number of Great Northern footplate men testified that the approach to Grantham was unmistakable. The accident was the second in a series of three derailments due to excessive speed at night in a 16-month period; the others were at Shrewsbury. All three resulted including the footplate crews. Lists of rail accidents List of British rail accidents Newark Bay rail accident, 1958 U. S. wreck where driver's decision to speed up towards an open drawbridge is unexplained. Other derailments in which the driver's momentary loss of attention was or may have been a factor: 2016 Hoboken train crash Bourne End rail crash December 2013 Spuyten Duyvil derailment Rolt, L.
T. C.. Red for Danger. Bodley Head / David and Charles / Pan Books /Alan Sutton Publishing. ISBN 978-0-7509-2047-6. Hamilton, J. A. B.. British Railway Accidents of the 20th Century. George Allen and Unwin / Javelin Books. ISBN 0-7137-1973-7. Bonnett, H.: The Grantham Railcrash of 1906. Bygone Grantham, 1978. ISBN 0 906338 05 0 Nock, O. S.. Historic Railway Disasters. Ian Allan. ISBN 978-0-7110-1752-8; the Railway Magazine and October 2006 issues. "Lincolnshire County Council web page based on The Railway magazine story". Railways Archive: copy of the official report
The leading wheel or leading axle or pilot wheel of a steam locomotive is an unpowered wheel or axle located in front of the driving wheels. The axle or axles of the leading wheels are located on a leading truck. Leading wheels are used to help the locomotive negotiate curves and to support the front portion of the boiler; the leading bogie does not have simple rotational motion about a vertical pivot, as might first be thought. It must be free to slip sideways to a small extent, some kind of springing mechanism is included to control this movement and give a tendency to return to centre; the sliding bogie of this type was patented by William Adams in 1865. The first use of leading wheels is attributed to John B. Jervis who employed them in his 1832 design for a locomotive with four leading wheels and two driving wheels. In the Whyte system of describing locomotive wheel arrangements, his locomotive would be classified as a 4-2-0: That is to say, it had four leading wheels, two driving wheels, no trailing wheels.
In the UIC classification system, which counts axles rather than wheels and uses letters to denote powered axles, the Jervis would be classified 2A. Locomotives without leading trucks are regarded as unsuitable for high speed use; the British Railway Inspectorate condemned the practice in 1895, following an accident involving two 0-4-4s at Doublebois, Cornwall, on the Great Western Railway. Other designers, persisted with the practice and the famous 0-4-2 Gladstone class passenger expresses of the London and South Coast Railway remained in trouble-free service until 1933. A single leading axle increases stability somewhat, while a four-wheel leading truck is essential for high-speed operation; the highest number of leading wheels on a single locomotive is six, as seen on the 6-2-0 Crampton type and the Pennsylvania Railroad's 6-4-4-6 S1 duplex locomotive and 6-8-6 S2 steam turbine. Six-wheel leading trucks were not popular; the Cramptons were built in the 1840s, but it was not until 1939 that the PRR used one on the S1.
AAR wheel arrangement Adams axle Trailing wheel UIC classification of locomotive axle arrangements Whyte notation
Lincolnshire is a county in eastern England, with a long coastline on the North Sea to the east. It borders Norfolk to the south east, Cambridgeshire to the south, Rutland to the south west and Nottinghamshire to the west, South Yorkshire to the north west, the East Riding of Yorkshire to the north, it borders Northamptonshire in the south for just 20 yards, England's shortest county boundary. The county town is the city of Lincoln; the ceremonial county of Lincolnshire is composed of the non-metropolitan county of Lincolnshire and the area covered by the unitary authorities of North Lincolnshire and North East Lincolnshire. Part of the ceremonial county is in the Yorkshire and the Humber region of England, most is in the East Midlands region; the county is the second-largest of the English ceremonial counties and one, predominantly agricultural in land use. The county is fourth-largest of the two-tier counties, as the unitary authorities of North Lincolnshire and North East Lincolnshire are not included.
The county has several geographical sub-regions, including the rolling chalk hills of the Lincolnshire Wolds. In the southeast are the Lincolnshire Fens, the Carrs, the industrial Humber Estuary and North Sea coast around Grimsby and Scunthorpe, in the southwest of the county, the Kesteven Uplands, comprising rolling limestone hills in the district of South Kesteven. During the Pre-Roman times most of Lincolnshire was inhabited by the Brythonic Corieltauvi people; the Iceni covered the area around modern day Grimsby. The language of the area at that time would have been the precursor to modern Welsh; the name Lincoln derives from the old Welsh ‘Lindo’ meaning Lake. Modern-day Lincolnshire is derived from the merging of the territory of the Brythonic Kingdom of Lindsey with that controlled by the Danelaw borough of Stamford. For some time the entire county was called "Lindsey", it is recorded as such in the 11th-century Domesday Book; the name Lindsey was applied to the northern core, around Lincoln.
This emerged as one of the three Parts of Lincolnshire, along with the Parts of Holland in the south east, the Parts of Kesteven in the south west, which each had separate Quarter Sessions as their county administrations. In 1888 when county councils were set up, Lindsey and Kesteven each received separate ones; these survived until 1974, when Holland and most of Lindsey were unified into Lincolnshire. The northern part of Lindsey, including Scunthorpe Municipal Borough and Grimsby County Borough, was incorporated into the newly formed non-metropolitan county of Humberside, along with most of the East Riding of Yorkshire. A local government reform in 1996 abolished Humberside; the land south of the Humber Estuary was allocated to the unitary authorities of North Lincolnshire and North East Lincolnshire. These two areas became part of Lincolnshire for ceremonial purposes, such as the Lord-Lieutenancy, but are not covered by the Lincolnshire police; the remaining districts of Lincolnshire are Boston, East Lindsey, North Kesteven, South Holland, South Kesteven, West Lindsey.
They are part of the East Midlands region. The area was shaken by the 27 February 2008 Lincolnshire earthquake, reaching between 4.7 and 5.3 on the Richter magnitude scale. Lincolnshire is home to Woolsthorpe Manor and home of Sir Isaac Newton, he attended Grantham. Its library has preserved his signature, carved into a window sill. Bedrock in Lincolnshire features Cretaceous chalk. For much of prehistory, Lincolnshire was under tropical seas, most fossils found in the county are marine invertebrates. Marine vertebrates have been found including ichthyosaurus and plesiosaur; the highest point in Lincolnshire is Wolds Top, at Normanby le Wold. Some parts of the Fens may be below sea level; the nearest mountains are in Derbyshire. The biggest rivers in Lincolnshire are the Trent, running northwards from Staffordshire up the western edge of the county to the Humber estuary, the Witham, which begins in Lincolnshire at South Witham and runs for 132 kilometres through the middle of the county emptying into the North Sea at The Wash.
The Humber estuary, on Lincolnshire's northern border, is fed by the River Ouse. The Wash is the mouth of the Welland, the Nene and the Great Ouse. Lincolnshire's geography is varied, but consists of several distinct areas: Lincolnshire Wolds - area of rolling hills in the north east of the county designated an Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty The Fens - dominating the south east quarter of the county The Marshes - running along the coast of the county The Lincoln Edge/Cliff - limestone escarpment running north-south along the western half of the countyLincolnshire's most well-known nature reserves include Gibraltar Point National Nature Reserve, Whisby Nature Park Local Nature Reserve, Donna Nook National Nature Reserve, RSPB Frampton Marsh and the Humberhead Peatlands National Nature Reserve. Although the Lincolnshire countryside is intensively farmed, there are many biodiverse wetland areas, as well as rare limewood forests. Much of the county was once wet. From bones, we can tell that animal species found in Lincolnshire include wooly mammoth, wooly rhinoceros, wild horse, wild boar and beaver.
Species which have returned to Lincolnshire after extirpation include little egret, Eurasian spoonbill, European otter and red kite. This is a chart
Doncaster railway works is a plant located in the town of Doncaster, South Yorkshire, England. Always referred to as "the Plant", it was established by the Great Northern Railway in 1853, replacing the previous works in Boston and Peterborough; until 1867 it undertook maintenance. In 1866, Patrick Stirling was appointed as Locomotive Superintendent, the first of the 875 class was built in 1886. At this time the works began building new coaches: in 1873 the first sleeping cars. In 1891, 99 locomotives, 181 carriages and 1,493 wagons were built. Among the locomotives the works produced were the Stirling Singles, the Ivatt Atlantics and the Gresley Pacifics, including the world-famous Flying Scotsman, the first locomotive to achieve 100 mph and run from London King's Cross to Edinburgh Waverley non-stop; these have hauled such trains as the Flying Scotsman, Silver Jubilee and the Elizabethan. Doncaster constructed the carriages for the last of these; the works continued building all kinds of rolling stock.
During the Second World War, like other workshops it joined in the war effort, among other things, Horsa gliders for the D-Day airborne assault. The carriage building shop was destroyed by fire in 1940. New buildings in 1949 were designed with the British Railways standard all-steel carriages in mind. In 1957, BR Standard Class 4 76114, the last of over 2,000 steam locomotives, was completed. Carriage building finished in 1962, but the works was modernised with the addition of a diesel locomotive repair shop. Under British Rail Engineering Limited, new diesel shunters and 25 kV electric locomotives have been built, plus Class 56 and Class 58 diesel-electric locomotives. In 2007, Bombardier Transportation closed its part of the works. In early 2008 the main locomotive repair shop, built on the Crimpsall was demolished to make way for housing. Wabtec Rail continues to conduct passenger fleet refurbishment at the Doncaster site. Larkin, E. J.. The Railway Workshops of Great Britain 1823-1986. Macmillan Press.
Simmons, J.. The Railway in Town and Country. Newton Abbot: David and Charles. Clarke, Derek. "Doncaster Works: The changing scene". Rail Enthusiast. No. 54. EMAP National Publications. Pp. 6–10. ISSN 0262-561X. OCLC 49957965. Roughley, Malcolm. "A day at'The Plant'". Rail Enthusiast. EMAP National Publications. Pp. 38–40. ISSN 0262-561X. OCLC 49957965. Official website Photographs of Doncaster Works 150th Celebrations
Welwyn Garden City railway station
Welwyn Garden City railway station serves the town of Welwyn Garden City in Hertfordshire, England. It is 20 miles 25 chains from London King's Cross on the East Coast Main Line. Welwyn Garden City station is served by Great Northern. A station named Welwyn Junction was opened with the Hertford and Welwyn Junction Railway on 1 March 1858; this station ceased to be used for services on 1 September 1860. A halt named Welwyn Garden City Halt opened on 1 September 1920, shortly after the town was incorporated; this line cuts west and north through Sherrardspark Wood, on towards Wheathampstead via what is now Ayot Greenway. The present Welwyn Garden City station opened on 20 September 1926. Prior to this, services to Luton and the Hertford line, which cut east through the town, were handled from nearby Hatfield; the Hertford branch line was closed to rail passenger traffic in 1951 and to goods in 1966, whilst the Dunstable line fell victim to the Beeching Axe in April 1965. When the Howard Centre shopping centre was opened in October 1990, the original ticket hall was demolished.
It is now inside the Howard Centre with steps linking down to the original bridge and platforms. The line near the station has seen two serious train crashes, one in 1935, another in 1957. Welwyn Garden City was semi-refurbished by First Capital Connect during 2007, which saw improved lighting installed, new bus -shelter-style waiting rooms and improved toilets on each platform island; the refurbishments saw the installation of Ticket Gates. There is a station cafe located on Platforms 1 and 2 reopened as "The Garden Line"; the station has direct access to the Howard Centre. The shopping centre incorporates the station's ticket office on the first floor. There are 4 ticket machines. There are help-points located within the station. Towards the end of 2007 Welwyn Garden City was awarded "Secure Station" status, along with many other stations along the Great Northern route as part of a stations improvement programme; as part of this award, many additional cameras were installed at the station. Monday to Saturdays, trains operate half-hourly on Thameslink's "London-Cambridge" line south towards London Kings Cross and north towards Cambridge.
London-bound trains call only at Hatfield, Potters Bar and Finsbury Park en route to the capital, whilst northbound trains call at all stations beyond here. On Sundays there is an hourly service. Welwyn Garden City is a terminus for Great Northern's "London - Welwyn line" stopping service. Trains depart every 15 minutes to Moorgate in London on weekdays until 10pm running every half-hour. A few weekday peak services to/from Kings Cross serving intermediate stations operate. A rail flyover was constructed south of the station in 1977 when the line was electrified to allow the Moorgate trains to arrive and depart from Platform 4 without conflicting with main line trains; the stopping trains used to run to Kings Cross in the late evening and at weekends until the December 2015 timetable change, but now serve the Moorgate branch at all times. The station is served by various buses operated by Arriva and Uno After the completion of the Thameslink Programme in 2018 a 2tph service from Maidstone East to Welwyn Garden City was proposed, but its introduction has subsequently beenn delayed until December 2019.
The Up Yard sidings at Welwyn Garden City consists of 6 unelectrified roads used for the twice-weekly reversal of empty gypsum wagons returning from Hitchin to Peak Forest along occasional Rail tamper units and departmental wagon storage. The EMU sidings, just north of the station, consists of 9 electrified roads with the 8-car 317/365's able to use only 5 of the sidings because if they used the other sidings, they would block the siding next to it. Platforms 2 and 3 are in regular use for services to/from London Kings Cross and Cambridge. Platform 3 is used for terminating trains for the carriage sidings and where trains from the carriage sidings form into passenger service - a few southbound trains start from here at peak times rather than platform 4 as they can access the flyover onto the Up Slow line. Platform 4 is used for services to/from Moorgate used for terminating trains for the carriage sidings and where trains from the carriage sidings form into passenger service. Platform 1 sees only occasional use as it has no direct access for northbound terminating trains or empty units coming into service from the carriage sidings.
The latter must cross over the flyover into the up reversing siding and shunt back into the platform via the reversing line. The West exit off the passenger footbridge leads into the Howard centre where the main station ticket office is located on the first floor while the East exit leads to the Broadwater industrial area. Oyster cards are not accepted on journeys to Welwyn Garden City; the train operating company, agreed to extend London Zonal Fares to include Potters Bar by September 2015 when they won the Great Northern franchise. More Transport for London indicated that Welwyn Garden City and Potters Bar are two of the top four priority stations for the extension of London Zonal Fares and that introduction of the required software is expected to be completed by the end of 2018. Body, G.. PSL Field Guides - Railways of the Eastern Region Volume 1. Wellingborough: Patrick Stephens Ltd. ISBN 0-85059-7